PSYCH - Motivation - Instinct, Drive Reduction, & Arousal Emotion Hunger
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Psychology Motivation & Emotion: Hunger
PSYCH - Motivation - Instinct, Drive Reduction, & ArousalEmotionHunger
What is Motivation?The impulse to do a certain action3 Theories:Instinct TheoryDrive-Reduction TheoryArousal Theory
COMPONENTS OF MOTIVATION:Motive: Stimulus that moves person toward a behavior designed to achieve a specific goal. Need: Lack of something that one requires or desires.Drive: Force that pushes a person to act.Incentive: Force that pulls person toward a particular behavior. Emotions: States of the body and mind associated with feelings.
Motivation may beconscious "I'll need a good grade, so I'll study" or unconscious nibbling on food while you're studying
Instinct Theory: One of the oldest theories comes from the field that we know today as Evolutionary PsychologyCharles Darwin: human behavior is driven by innate instinctual drives (unlearned) like those for some birds & fish. However, this theory soon revealed its limitations in that it could only describe the behavior of humans but not provide an explanation.
Examples: Sea Turtles, upon being born on the beach, instinctively head directly to the sea. Infants have an inborn rooting reflex that helps them seek out a nipple & obtain nourishment.Birds have an inborn need to build a nest or migrate during the winter.
Drive-Reduction Theory (Clark-Hull 1940s)We are not only pushed by our needs...Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviorPhysiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Hull: Humans have innate biological needs (thirst) & social needs (love)
Drives compel us to satisfy our needs
The need is usually to maintain homeostasis.
Arousal TheorySometimes we do not seek homeostasis, but instead seek arousal.Our needs go beyond reducing drives.Stimulation is a primary need.
Too much stimulation causes stress, so homeostatic processes are working here as well.
Some people exhibit a drive towards high-risk situations that are uncomfortable without adrenaline rush.
Others are content to watch and would feel uncomfortable if they were forced to engage in high-risk behaviors.
Homeostasis: tendency of organisms to maintain balance
When we are too cold, hypothalamus releases hormones that cause us to shiver & seek out warmth (put on clothing). When we have not had enough sleep, we are likewise pushed to slow down as we yawn & struggle to keep our eyes open.
Homeostasis helps us to return to balance state after we deviate from our normal state.
YouTube: Cliff Diving in HawaiiTheories about emotion:
James-Lange Theory: We have a psychological response & we label it as an emotion: "I see a shark, my muscles tense, I feel afraid."
Cannon-Bard Theory: We have an emotional response & we feel the physiological response: "I see a shark, I feel afraid, my muscles tense."
Schacter-Singer Theory: We experience feelings & then label them: "I feel bad. I must be scared."
Cognitive Appraisal: When there is no physiological arousal. we experience something; we think about it, we label it as an emotion.
YouTube: Charles Schallhorn - Theories of Emotions
Emotions are difficult to understand.
We assume they are physiological at some level, but often is a cognitive component.
However, unlike other areas of cognition, emotions are not directly under our control.
JEALOUSY is a great example!
Experience that is very common but difficult to explain: just like much of psychology
Psychology Motivation & Emotion: HungerHunger: physiological, social & psychological
Things to know - Motivation & Emotion:Human motivation is complex, & while there are a number of theories, none by itself sufficiently explains our behavior.
Biological motivation includes the role of the hypothalamus, which maintains a state called homeostasis.
Theories of social motivation, including the need for achievement & hierarchy of needs, show the importance of understanding motivation in the context of our environments.
Emotions can be explained through a variety of theoretical perspectives, each arguing that emotion emerges in conjunction with physiological response to stimuli.
Hunger Games - Ironic?
1960s: Discovered that hunger comes from the Brain. The Hypothalamus
The BrainPhysiology of HungerWashburn: showed hunger partially related to the stomach.**However, those persons who have had their stomachs removed still feel hunger.
Hypothalamus: region of brain most often associated w/ motivation
Motivation: feeding, fighting, fleeing, & sexual reproduction.Glucose: hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.
When glucose levels drop: HUNGER INCREASES
Evidence: Lateral Hypothalamus provides motivation for hunger or feeding:
Lesion Lateral Hypothalamus in a rat, rat will lose its appetite. Rat will experience a form of anorexia in which it will not be hungry &, therefore, will not eat. --------------------------------------------------
Evidence: Ventromedial Hypothalamus as the satiety center (part of brain that signals you are full):
Lesion Ventromedial Hypothalamus, rat will not feel full.Rat will continue to eat well beyond what is normally expected.