1 Arousal and Emotion Whats their use?? Assist in decision making Readiness

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1 Arousal and Emotion Whats their use?? Assist in decision making Readiness Slide 2 2 Yerkes-Dodson Law Degree of arousal Quality of performance Very difficult task Moderately difficult task Easy task Slide 3 3 Some arousal is necessary High arousal: helpful on easy tasks As level of arousal increases, quality of performance decreases with task difficulty Too much arousal: harmful Slide 4 4 Concept of Emotion subjective feelings elicited by stimuli that have high significance to an individual stimuli that produce high arousal generally produce strong feelings are rapid and automatic emerged through natural selection to benefit survival and reproduction Slide 5 5 Theories of Emotion Common sense might suggest that the perception of a stimulus elicits emotion which then causes bodily arousal Perception (Interpretation of stimulus-- danger) Stimulus (Tiger) Emotion (Fear) Bodily arousal (Pounding heart) Common-Sense Theory Slide 6 6 Jamess Peripheral Feedback Theory perception of a stimulus causes bodily arousal which leads to emotion support: spinal cord injuries, locked-in syndrome Perception (Interpretation of stimulus-- danger) Stimulus (Tiger) Emotion (Fear) Bodily arousal (Pounding heart) Jamess Theory Slide 7 7 Schachters Cognition-Plus-Feedback Theory Perception and thought about a stimulus influence the type of emotion felt Degree of bodily arousal influences the intensity of emotion felt Type Intensity Emotion (Fear) Perception (Interpretation of stimulus-- danger) Stimulus (Tiger) Bodily arousal (Pounding heart) Slide 8 8 Schachters Cognition-Plus-Feedback Theory Degree of bodily arousal influences the intensity of emotion felt Support: experiments with norepinepherine injections Slide 9 9 Ekmans Facial Feedback Theory Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression Sensory feedback from the expression contributes to the emotional feeling Support: hold pen between teeth, and world seems funnier! Slide 10 10 Ekmans Facial Feedback Theory Facial expression Average happiness score Average anger score Facial expression Facial expressions have an effect on self-reported anger and happiness Slide 11 11 Ekmans Facial Feedback Theory Facial expressions can produce effects on the rest of the body Heart rate change (beats per minute) Temperature change (degrees C) (a) (b) Slide 12 12 Brain-Based Theory of Emotions Amygdala evaluate the significance of stimuli and generate emotional responses generate hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotions damage: psychic blindness, inability to recognize fear in facial expressions and voice stimulation: feeling of fear Slide 13 13 Brain-Based Theory of Emotions Frontal lobes influence peoples conscious emotional feelings and ability to act in planned ways based on feelings (e.g., effects of prefrontal lobotomy, Phineas Gage) left frontal lobe may be most involved in processing positive emotions right frontal lobe involved with negative emotions Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal Slide 14 14