Index [] · Index Aβ see...

Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 6025 acarbose 424 accelerometers, triaxial 667 accidental injuries, wheelchair users 162 ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) genotype 538 acetyl L-carnitine 641 acetylcholine (ACh) 415, 417 activity-dependent learning 132 inhibitors see anticholinergic drugs acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) 2, 317, 415 acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors 47980 cognitive rehabilitation with 522 traumatic brain injury 480, 541 acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) 6012 acquired brain injury (ABI), virtual reality applications 2034, 207 ACTH therapy, multiple sclerosis 6389 ActiGait® 257 actin β-actin, axon tip synthesis 424 filamentous (F-actin) 3012, 3078 microfilaments 4234 action coding system 51213 action disorganization syndrome 450 action potentials (APs) conduction see conduction recording, implanted microelectrodes 5412, 556 spike broadening 40, 66 spike narrowing 66 synaptic transmission 36 action research arm test (ARAT) 591, 595 active movements, neglect rehabilitation 468 active range of motion deforming spastic paresis 313 post-stroke, predicting recovery 334 ACTIVE trial 51718 activities of daily living (ADLs) apraxia 457 assistive technology 1547 dementia 511 disorders of consciousness 397 metabolic costs 369 recovery after stroke 5902 predicting 5934 virtual reality applications 2078 visual field rehabilitation and 5045 activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) test 112 activity-dependent plasticity 241 axon sprouting 109 CNS extracellular matrix 161 sensorimotor function after spinal cord injury and 5367 spinal cord 8392 synaptogenesis 3234 see also experience-dependent plasticity, Hebbian plasticity, long-term depression, long-term potentiation activity participation interventions, dementia 5278 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) see GuillainBarré syndrome acute stage of neurological disease, rehabilitation see early neurorehabilitation adaptations (functional) 78 see also compensation adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors 247, 515, 517 adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activation of microglia 3934 autonomic function 417 Schwann cell signaling 485 adenovirus vectors 515, 517 adherent cultures, neural precursor cells 2901 ADL see activities of daily living adrenaline see epinephrine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), multiple sclerosis 6389 adrenoreceptors (AR) 415 advancing caregiver training (ACT) 527 aerobic capacity, maximal see VO 2 max aerobic training 372 benefits 3735 multiple sclerosis 6467 recommendations 378 see also exercise training after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude, spinal transection 177 aggrecan 157, 381 activity-related changes in expression 161 secretion after stroke 202 aggression, dementia patients 524 aging exercise capacity and 3689 hippocampal neurogenesis and 289 neuromuscular junction morphology and 4801 spinal stretch reflexes and 878 tactile perception and 141 tinnitus and 134 see also elderly agitation management in dementia 5257 traumatic brain injury 5434 akinesia, Parkinsons disease 571 akinetic mutism 387 AKT-mTOR pathway see mTOR/mTOR pathway alcohol injections, deforming spastic paresis 319 Allen cognitive level screen-5 513 Allen diagnostic module-2 513 α-2 adrenergic agonists, locomotor effects 181, 183 α-2 adrenergic antagonists, locomotor effects 181 α-adrenoceptors (α-AR) 415 injured spinal cord 178 α coefficient, Cronbachs 36 Alzheimers disease (AD) ApoE4 allele and 27, 394 apraxia 4489, 4557 brain reserve capacity and 50910 cognitive/behavioral assessment 512 deep brain stimulation 528 eye-blink conditioning task 26 functional neuroimaging studies 510 gene therapy 51719 inflammatory response 3934 learning studies 510, 51822 memory retraining 4812, 51820 neuronal cell death 2589, 261, 263, 2689 noninvasive brain stimulation 226, 231, 234 pharmacological therapies 47980 risk factors 512 674 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I. © in this web service Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second Edition Edited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. Miller Index More information

Transcript of Index [] · Index Aβ see...

