monsanto 09-20-05b

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  • 1. Bt Corn in Spain Miguel Len Lleida, September 21st, 2005

2. Some of the major milestones in agricultural biotechnology originated in Europe Agrobacterium transformation (Belgium) First commercial GM plant (bromoxinil toleranttobacco, Rhone Poulenc, France) First processed GM food: tomato paste(ICI - UK) First Bt corn grown in the USA (Novartis -Switzerland) First GM canola (spring oil seed rape) grown inCanada (PGS - Belgium) First Bt corn grown in Europe (Novartis -Switzerland) 3. The EU has made significant advances in the adoption of ag biotechnology A completely overhauled, rigorous andcomprehensive regulatory system End of the moratorium New product approvals (NK603, GT73, etc.) 17 Bt corn hybrids listed on the EU Catalog Commercial plantings in 2005 in five EUcountries (Spain, Portugal, France, Germanyand the Czech Republic) Over 200,000 Has of Bt corn grown in Spainsince 1998 4. Indeed, the EU has been using and consuming GMO products since 1996 Field trials: Over 2,000 plant releases since 1991 Imports: 32 million MT of soybean products fromUSA, Argentina and Brazil 4 million MT of corn gluten feed from theUSA 0.5 - 1 million MT of corn grain fromArgentina 5. Spain is an important agricultural country within the EU % contribution of each memberstate to the total agriculturalproduction in the EU -15France:23.1% Germany: 15.4% Italy: 15.4% Spain: 12.5% UK: 8.7% The Netherlands:6.8% 6. Corn is an important crop in many areas of SpainAREA Average Yield Production (KHa's)MT/Ha)('000 MT) France1,900 8.5 16,000 Has Italy 1,150 9.4 11,00015-1,000 Spain 45010.24,900 1,000-2,600 Total EU (15) 4,425 8.8 39,0002,600-6,1006,100-17,000 Source: EU Commission, CoceralSource: Ministry of Agriculture 17,000-26,00026,000-51,000 7. Corn Borer infestations occur to some degree in all corn growing regionsOverall, about 20% of Spanish corn suffers some or severe Corn borer pressure economic losses because of Not significantSource: Syngenta Seedscorn borer attacksLowMediumHigh 8. Corn borers tunnel into the ears and stalk causing extensive damage: Weak stalks, loss of yield Damage to the ears 9. Damages are not only to yield, but also to grain quality 10. Corn borers are difficult to control with conventional (chemical) methodsNOV-APRMAYJUNJULAUG SEP OCT adults pupae eggs larvae larvaeeggs adultspupaeOverwintering larvae 2 - 4 generations/yr Severe damage in the early stages of plant growth 11. Bt corn (Bt) offers many advantages to the grower and to the environment Season long insect protection to thewhole plant (leaves, stalks and ears) Healthy plants that yield more Higher grain quality No impact on beneficial insects Easier crop management Savings in time and money Reduction in insecticide use 12. In 2004, more than 19 million Has of GM corn were grown around the World CanadaSpainUSA PhilippinesHonduras Uruguay So. Africa Argentina 13. Trials were done to study the benefits of Bt corn in SpainCorn yield (MT/Ha) 16141210 8 6Conventional (untreated) 4Conventional (treated) 2Bt 0 19971998 14. In view of these results and the corn borer problems, Spain adopted Bt corn in 1998 The Min. of Ag. approved 2 varieties of Btcorn (of which only one was actuallyplanted) Total surface had to be limited to about 25,000 Has (5% of the total corn planted in the country) Seed company had to follow a 5 year monitoring plan In the period 1998-2005, over 200,000Has of Bt corn have been grown in Spain 15. The economics of Bt corn are very favorable for the farmer 4,5003,800 4,0003,400 3,500Yield Loss (Kg/Ha) 3,000 2,5002,200 2,000 1,500 1,200800 1,000500200 10%30% 50% 70% 90% 100%Stalks with borer attacks Cost of Bt 16. Good results and farmer satisfaction have resulted in substantial increase in Bt corn useIn 2005, there are 29 Bt Penetration of Bt corn corn hybrids approved(% m.s. of the corn borer market) for planting in Spain, 17 Conventionalcorn in the EU 20% 80%58Bt corn48BT Corn Surface (KHA's)32 22.522.5 22.5 22.5 15'98'99 '00'01 '02'03 '04 '05 17. The trade of corn grain and consumption of corn based products has not been disrupted 18. The trade of corn grain and consumption of corn based products has not been disrupted 85% of Spanish corn isused for feed 50,000 - 120,000 MT oflocally produced GM-free corn purchased bymajor wet miller (cornprocessor for food):- Traceability- Agreements withindividual coops orlarge farmers- Testing of grain lots Cost to the corn trade:0.5% of price of grain 19. Biotechnology is the future. Good technologies ultimately succeed and prevail In the future, all crops will be transgenic James Watson, 2005 Laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of human kind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths disclosed, and manners and opinions change with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also, and keep pace with the timesThomas Jefferson, 1816