Cognitive Radio: When might it Become Economically and Technically Feasible?
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- 1. COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY :An Analysis of Potential Benefits1 Group 4MT5009 ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES
2. cognitive/kgntv [kog-ni-tiv] adjectiveAlbert SalimA0026151W1. of or pertaining to cognition.2. of or pertaining to the mental processes ofperception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, ascontrasted with emotional and volitional processes. Tan How Ho Kai HongBoon, Jason A0076866LA0077139XGroupradioMembers /redio/ [rey-dee-oh] - noun1. wireless telegraphy or telephony: speechesbroadcast by radio.2. an apparatus for receiving or transmitting radiobroadcasts. Stefanus Wong SeongYudanto Yin A0076858J A0076890R COGNITIVE RADIO TECHNOLOGY2 3. CONTENTRadio-communication 101 andspectrum usage Cognitive Radio Whats the big deal? Cognitive Radio Where are we today? Cognitive Radio So whats next? 3 4. 41 Radio-communication 101 andspectrum usage 5. CURRENT PARADIGM - SPECTRUMRadio waves can travel quite a distance and, are able to disturb othercommunications services resulting in interference This makes the radio spectrum a scarce natural resource Provides us with technical standards, Recommendations and procedures to solve the above mentioned problem. Assign licenses to users. Gives an exclusive right to operate on a specific frequency in a specific location or geographic area Compliance of spectrum users with the license obligations is monitored and enforced. 5 Thus, avoiding interference seems to be a question of proper planning and coordination, and using the right equipment. 6. EVOLUTION OF RADIO 1.Hardware driven radios:Transmit frequencies, modulation type andother radio frequency (RF) parameters aredetermined by hardware and cannot bechanged without hardware changes. 2. Digital radios: A digital radio performs part of the signal processing or transmission digitally, but is not programmable in the field3. Software Defined Radios:All functions, modes and applications can 6be configured and reconfigured bysoftware 7. RADIO SPECTRUM: THE UNSEEN GOLD Common Frequency Band AM radio - 535 kHz to 1.7 kHz Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 to 26.1 MHz Television stations - 54 to 88 MHz for channels 2 - 6 FM radio - 88 to 108 MHz Television stations - 174 to 220 MHz for channels 7 - 13 Other Frequency Uses Garage door openers - Around 40 MHz Standard cordless phones: Bands from 40 to 50 MHz Baby monitors: 49 MHz Radio controlled airplanes: Around 72 MHz Radio controlled cars: Around 75 MHz Wildlife tracking collars: 215 to 220 MHz Cell phones: 800 to 900 MHz Air traffic control radar: 960 to 1,215 MHz GPS: 1.227 & 1.575 GHz Deep space radio communications: 2.290 to 2.3 GHz7 8. RADIO SPECTRUM PLANRadio Spectrum Master Plan, Annex 1, Page 14, IDA RSMP v2.1 April 2008, IDA WebsiteBroadcastingMobile ServicesFixed Services Short Range DevicesServices Public Cellular Mobile Point to point fixed Digital Broadcast Radio Local Area Public Radio Paging links Analog Broadcast Networks8 Mobile Data Fixed wireless access Ultra wideband Trunked Radio High Altitude Platform Wireless BroadbandStations Other fixed services 9. EXISTING SPECTRUM UTILISATIONIm an M1 user... Your Operator pays BUT SGD 20 million for 10 MHz of9Spectrum-Sharing Research and Policy Formulation in Asia-Pacific, Presentation by IDA CTO Dr Tan 3G Spectrum!Geok Leng 10. Ooopss... 11. SO WHAT IF. All Available!NoLower costLower phone 11Scarcity for operators bills for you?? 12. 122 Cognitive Radio So whats the big deal? 13. VALUE PROPOSITION EfficientSpectrum Utilization Higher Accessibility Greater Ease of Use Better Adaptability Improved Interconnectivity Increased Scalability Improved Reliability 14. IMPROVEMENT IN ACCESSIBILITYUser uses single device to access various networks and services. Userindicates his needs and CR scans for the services available and presentsthe options to the user. Would you likemobileTV ?Would you likeSatTV ?Would you likeInternetTV ? Cellular services Satellite servicesWiFi services Broadcasting services other servicesI wish towatch aWould you like 14movieBroadcastTV ? 15. IMPROVEMENT IN EASE OF USE Device is aware of users goals and priorities, and capable ofautonomously adjusting its operation to simplify the tasks and relieveuser from burden of manual intervention.Cellular servicesWiFi servicesA home Wifi network is now available, Id switch over since this is lower cost / higher userpreference 15 16. IMPROVEMENT IN ADAPTABILITY Device adapts automatically to local environment. When userroams across borders, the device performs self-adjustment to stayin compliance with local radio operations and emissionsregulations.16 17. IMPROVEMENT IN INTERCONNECTIVITY Cognitive radio enables ease of communications among multi-terminal / multi-frequency communication devices.17 18. IMPROVEMENT IN SCALABILITY Devices communicate in the form of collaboration among neighbordevices via a series of hops. The network can potentially scale tolarge numbers of users.HelloCR enables users to communicateHiwith each other directly withouttransmitting over infrastructure HiCR enables users to communicate with each18other in the form of collaboration amongneighbor devices via a series of hops 19. IMPROVEMENT IN RELIABILITY CRs self-configuring mesh wireless networks avoid disruption orfailure by re-routing around node failures or congestion areas,thereby enabling more robust and reliable communications. 