Motivation and Emotion - Denton Independent School District MOTIVATION AND EMOTION . EMOTION...

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Transcript of Motivation and Emotion - Denton Independent School District MOTIVATION AND EMOTION . EMOTION...

  • MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

  • EMOTION

    • Emotions are a mix

    of

    • physiological arousal

    • expressive behavior

    (ex. facial

    expressions)

    • conscious

    experience (ex.

    cognitive appraisal of

    the experience)

  • THE BIOLOGY OF EMOTION

    • Brain Mechanisms • Limbic system

    • The amygdala appears to have a primary role in emotions

    • Amygdala removal in animals produces a lack of fear and rage responses

    • Hemispheres • The right hemisphere is

    active during many displays of emotion

    • Damage to the right hemisphere often leaves individuals emotionally indifferent and unable to read emotions

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvteZ_bq0nk

  • THE BIOLOGY OF EMOTION

    • Autonomic Nervous System • The sympathetic

    nervous system releases acetylcholine that prepares the body for vigorous activity

    • Examples include • dilated pupils

    • increased respiration

    • accelerated heartbeat

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J968Wco1u0s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J968Wco1u0s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J968Wco1u0s

  • STRESS

    • Most stressors are caused by everyday occurrences

    • General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye; Cannon) • Alarm

    • Resistance

    • Exhaustion

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1e0NGM5avfk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1e0NGM5avfk

  • THEORIES OF EMOTION

    • James-Lange

    • Emotional stimulus

    causes physical

    reaction

    • Physical reaction

    causes an emotion

    • Ex. “We are afraid

    because we run” or

    “We feel sorry

    because we cry.”

  • THEORIES OF EMOTION

    • Cannon-Bard • An emotional

    awareness and an internal physiological response (change) occur at the same time • Thalamus relays

    emotional stimuli to cortex and internal organs simultaneously

    • One is not the cause of the other

    • Both the result of a cognitive appraisal of the situation

  • THEORIES OF EMOTION

    • Cognition and Emotion • how we think about

    events affects the experience of the emotion

    • Two-Factor Theory (Schachter and Singer) • Emotion results from the

    cognitive appraisal of both (1) physical arousal and (2) emotion provoking stimulus

    • The labels we use to describe our emotions depend on our immediate environment

  • I T R U N S F R O M 1 : 5 0 - 2 : 0 7

    WARNING: THERE IS ONE CLIP IN THIS VIDEO THAT IS GROSS…WHEN YOU SEE THE WARNING, SKIP OVER IT IF YOU WANT

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RtDBBlDdWM

  • Emotion

    fear

    Cognitive interpretation

    “I feel afraid!”

    Physiological arousal

    trembling

    increased heart rate

    James-

    Lange

    theory

    Cannon-

    bard

    theory

    Two-factor

    theory

    Stimulus

    snake

    Stimulus

    snake

    Stimulus

    snake

    Emotion

    fear

    Physiological arousal

    trembling

    increased heart rate

    Physiological arousal

    trembling

    increased heart rate

    Emotion

    fear

  • EXPRESSING EMOTION

    • How do cultures differ in emotional expression? • The meaning of gestures

    varies with the culture

    • Display rules • cultural norms that tell us

    which emotions we display • learned during childhood

    and act to exaggerate, minimize, or mask emotional expressions

    • Expression of emotions depends on the situation and who is present

  • EXPERIENCING EMOTION

    • Seven universal

    emotions

    • anger,

    • disgust,

    • fear,

    • happiness,

    • sadness,

    • surprise,

    • and contempt

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UW-9Q3cfqNo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UW-9Q3cfqNo

  • EXPERIENCING EMOTION

    • Fear • adaptive response

    preparing our bodies to flee danger

    • Acquired through... • classical conditioning (ex.

    those reflecting our past traumas)

    • observational learning (ex. those reflecting fears of our parents and friends)

    • Biological predispositions • Ex. snakes, cliffs, and

    spiders, not cars and electricity

  • EXPERIENCING EMOTION

    • Anger • Causes of anger

    • annoyances, foul odors, extreme temperatures, aches and pains

    • Catharsis hypothesis • reduction of anger by release

    through aggressive actions

    • advantage: can be temporarily calming if it does not leave us feeling guilty or anxious

    • disadvantage: expressing anger leads to more anger

    • Appropriate ways to channel anger • exercising, playing music,

    talking to a friend

  • EXPERIENCING EMOTION

    • Happiness • adaptation-level

    principle: we adapt to levels of a stimulus and need something even better to make us feel happy

    • relative-deprivation principle: the sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves

    • predictors of happiness • high self-esteem, outgoing,

    close relationships, work that engages, religious faith, sleeping well, exercise