Psychology: Motivation And Emotion

Click here to load reader

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Psychology: Motivation And Emotion

  2. 2. Motivation refers to an internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction. Two components of motive: Need and Drive Needs are based on some deficit within the person. The deficit may be physiological or psychological. In either case, the deficit must lie within the person. Drives are based on needs and have the added feature of an observable change in behavior. The person is not considered to be in a drive state until the need has goaded the person into action.
  3. 3. Motives have three important functions in behavior: 1. Motives have an energizing function. The motivated person is active and his activity is maintained at relatively high levels until relevant goals or reward is attained. Goal refers to a substance, or object capable of satisfying a need. A person who is interested to receive an award is likely to work hard for it until he achieves his goal. 2. Motives have a directing function. They determine from many possible behaviors or responses which are likely to be the most appropriate. This directs a person to organize his ideas around whatever goal is important to him at the moment. 3. Motives have a selecting function. Reinforcement, consequences, and feedback determine which of a number of responses will be selected.
  4. 4. Theories of Motivation 1. Instinct Theory People act the way they do because of their instincts. An instinct is an innate or generally predetermined disposition to behave in a particular way when confronted with certain stimuli. 2. Drive Theory This states that the potential level of any response is a joint function of the response habit, strength, and the persons level of drive. High drive facilitates performance on simple or over-learned tasks but hampers performance on complex or novel ones. 3. Arousal Theory Arousal theory, which arouse partly as an alternative to drive theory, stipulates that a moderate level of stimulation is reinforcing. An increase in the level of tensions or excitement is referred to as arousal. This theory proposes that moderate level of stimulation is the most pleasant and that both higher and lower levels are relatively aversive.
  5. 5. 4. Solomons Opponent Process Theory Richard Solomon provides intriguing answer to some questions with his opponent process theory of motivation. He explains that a state of positive feeling is followed by a contrasting negative feeling, and vice versa; and any feeling, either positive or negative, that is experienced in succession loses some of its intensity. People who are involved in activities like karate fighting or parachute jumping may experienced a negative feeling such as fear or state of shock in his first attempt which is soon followed by a contrasting positive state of euphoria. 5. Incentive Theory External goals motivate organisms to perform certain actions. The external stimuli in the environment that pull the organisms in certain directions are called incentives. The basic assumption of incentive theory is that if a desirable goal can be anticipated following the completion of a particular action, the organism is motivated to perform that action.
  6. 6. Classification of Motives I. Primary Motives: Biological Needs Primary motives are those directly related to the normal body functions such as need for air, food, water, excretion of waste, rest and sleep, protection from heat and cold, avoidance of pain and so on. II. Hunger: The Regulation of Food Intake Hunger is believed to be caused by rhythmic contractions of the empty stomach. The strength of hunger drive can be measured by discovering how much resistance a human or animal will endure to overcome it. III. Thirst: The Regulation of Water Intake Like hunger, the drink system and a stop drink system key mechanisms are regulated in the hypothalamus. The control centers for thirst occupy much of the same space as the centers for hunger but they operate separately by using different neurotransmitter substances. The hypothalamus uses three principal cues in regulating drinking: mouth dryness, loss of water by cell, and reduction in blood volume.
  7. 7. IV. Sexual Motivation Humans and animals that depend on sexual reproduction would soon be extinct without a sexual motive. While hunger, thirst, and other primary motives are necessary for the survival of the individual, sexual motivation- a primary motive- is essential to the survival of the species. V. Drive Reduction Drive compels us to act in a way that reduces the biological need and restores homeostasis. Thus, the drive directly activates and directs our behavior. The concept of drive reduction holds the view that motives are based on the bodys need to restore homeostasis when its biological needs are unmet. The concept successfully explains motives such as hunger and thirst. An imbalance in our body tissues is clearly reduced when we drink or eat.
