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    This report is prepared on behalf of MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) by Eco Friend and Co. This is a comprehensive report of practically feasible and economically viable method of disposal of plastic waste, generated at dumpsites in Greater Mumbai.

    Eco Friend and Co. 10, Shree Maya Apt., Off Ash Ln., Dadar,

    Mumbai 400028

    Tel: 022-24314951/ 24314904

    Fax: 022-24222248

  • Practically Feasible and Economically Viable Method of Disposal of Plastic Waste

    Generated in Greater Mumbai and major cities of Maharashtra

    1

    Eco Friend and Co.

    Practically Feasible and Economically Viable Method

    of Disposal of Plastic Waste

  • Practically Feasible and Economically Viable Method of Disposal of Plastic Waste

    Generated in Greater Mumbai and major cities of Maharashtra

    2

    Eco Friend and Co.

    Special Thanks to:

    Mrs Valsa R. Nair Singh, IAS

    Secretary ( Environment ) G.O.M., and Chairperson, MPCB,

    Mr. Mahesh Pathak, I.A.S., Honorable Member Secretary MPCB,

    Dr. Y. B. Sontakke, Regional Officer (H.Q.) MPCB,

    And all individuals who contributed to make this report possible

  • Practically Feasible and Economically Viable Method of Disposal of Plastic Waste

    Generated in Greater Mumbai and major cities of Maharashtra

    3

    Eco Friend and Co.

    P R E A M B L E In India, changing economy after the Liberalization in the early 90s led to fast urbanization. While the job opportunities in the villages were limited, the rapidly growing population forced people to migrate to cities where plenty of jobs suddenly became available due to establishment of Call Centers, Back Processing Offices etc., by multinationals wishing to cut their operating costs. Though the salaries offered in India by the MNCs were lower than those in their own countries, they were way above the local standard. This led to new found prosperity in the urban areas and what is popularly called “Disposable Income” for many Indians. Simultaneously, as the demand for consumer goods in their own countries was getting saturated, multinationals producing consumer goods found a huge market in India and they put up their manufacturing facilities here. Aided by advertising in the fast growing print and electronic media, sales of consumer goods from shampoos to cars rose exponentially through newly opened Malls and Company Show Rooms. The capitalistic concept of “Use & Throw” soon found takers particularly the young generation in India – and thus there was a quantum jump in the wastes generated, particularly in Indian cities.

    Today, plastic in its numerous forms finds number one position in the materials used for manufacturing goods on large scale, i.e., consumer goods, and their packaging. This is due to its low weight and high strength and durability, ease of manufacturing and low cost. Unfortunately, these very qualities make it the most difficult material to dispose off. Another drawback encountered equally in its manufacturing and the disposal processes is its toxicity and the resulting pollution.

    The problems of urbanization faced by governments all over the world today include providing facilities not only for their basic needs of food, clothing and shelter to a large number of people staying in a comparatively small area, but also make arrangements for supplying fuel and electricity to their homes, and provide drains, roads, bridges, mass community transport systems, fuel filling stations, recreational facilities, etc., and arrangements for the waste collection and its disposal. Though compared to developed countries, urbanization has been relatively sudden in India, the Governments have been able to provide the infrastructural facilities in the existing cities in a fairly well manner by use of advanced technology, but waste collection and its disposal is one problem for which it has not been possible so far to find a lasting solution in India.

    Urban wastes typically come from small or large Industry operating within a city, Construction Activity, Malls, Shops, Business Establishments, Hotels, Hospitals, Vegetable, Fruit, Fish & Meat Markets, Animal Slaughter Houses, Places of Worship, Public places such as Railway Stations, Bus Stops, Roads, Gardens, and from each home, be it independent, in Housing Societies, Colonies, etc.

    Rules have been made and are becoming more and more effective in tackling Industrial Hazardous Wastes and the Bio-medical Wastes, but the rules for handling of urban wastes, applicable to every municipal authority responsible for collection segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes, called the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 will take some time to be effectively implemented.

    The basic problem is the well known lack of discipline and civic sense in the Indian communities.1 It was in response to the Writ Petition by Mrs. Almitra H Patel & others in 1996 versus the Union of India and others that made the Supreme court to pass a judgment on 4th October 2004 2 that, despite the law being in force for 4 years, a lot deserves to be done for implementation of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.

    1 Things can improve - Read lessons from Surat, Kolkota, Mumbai, Chandigarh…- almitrapatel.com 216 on MSW 2 Supreme Court Order on MSW 4 Oct 2004

  • Practically Feasible and Economically Viable Method of Disposal of Plastic Waste

    Generated in Greater Mumbai and major cities of Maharashtra

    4

    Eco Friend and Co.

    The Honorable Court in its order noted that the MOEF had written to all State Pollution Control Boards requesting them to formulate time bound action plan for Management of MSW in respect of metro cities and state capitals, and directed the Central Government to examine the matter and file the proposed Action Plan for the State capitals and metro cities, to be followed by other cities, in Court.

    The Honorable Court observed that as per a note from the petitioner, in Maharashtra the number of authorizations granted for Solid Waste Management (SWM) had increased to 98 % after the order of 26 July 2004, and that as per a suggestion of the petitioner, so as to put a focus on the issue, the State had created a Solid Waste Management Cell, and rewarded its cities for good performance.

    The MPCB had submitted an affidavit3 dated 24th September 2004 to the Supreme Court on the status of implementation of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 in the State of Maharashtra and the steps taken by the MPCB in this regard. The affidavit among other things, submits that the Board has to implement several environmental legislations, for which the manpower and infrastructure available with the board is not commensurate with the requirements of the responsibilities added since its formation in 1974, and that the Management of the MSW by the local bodies shall be successful with the participation of private sector based on options such as Build Own and Operate ( BOO ) and Build, Own, Operate and Transfer ( BOOT ) basis depending upon the situation. This is particularly required for the local bodies, which have financial and technical constraints in proper management of the MSW in compliance with the rules. In order to assist the local bodies for preparation of agreement for management of MSW between local bodies and the operator of the facility, MPCB had then engaged the services of M/s CRISIL to formulate such documents in consultation with All India Institute of Local Self-Government, Mumbai and Commissioner and Director, Municipal Administration, Government of Maharashtra.

    The MPCB had also put up a note on the implementation of MSW Rules 2000 in October 2004, listing also the constraints / difficulties in the implementation of the same.4 During 2005, the MPCB formulated Guidelines for citizens for management of MSW5

    In pursuance of the above stated policy of the MPCB, and in order to help out the MCGM to sort out the problem of Plastic waste which forms a part of MSW, the MPCB has given Eco-Friend and Company the responsibility of suggesting practically feasible and economically viable ways of disposal of the plastic waste. This report aims at pointing out practically feasible and economically viable ways to solve the problem of disposal of plastic wastes found in the Municipal Solid Wastes in Mumbai and similar fast growing cities of Maharashtra.

    3 Affidavit submitted to Supreme Court on behalf of the MPCB dated 24 Sept 2004 4 Implementation of MSW rules by MPCB – Oct 2004 5 MPCB Guidelines for Citizens for Management of MSW

  • Practically Feasi