Page 1: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose


Aβ see amyloid-βABILHAND questionnaire 591abundance, in motor system

602–5acarbose 424accelerometers, triaxial 66–7accidental injuries, wheelchair

users 162ACE (angiotensin-converting

enzyme) genotype 538acetyl L-carnitine 641acetylcholine (ACh) 415, 417activity-dependent learning

132inhibitors see anticholinergic

drugsacetylcholine receptors (AChRs)

2, 317, 415acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

inhibitors 479–80cognitive rehabilitation with

522traumatic brain injury

480, 541acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin)

601–2acquired brain injury (ABI),

virtual realityapplications 203–4, 207

ACTH therapy, multiple sclerosis638–9

ActiGait® 257actinβ-actin, axon tip synthesis

424filamentous (F-actin) 301–2,

307–8microfilaments 423–4

action coding system 512–13action disorganization syndrome

450action potentials (APs)conduction see conductionrecording, implanted

microelectrodes541–2, 556

spike broadening 40, 66spike narrowing 66synaptic transmission 36

action research arm test (ARAT)591, 595

active movements, neglectrehabilitation 468

active range of motiondeforming spastic paresis 313post-stroke, predicting

recovery 334ACTIVE trial 517–18activities of daily living (ADLs)apraxia 457assistive technology 154–7dementia 511disorders of consciousness

397metabolic costs 369recovery after stroke 590–2predicting 593–4

virtual reality applications207–8

visual field rehabilitation and504–5

activities-specific balanceconfidence (ABC) test112

activity-dependent plasticity 241axon sprouting 109CNS extracellular matrix 161sensorimotor function after

spinal cord injury and536–7

spinal cord 83–92synaptogenesis 323–4see also experience-dependent

plasticity, Hebbianplasticity, long-termdepression, long-termpotentiation

activity participationinterventions, dementia527–8

acute inflammatorydemyelinatingpolyradiculoneuropathy(AIDP)see Guillain–Barrésyndrome

acute stage of neurologicaldisease, rehabilitation

see earlyneurorehabilitation

adaptations (functional) 7–8see also compensation

adeno-associated virus (AAV)vectors 247, 515, 517

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)activation of microglia

393–4autonomic function 417Schwann cell signaling 485

adenovirus vectors 515, 517adherent cultures, neural

precursor cells 290–1ADL see activities of daily

livingadrenaline see epinephrineadrenocorticotropic hormone

(ACTH), multiplesclerosis 638–9

adrenoreceptors (AR) 415advancing caregiver training

(ACT) 527aerobic capacity, maximal

see VO2 max

aerobic training 372benefits 373–5multiple sclerosis 646–7recommendations 378see also exercise training

after-hyperpolarization (AHP)amplitude, spinaltransection 177

aggrecan 157, 381activity-related changes in

expression 161secretion after stroke 202

aggression, dementia patients524

agingexercise capacity and 368–9hippocampal neurogenesis and

289neuromuscular junction

morphology and480–1

spinal stretch reflexes and87–8

tactile perception and 141

tinnitus and 134see also elderly

agitationmanagement in dementia

525–7traumatic brain injury 543–4

akinesia, Parkinson’s disease571

akinetic mutism 387AKT-mTOR pathway

see mTOR/mTORpathway

alcohol injections, deformingspastic paresis 319

Allen cognitive level screen-5513

Allen diagnostic module-2 513α-2 adrenergic agonists,

locomotor effects 181,183

α-2 adrenergic antagonists,locomotor effects 181

α-adrenoceptors (α-AR) 415injured spinal cord 178

α coefficient, Cronbach’s 36Alzheimer’s disease (AD)ApoE4 allele and 27, 394apraxia 448–9, 455–7brain reserve capacity and


assessment 512deep brain stimulation 528eye-blink conditioning

task 26functional neuroimaging

studies 510gene therapy 517–19inflammatory response 393–4learning studies 510, 518–22memory retraining 481–2,

518–20neuronal cell death 258–9, 261,

263, 268–9noninvasive brain stimulation

226, 231, 234pharmacological therapies

479–80risk factors 512

674 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 2: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

virtual reality applications 205see also dementia

amantadinedisorders of consciousness

393, 539–40multiple sclerosis 641multiple system atrophy 425traumatic brain injury

539–41unilateral neglect 469

American Heart Association(AHA), stroke careguidelines 177

American Spinal InjuryAssociation (ASIA)impairment scale 350,531–2, 617–18

α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionicacid receptors see AMPAreceptors

4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 458multiple sclerosis 459, 640–1spinal cord injury 249