19 20. VALUE PROPOSITIONImprovement in key components Spectrum(Integrated CircuitUtilizationHigh & Antenna)Diffusion AccessibilityCognitive Ease of Use Radio Adaptability Value Interconnectivity ScalabilityTraditional ReliabilityRadioLowPrice, Performance, Size Declining Price Increasing Performance Reducing Size 20Sources:S.Wang, L.Xie, H.Liu, B.Zhang, H.Zhao. ACRA: An Autonomic and Expandable Architecture for Cognitive Radio Nodes 978-1-4244-7555-1/10 2010 IEEEI.Filippini, E.Ekici, M.Cesana - Minimum Maintenance Cost Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks 978-1-4244-5113-5/09 2009 IEEEP.Carbonne, T.Hain, Market Assessment Report On selected Cognitive Radio Systems value propositions ICT-2007-216248 2009 End-to-End EfficiencyCognitive Radio Definitions and Nomenclature Approved Document SDRF-06-P-0009-V1.0.0 2008 SDR Forum 21. 213 Cognitive Radio Where are we today? 22. THE RADIO ARCHITECTURE TODAYKey ComponentTunable Antenna Antenna Control Signal1 Impedance Power CouplerAmplifier DAC Synthesizer0AntennaControl Unit1 (ACU) ADC0 Impedance Synthesizer Control Signal Key 22Component 23. COGNITIVE RADIO SOFTWARE CR Software FunctionsAdaptiveSelf- algorithms configuration WidebandDistributedMission-oriented Frequency collaborationconfigurationSensingPolicy and configuration databases Security23Source Future Directions for Cognitive Radio, P Paweczak, Cognitive radio defying Spectrum Management, 2008 W. Lemstra & V. Hayes 24. TECHNOLOGY ENABLERCR Software FunctionsSecurity Policy and configuration databasesWidebandFrequencyAdaptive Self-configuration SensingalgorithmsMission-orientedDistributed configuration collaborationIC Chip1DevelopmentPowerUp CouplerAmplifi Con.AntennaImprovement criteriaer 0ControlUnit Performance AD(ACU) Price C Feedback Information Size 24 Source Future Directions for Cognitive Radio, P Paweczak, Cognitive radio defying Spectrum Management, 2008 W. Lemstra & V. Hayes 25. CURRENT COGNITIVE RADIO PROTOTYPE 2.75 billion transistors XILINX VIRTEX - 6TM XC6VLX240T DTX01975842837 57628485789 240,000 reconfigurable logic cellsWidebandSelfAdaptiveFrequency 25Configuration Algorithm Sensing25Souce: Harnessing FPGAs for Beamforming Software Radio Systems. Rodger Hosking (February 2011).From http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/9204?start=1 26. MOVING TOWARDS COMMERCIALIZATIONFPGA ASIC Field Application Programmable Specific Gate Array Integrated Designed to be Circuit configured by Customized for the customer ora specific use designer Cost effective Flexibility in complex design 27. COST ANALYSIS1 1E+111960 19701980 1990 200020102020Estimated chip 0.1 1E+10price (2010):1E+090.01 $ 110 Transistor Price (US$) 2.75 billion 100000000 0.001 transistors100000000.00011000000 2010 transistor1E-05 cost:1000001E-06 $4 x 10^-8100001E-07 Average chip1000 price in1E-08100 commercialTransistor CountApprox. 20171E-09transistor:10 wireless device$9.1 x 10^-91E-10 1(2010): Average transistor priceForecast Average Transistor Price$25 Transistor CountForecast Transistor Count 2017 27Sources: The Singularity is Near. Ray Kurzweil, (2005)Min. threshold of performance .http://www.xilinx.com/ http://www.altera.com/Max. threshold of price http://www.isuppli.com/ 28. SIZE DOES MATTER!InfineonFuture CR Device X-Gold 618Concept 35 mm Pentek Model 716208 mm Apple iPhone 4Xilinx Virtex-620102017 and beyondNallatech/FidelityComtech 2006 28Microsoft-funded prototypecognitive radio Source: http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800528084_499488_NP_ec0ab0fd.HTM 29. TRADITIONAL PATCH ANTENNA Microstrip antenna is a printed antenna, consists of a flat "patch" ofmetal, mounted over a larger sheet of metal ground plane. Materials: Conducting layers: - Copper foil Insulating layers for dielectric (coated): - epoxy resin prepreg Dielectric material: - Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) - FR-4 (Woven glass and epoxy) - CEM-1 (Cotton paper and epoxy) - CEM-3 (Woven glass and epoxy)The improvement of microstrip antenna is mainly done by modify thepatch design and use in array 29 30. TRADITIONAL ANTENNA OF MOBILE DEVICE Characteristic customizable, small size and effective integration withtransceiver chips on circuit boardsU shape with different voltage settings to tune frequency band. Limitation: Narrow frequency range, Limited selectable bands 30Principles and Applications of The Folded Inverted Conformal Antenna (FICA) Technology Marco Maddaleno, Timoteo Galia,Motorola, Conferge 2005 31. KEY COMPONENT OF COGNITIVE RADIO -ANTENNASCogn