  8. 8. VI. Psychological Motives This motives are not directly related to the biological survival of the individual. They are needs in the sense that individuals happiness and well- being depend on these motives. Stimulus Motivation Most people get bored easily if there is little overall stimulation or if the stimulation is unchanging. People and other animals have an apparently inborn motive to seek stimulation. Functional Autonomy Proposed by Gordon Allport, his theory tells us the many human motives that arise when a means to an end becomes an end in itself. Affiliation Motivation Individuals who are high in the need for affiliation tend to prefer being with others rather than satisfying other motives. Achievement Motivation The psychological need for success in school, sports, occupation, and other competitive situations.
  9. 9. Emotions Emotion is a state involving pattern of facial and bodily changes, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action. Emotions are positive or negative feelings generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physical, psychological arousal and related behavior. Emotions give life its feeling and meaning. They enrich life. Without emotions, things would be quite a routine and dull. Emotion cannot be observed or measured directly. An emotion is inferred from observable phenomena of three types: reports of experiences expressive motor behavior physiological activity. Emotional experience is described in terms of adjectives that people use to describe how they feel: e.g. I am happy, I feel frustrated. Motor behavior is manifested by enlargement of muscles, stiffening when frightened.
  10. 10. Some emotions are very common. Some psychologists would identify three basic emotions: love, fear, anger. On the other hand, Izard (1972), thinks ther are 9 basic emotions: interest distress contempt joy anger shame surprise disgust fear All other emotions are thought to be combinations of these basic ones. For example, anxiety is a mixture of fear with two or more other basic emotions like distress, anger, shame, or guilt. Plutchik (1984) identified 8 basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sadness, acceptance, disgust, anticipation, and surprise. These emotions are connected with each other. For example, the emotion of fear is connected with the behavior pattern of protection and of destruction. He believes that all other emotions are variations of the basic ones along a dimension of intensity.
  11. 11. 1. James-Lange Theory William James believed that the emotional stimulus is routed (by the thalamus) directly to the hypothalamus, which produces the bodily reaction (fear or other emotion). According to him, we cry because we feel sorry, strike because we are angry, tremble because we are afraid. Carl Lange, Danish psychologist, proposed the same theory known today as the James-Lange theory of emotion. This theory proposes that conscious emotional experiences are caused by the feedback to the cerebral cortex from physiological reactions and behavior. 2. Cannon-Bard Theory This theory, by Walter Cannon and Philip Bard, states that the conscious emotional experiences and physiological reaction and behavior are relatively independent events. Cannon believes that the information from the emotional stimulus goes first to the brain relay center called thalamus. 3. Cognitive Theory According to this theory, there are 2 steps in the process of cognitive interpretation in emotions: 1. the interpretation of stimuli from the environment and 2. the interpretation of stimuli from the body resulting from autonomic arousal. Theories of Emotion
  12. 12. Principles of Emotion 1. Emotional needs express themselves one way or another. 2. Anger is an expression of need. 3. Our feelings and needs are not wrong or bad. 4. Emotions are the gateway to vitality and feeling alive. 5. We can address emotional issues and still save our true face. 6. Immediate reactions to problem often disguise deeper feelings. a. Running away b. Getting angry c. Denying importance d. Addressing the situation 7. We must clarify individual needs before solving problem with others. 8. We need to express positive feelings and communicate negative ones.
  13. 13. Anxiety Anxiety is a general feeling of insecurity, of fear, usually associated with certain kind of situation either real or imaginary. It can also be a simple feeling of apprehension that we feel before taking an examination. Sometimes when anxiety becomes very strong, it may prevent us from performing normal routine activities to the extent of interfering with our performance of tasks. Anxiety is an inescapable part of everyday life. Learning to cope with anxiety is a necessary part of growing up. The more we are in panic-anxiety, the less mature and the more neurotic our behavior becomes. Often, it helps to discuss our emotion with someone else. It may provide ways to reduce our anxiety.
  14. 14. Ways to Cont