AMPA receptors (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionicacid receptors, AMPA-R)52

binding proteins 55facilitation 38long-term depression 56–7long-term potentiation 54–5phosphorylation 55stroke recovery and 198–9synaptogenesis 319–20, 323

AMPAkines, stroke recovery and198–9

amphetamines (includingdexamphetamine)

genetic influences on response28

impact on motor training319–20

stroke rehabilitation 12, 242–3traumatic brain injury 539–40

amphibiansspinal cord regeneration

332–3visual system regeneration

333–4see also frogs

amphisomes 267amputationsamphibian regenerative

responses 333brain plasticity after targeted

reinnervation 555cortical reorganization 291–3mechatronic upper limb

prostheses 184–6somatosensory reorganization

77, 245, 291–2see also phantom limb pain/


amygdalachondroitinase ABC injection

160declarative memory 27, 31

amyloid 264amyloid-β (Aβ) 258–9, 383, 393–4amyloid precursor protein (APP)

259amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

(ALS) 656–8cell death mechanisms 261,

264, 266, 268diaphragmatic pacing 126gene therapy 518, 520inflammation 395–6quality of life 655–8rehabilitation 657–8trophic factors and cell death

259–60Android-based communication

apps 221anesthesia (loss of somatic

sensation) 298anesthesia (regional)motor cortical plasticity 245somatosensory reorganization

245stroke motor recovery and

244, 246angiogenesis, stroke recovery and

15angiopoietins, after stroke 204angiotensin converting enzyme

(ACE) genotype 538angiotensin II 417angle of catch 313anhidrosis 431animal models 232–3

see also preclinical studiesankle–foot orthosesenergy costs of walking and

377–8pressure relief (PRAFO) 397

ankle muscle responses,vestibular inputs 357

ankle strategy, balance control108, 114

annexin A1 (ANXA1) 396–7anomia, mechanisms of recovery

442–3anophthalmia 148anosodiaphoria 469anosognosia 469–71dementia rehabilitation and

513–14for hemiplegia 470for neglect 470–1

antecedent-behavior-consequences (ABC)model 524

anterior cord syndrome 617anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES)

127–8anticholinergic drugsdystonia 577

multiple sclerosis 641anticipation, facilitating sensory

training 305anticipatory postural

adjustments 108assessment 111treatments addressing 114

antidepressantschronic pain in spinal cord

injury 623epilepsy 559post-stroke depression 608traumatic brain injury 540

antidiuretic hormonesee arginine vasopressin

antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)adverse effects 552–3, 556–8prophylactic, traumatic brain

injury 392, 542anxiety/anxiety disordersafter temporal lobectomy 561critically ill patients 265epilepsy 551, 556postictal 555spinal cord injury 629traumatic brain injury 544

apallic syndrome see vegetativestate

apathy, dementia patients 524ApCAM (Aplysia neuronal

cell adhesion molecule)67

ApCPEB (Aplysia cytoplasmicpolyadenylation element-binding protein) 67–8

aphasia 437–44after temporal lobectomy 561classification 608–9epidemiology 437mechanisms of recovery 441–3pharmacological interventions

242–4prognosis 437rehabilitation 437–44, 608–9assistive technology 152–3behavioral modification 440communication devices 222,226


early 271efficacy 443–4holistic vs. localizationist437–8

learning theories 439loss vs. dysfunction oflanguage 438–9

multisystemic view 440–1neoassociationist 440neurobiological basis 441–3neurolinguistic-cognitive440

noninvasive brainstimulation 227–9, 247–8,146–7

pragmatic approaches440

restitution vs. compensation438

stimulation and facilitation439–40

techniques 439–41theoretical basis 437–9training and practice effects241

Aplysia californica 63–71associative learning 68–71behaviors and neural circuitry

63–4nonassociative learning 23,

64–8principles of learning 71

apolipoprotein E (ApoE)genotypes 27–8

apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4)genotype 27

Alzheimer’s disease risk and27, 394

traumatic brain injuryoutcome and 27,537–8

apoptosis 256, 258developing neurons 256Huntington’s disease 268molecular program 257newly generated neurons in

adult brain 290see also neuronal death,

programed cell deathapoptosome 257Apple 221apraxia 447–58clinical relevance 457clinical testing 455–7cognitive-motor deficits

