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Transcript of Motivation and Emotion - Potentiality! · PDF file Motivation and emotion are inseparable...

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    Motivation and Emotion

    Chapter 8

    Motivation and Emotion

    I. What is Motivation

    II. How Does Motivation Affect Behavior?

    III. What is Emotion?

    IV. How Does Emotion Affect Behavior?

    What is Motivation?

    A condition that initiates, activates, or maintains

    an organism’s goal-directed behavior.

    – Usually an internal condition

    • Can not be directly observed

    – Inferred from external behaviors

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    Theories of Motivation


    • Behavior is motivated by instincts

    – Fixed behavioral patterns

    – Occur throughout a species

    – Inborn, rather than learned

    • Humans have more instincts than other


    Evolutionary Theories

    Motivation and emotion are inseparable

    Motivation pushes us towards a number of

    behaviors (goals)

    Emotion sets priorities for behaviors

    Behaviors that result in pleasure or pain will be


    • Feelings relate to survival

    • Evolutionary psychologists focus on

    universal motivations and emotions

    Drive Theory

    Assumes an organism is motivated to act

    because of a need to attain, maintain, or

    reestablish a goal

    A drive is an internal aroused condition

    • Directs an organism to satisfy a need

    – A state of physiological imbalance

    » Usually accompanied by arousal

    • An organism motivated by a need is in a

    drive state

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    Drive Theory

    The ultimate goal is homeostasis

    Maintenance of a constant state of internal

    balance (equilibrium)

    • Behaviors that reduce biological needs are


    – Behaviors that reduce drives are

    especially likely to recur

    • The goal that satisfies a need is an incentive

    – Can pull us toward some behaviors and

    away from others

    Drive Theory

    When drives motivate two or more competing

    behaviors, conflict results

    Three types (Miller, 1944, 1959)

    a. Approach–Approach Conflict

    Distress is usually tolerable because

    both choices are pleasant

    Drive Theory

    b. Avoidance–Avoidance Conflict

    c. Approach–Avoidance Conflict

    – Occurs when a choice has both pleasant

    and unpleasant aspects simultaneously

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    Arousal Theory

    Focuses on the connection between physical

    arousal and behavior.

    • Yerkes–Dodson Principle

    – Suggests that task performance is related to

    arousal level

    • Hebb suggested that there is optimal arousal


    Cognitive Theories of Motivation

    Focus on our goals and mental processes

    Expectancy Theories

    • Focuses on our expectations of achieving

    a goal an on the value of that goal

    • Expectations are based on experience

    – Some are based on social needs

    » A need to feel good about oneself and

    to establish and maintain relationships

    » E.g., needs for achievement and


    Cognitive Theories

    Extrinsic Motivation: Comes from the external

    environment in the form of rewards and threats

    of punishment

    Intrinsic Motivation: Arises from our internal


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    Humanistic Theory

    – Emphasizes the entirety of life, rather than

    individual components of behavior

    – Focuses on human dignity, individual choice,

    and self-worth

    – Incorporates elements of other theories

    – Believes behavior must be viewed within the

    framework of a person’s environment and


    Humanistic Theory

    Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970)

    – Assumed people are essentially good

    – Believed people are naturally motivated

    toward self-actualization

    • One of the highest level of psychological


    • Involves striving to achieve everything one

    is capable of

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    Maslow organized a hierarchy of motives

    – As lower-level needs are satisfied,

    higher-level needs become more


    – Believed only a small portion of

    people attain self-actualization

    Problems with Maslow’s theory

    – Too global to be tested


    – Strongly tied to Western values

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    II. How Does Motivation Affect

    Behavior? Hunger: A Physiological Need

    – Hunger is influenced by

    physiology, learning and


    The Physiological Determinants

    of Hunger

    – Focused on homeostasis

    – A balance of energy intake

    and output that results in a

    stable weight

    The Physiological Determinants of


    Weight stability is consistent with the idea of a set


    A predetermined weight that the body maintains

    Several possible mechanisms (fat cells, hormones)

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    The Physiological Determinants of


    The hypothalamus is important in processing signals

    from these hormones

    Surgery alters eating patterns

    • Damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus leads to

    extreme overeating

    • Damage to the lateral hypothalamus leads to

    extreme undereating

    Environmental and Cultural Influences

    on Hunger

    Hunger is often not a factor in eating

    People eat tasty food, even if not hungry

    People who are full will also sometimes eat if a

    different food is presented

    – Suggests variety is a factor in eating

    Is the variety of food available in the United States

    a factor in overeating?

    Eating and Obesity

    Four factors that contribute to overeating

    Food is readily available

    Portion sizes are increasing

    The average diet is higher in fat

    Most children and adults do not engage in regular


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    Eating and Obesity

    Dieting is more common than being overweight

    Women are especially susceptible to the “thin ideal”

    However, eating disorders are increasing for men

    Dieting is usually unsuccessful and often unhealthy

    Brain of People with Eating


    Sexual Behavior

    Sex Hormones

    – Hormones are important

    • Both males and females produce

    androgens (“male” hormones) and

    estrogens (“female” hormones)

    – In males, the testes are the principle

    producers of androgens

    – In females, the ovaries are the principle

    producers of estrogens

    • Release of these hormones triggers

    secondary sex characteristics at puberty

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    Sexual Dysfunctions

    • Refers to impairment either in

    – The desire for sexual gratification

    – The ability to achieve it

    • The human sexual response has four phases:

    – Desire phase

    – Excitement phase

    – Orgasm

    – Resolution

    Sexual Response Cycle

    Masters and Johnson (1970)

    Sexual Response Cycle

    • Desire: Fantasies and desires about sexual activity.

    • Excitement: Sexual pleasure and accompanying physiological changes. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration increase

    – Vasocongestion is characteristic

    – Engorgement of blood vessels in the genital area

    • Plateau Phase: Physical arousal continues to increase as the body prepares for orgasm

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    Sexual Response Cycle

    • Orgasm: Peaking of sexual pleasure, with the

    release of sexual tension and rhythmic contraction

    of muscles and organs.

    • Resolution or Refractory Period: Muscular

    Relaxation and general well-being. Body returns

    to its normal, resting state. Takes one to several

    minutes. Time varies considerably from person to

    person. Men are usually unable to achieve an


    Dysfunctions of Sexual Desire

    • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder : a person shows little or no sex drive or interest

    • Sexual aversion disorder : Person shows extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all genital sexual contact with a partner

    • Sexual desire disorder appears to be the most common female sexual dysfunction

    Sexual Dysfunctions

    • Characterized by a disturbance in the

    processes that characterize the sexual

    response cycle or by pain associated with

    sexual intercourse

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    Dysfunctions of Sexual Arousal

    • Male erectile disorder

    – Effects half the male population on at least a

    temporary basis

    – May be based on

    • Anxiety about sexual performance

    • Physiological dysfunction

    • Female sexual arousal disorder is in many

    ways the female counterpart of erectile


    Orgasmic Disorders • Premature ejaculation: persistent and

    recurrent onset of ejaculation with minimal

    sexual stimulation

    • Male orgasmic disorder: persistent inability to

    ejaculate during intercourse

    • Female orgasmic disorder: Persistent or

    recurrent delay in or absenc