448–50frontal 447–8, 450historical note 447ideational 447–8, 450ideomotor (limb or

buccofacial) 448–50limbkinetic 448neuroanatomy 453–5syndromes 447–8theoretical models 450–3therapy 457–8

apraxia screen of TULIA (AST)456

ApTBL-1 (Aplysia tolloid/bonemorphogenetic-likeprotein-1) 67

ApUch (Aplysia ubiquitinC-terminal hydrolase)66–7

aquatic therapy, multiplesclerosis 647

arginase I 357arginine vasopressin (AVP,

antidiuretic hormone,ADH) 417, 420, 624


675Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 3: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

arm movementscompensatory, brain damage

601–2compensatory trunk

movements assisting 601stretch reflex thresholds 605

artemin 404, 418, 521Ashworth scale, modified 542ASIA scale see American Spinal

Injury Association(ASIA) impairment scale

Aspen criteria, minimallyconscious state 389

asphyxia, perinatal 212aspiration (of gastric contents)

264, 396, 609–10aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA)

601–2assessment of life habits

(Life-H) 42assistive brain–computer

interfaces 570–1, 579–81assistive devices (assistive

technology, AT) 150–9activities of daily living 154–7assessment for 150–1cognitive impairments 152–4credentialing program 172falls prevention 114, 151–2future 159instrumental activities of daily

living 157–8mechatronic 177neuromotor impairments

151–2sensory perceptual

impairments 154standards 172–3team approach 172

assistive technology professional(ATP) 172

assistive technology professional/seating and mobilityspecialist (ATP/SMS) 172

associative learning 24–6, 63–71Aplysia 68–71emerging principles 71forms 63hippocampal neurogenesis

and 289associativity, long-term

potentiation 51astrocytes 367–9activation after stroke 201Alzheimer’s disease 393–4axon regeneration role 371–2development 368–9functional diversity 367–9after spinal cord injury370–2

functions 367–8, 392GABA uptake after stroke 198glial scar formation 371, 376immature, therapeutic

potential 380

implant–tissue interface 557–8injured spinal cord 448neurogenic potential 286neuronal-type Na+ channels

463–4olfactory ensheathing cell

interactions 503reactive 158–9, 371, 376immature vs. mature 380molecules secreted 381, 383see also astrogliosis, reactiveregulation of synaptogenesis322

replacement therapy, spinalcord injury 442–3

astrogliosis, reactive 158, 286,376

cerebral palsy 213glial scar formation 360, 371growth-promoting molecules

383olfactory ensheathing cell

transplants and 503protective role 376

ataxia, multiple sclerosis 640ATF3 422ATF6 266athletes, spinal cord plasticity

86–7atomoxetine 540ATP see adenosine triphosphate,

Assistive TechnologyProfessional

Atrotech phrenic nervestimulator 126

attentionbalance control and 110, 359genetic factors 27–8selective 495sensory retraining and 305training, neglect 465–9

attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD)

in children with epilepsy 553,556, 558

epilepsy risk in 554genetic factors 27–8virtual classroom 203

attention deficitsnoninvasive brain stimulation

227–8traumatic brain injury 540–1virtual reality applications

203–4attentional focusgait training instructions

102internal vs. external 96–7

auditory assessment, disorders ofconsciousness 395

auditory brainstem implants(ABIs) 544

auditory cortex, plasticity 125–35cochlear implants 133congenital deafness 132

during life span 132–3object recognition 129–32spatial functions 125–9tinnitus 133–5

auditory evoked potentials 390–1auditory feedback, virtual reality

systems 200auditory midbrain implants

(AMIs) 544auditory motion perception,

middle temporal (MT)complex 142, 146–7

auditory neglect 465auditory neuroprostheses 544–5

see also cochlear implantsauditory object recognition

129–32auditory perception, blindness

141–2, 145–7auditory rehabilitation, disorders

of consciousness 395–6auditory spatial functions (sound

localization) 125–9blind people 141–2neuroimaging 127–30visual cortical involvement146–7

epigenetic adaptation 125–6visually deprived animals

126–7neural basis 127–9

auditory systemplasticity 125–35transneuronal degeneration 4

augmentation (of synaptictransmission) 36

Ca2+-dependent mechanisms42–3

quantal mechanisms 38synapse specificity 44–5

augmentative and alternativecommunication (AAC)219–28

see also communicationdevices

augmentative and alternativecommunication (AAC)specialists 223

Austrian NeurorehabilitationSociety 261

autism (autistic spectrumdisorders, ASD)

communication support 226–7pathogenic mechanisms 58,

259autonomic dysfunction 415–31cardiovascular system 419–27classification 415–17clinical examination 419clinical features 416–19disorders of consciousness

392–3gastrointestinal tract 428–9localized 416, 418reproductive system 429–30

spinal cord injury 621thermoregulation 430–1traumatic brain injury 543urinary tract 427–9see also orthostatic

hypotensionautonomic dysreflexia/

hyperreflexia 427, 621–2autonomic function assessment,

experimental spinal cordinjury 536

autonomic nervous system(ANS) 415–17

autophagosomes 267autophagy (autophagic cell

death, ACD) 257, 267–9chaperone-mediated (CMA)

267–8molecular regulation 257neurodegenerative diseases

267–9subtypes and steps 267

AVERT trial 269, 603Avery phrenic nerve stimulator

126avoidance learning 27–8axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

284axon(s)collaterals see collaterals,

neuronaldystrophic see dystrophic

growth conesmyelinated see myelinated

axonsspared, conundrum of 9synaptogenesis 318–19tip, local protein synthesis 424unmyelinated 457

axon arbors 10formation of new, after

axotomy 10, 12–14principle of conservation of 12tortuous, suggesting abortive

growth 7, 10, 12axon degeneration 274–9demyelinating diseases 466distal (dying back) 276–7proteins blocking 275–6Wallerian see Wallerian

degenerationWallerian-like 278–9

axon growthafter axotomy 11–12see also axon regenerationbranching mode 10, 12see also axon arborscollateral formation, after

axotomy 12during development 114,

242–3molecular programs, post-

stroke changes 200–1neuron-intrinsic regulators

see neuron-intrinsic


676 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 4: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

determinants ofregeneration

terminology 11–12tract mode 10see also axon sprouting;

growth conesaxon growth inhibitors 308–9,

349–60, 418–19after stroke/brain injury 201–4blocking strategies 354–7categories 201developmentally related 201,

203glial scar-associated

see chondroitin sulfateproteoglycans

myelin-associated see myelin-associated axonal growthinhibitors

vs. neuron-intrinsic regulators345

axon guidance 301–10activity-dependent 109cues (and receptors) 303–7modulating growth coneresponses 308

morphogens 306neurotrophins 306permissive and instructive302

regulation of growth conecytoskeleton 307–8

role in regeneration 309–10,357–60

short- and long-range 302during development 242–3,

302–8, 357–60during regeneration 308–10Sperry chemoaffinity

hypothesis 115–18, 306axon injuryeffects of distance from cell

body 415molecular signaling 416neuronal responses 1–7, 413see also axotomy; denervation;

peripheral nerve injuryaxon regeneration 8–11abortive 7, 9–10canonical (normal target-

specific) 8CNS 339–40developmental loss 414, 425extracellular influences 243glial scar inhibiting 360,376–86

mechanisms limiting 243–4molecules inhibitingsee axon growthinhibitors

obstacles 114overcoming myelin-inducedblock 354–7

strategies for enhancing10–11, 243–5

conditioning lesion effectsee conditioning lesioneffect

disorderly 8ectopic connection formation

10effectors 422–5electrodiagnostic testing 81forms of growth 10glial cell role 371–3guidance 308–10developmental cues 309–10,357–60

inhibitory pathways 309–10identification criteria 9inhibitors see axon growth

inhibitorsinvertebrates 329–30lower vertebrates 329–34neuron-intrinsic determinants

243, 413–26neurotrophins and 402–8, 418non-mammalian models

329–35orderly 8peripheral nervous system

see peripheral nerveregeneration

pitfalls for studies of 8–9priming effects 16region-specific 8retinal ganglion cells see

under retinal ganglioncells

spinal cord injury 339axon–glial cell contacts 10bridges across lesion sites243–4

mechanisms limiting 243–4olfactory ensheathing celltransplants 504–6

PTEN deletion and 11Schwann cell transplants500–1

strategies for enhancing243–5

terminology 11–12vs. axon sprouting 11–12,

343–4see also axon growth, axon

sproutingaxon sprouting 10, 12–15activity-dependent guidance

109corticospinal tract (CST) 5–14,

159factors determining extent

15–17interspecies differences 17myelin-associated axonal

growth inhibitors and343–4

post-stroke 197, 199–201contralateral cortex 199–200ipsilateral cortex 200–2

molecular growth programs200–1

remote intracortical, motorcortex lesions 107

Schwann cell role 475–6,481

Schwann cell transplants intospinal cord 499–500

spinal cord injury 536terminology 11–13triggers 15vs. axon regeneration 11–12,

343–4vs. axonal ingrowth 15vs. generation of new

collaterals 12axonal polyneuropathiescommon causes 79electrodiagnostic testing 79length-dependent 276

axonal transport 422defectsdemyelination 278–9length-dependent axonalneuropathies 277

retrogradeneurotrophins 401signals of axon injury 416

axonotmesis, electrodiagnostictesting 81

axotomy 7, 17axon regeneration after 8–11distal axon degeneration

see Walleriandegeneration

fate of neurons after 4Na+ channel expression 462–3oligodendrocyte death and

demyelination 6–8other types of axon growth

after 11–12retrograde atrophy and

degeneration 4–7site, neuronal response and

415spared axon conundrum 9synapse stripping 6see also axon injury, peripheral

nerve injury

back pain, chronic,neuroplasticity 289–91

backrests, wheelchair 171baclofen 428, 542, 577, 640Bak 263balance 355–64compensatory strategies after

stroke 15, 602importance 105terminology 105–6

balance control 105–10attentional contributions 110,

359cognitive influences 110, 112extrinsic factors affecting 112

resources required 106–10role of eye movements

359–60sensory contributions 107–8,

356–9systems model 106vestibular system role 108,

357–9see also postural control

balance disordersassessment 110–12assistive technology 151–2attentional resources needed

359rehabilitation 112–15see also vestibular dysfunction

balance evaluation systems test(BESTest) 110

balance scale 38, 40–1balance training 105–15attentional focus studies

96–7explicit vs. implicit learning

98Parkinson’s disease 572–3vestibular dysfunction 363virtual reality-based 113, 209

ballet dancers, spinal cordplasticity 86–7

bands of Büngner 472, 496baroreceptors 419–20baroreflex system, bionic 422Barthel Index (BI) 67post-strokepattern of recovery 590–4predictive value 593–4

responsiveness 40–1basal ganglialearning and memory 24praxis 455

basal metabolic rate (BMR) 369,377

base of support (BoS) 105–6basic fibroblast growth factor

(bFGF, FGF-2)astrocyte responses 369glial scar formation 378–9neural precursor cell responses

287, 289oligodendrocyte precursor cell

responses 370regeneration in amphibians

334stroke therapy 248

bathingassistive technology 154–5dementia patients 525

bathroom grab bars 151Bax 263BBB (Basso, Beattie and

Bresnahan) locomotorrating scale 533–4

BCI2000 system 572BCIs see brain-computer



677Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 5: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

Bcl-2 proteinsmitochondrial function

263–4neuronal death 257–8non-cell death roles 257

BCL-xL 44BDNF see brain-derived

neurotrophic factorbed nuclei of the stria terminalis

(BST) 27bed rest 265–8exercise capacity and 270, 369see also deconditioning

bedside assistive devices 151behavioral change, spinal cord

plasticity and 88–90behavioral disorderschildren with epilepsy 553, 556traumatic brain injury 543–4

behavioral interventionsaphasia 440chronic pain 293–5dementia 516–17, 524–6Parkinson’s disease 571–2somatosensory loss 80

behavioral problems in dementia522

assessment 511–14conceptual frameworks 523–4interventions 516–17, 524–7models guiding treatment

514–15Bergman glia 368–9Berlin apraxia test (BAXT)

456–7Berlin LSVT®BIG study 570BESTest (Balance Evaluation

Systems Test) 110β-adrenoceptors (β-AR) 415β-amyloid see amyloid-βbiasin clinical trials 234in prognostic studies 587–9

Bienenstock–Cooper–Munro(BCM) model 56–7

bilateral arm training withrhythmic auditory cueing(BATRAC) 90

bilingual humans 131Binswanger’s disease 569biofeedbackmemory dysfunction 481sensory, balance rehabilitation

114see also feedback

biomechanical constraints onbalance 106

assessment 110treatment 112

biomechanical factors, energyexpenditure 374–6

biomimetic neural prosthesessee neural prostheses

BION® device 1302,20-bipyridine (BPY) 159

birds, adult neurogenesis 285Blackrock microelectrode array

577bladder care, disorders of

consciousness 392bladder controlassessment, experimental

spinal cord injury 536development 85

bladder dysfunction 427–9functional electrical

stimulation 129–30multiple sclerosis 641, 648neural prostheses 543spinal cord injury 427–8, 621

blast injuries 385–6, 535blepharospasm 574–5, 577–8blinded clinical trials 234blindfolding, tactile

discrimination after141, 144

blindness 144–8age at development 140auditory object recognition 132auditory spatial function

126–30, 141–2cortical 502modality-independence of

perceptual-cognitivefunctions 147

neuroanatomical studies 147–8nonvisual perception 140–2somatosensory cortical

plasticity 142visual cortical involvement in

nonvisual tasks 144–7visual neuroprostheses 545–6,

554–5see also visual deprivation

blindsight 502blood–brain barrier (BBB) 368breakdown, glial scar

formation 378microelectrode implantation

disrupting 555–7blood pressurechanges in orthostatic

hypotension 420–1control 419–20

blunt brain injuries 385body weight support system

(BWSS) 628body weight-supported treadmill

training (BWSTT) 64–6,369

multiple sclerosis 647spinal cord injury 65, 630stroke 65, 372, 374, 607

bone marrow stromal cells448

see also mesenchymal stemcells

bone morphogenetic proteins(BMP)

axon guidance 306

induced astrocytes, spinal cordtransplants 370, 372,443–4

neural precursor cell responses287

botulinum toxin (BTX)injections

bladder dysfunction 428, 641dystonia 577hemiplegic shoulder pain 607spasticity 319, 604–5, 640

bound Ca2+ model, facilitation41

bowel care, disorders ofconsciousness 392

bowel functionassessment, experimental

spinal cord injury 536multiple sclerosis 641sacral anterior root

stimulation and 130spinal cord injury 429, 621

BPY (2,20-bipyridine) 159bradykinesia, Parkinson’s disease

571Braille readerssomatosensory cortical

plasticity 142tactile perception 140–1

Braille readingmodality-independent visual

cortical functions 147visual cortical involvement

144–5, 147brainplasticity see plasticityreserve capacity 509–10responses to neural prostheses

see under neuralprostheses

brain–computer interfaces(BCIs) 549–50, 565–73

applications 571–2definition 565–6dementia 528–9direct speech 579invasive see intracranial


moderately invasive seeelectrocorticography(ECoG)-basedbrain–computerinterfaces

motor 570–2, 579–81noninvasive see electroen

cephalography (EEG)-based brain–computerinterfaces

potential users 570–1present-day types 567–70principles of operation 566–7process control vs. goal

selection 571–2research and development 572

selectivity–invasivenesstradeoff 556

signal processing 570signal recording methods 567,

577therapeutic uses 571

brain damage see brain injurybrain-derived neurotrophic

factor (BDNF) 400amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,

gene therapy 520exercise training and 373–4Huntington’s disease, gene

therapy 520neural precursor cell responses

287neuropathological role 258–9peripheral nerve injuryaxon regeneration and403–4

cell survival and 402plasticity-related functions

26–8receptor 400regulation of synaptogenesis

322–3spinal cord injuryaxon regeneration and405–6, 418

cell survival and 405effects on specific fibertracts 408

functional effects 180, 184,406–7

gene therapy 521increased expression 405methods of administration406

with Schwann cell grafts501–2

stroke recovery and 13, 199,603

val66met gene polymorphism26–8

brain disorders see brain injurybrain injurycellular mechanisms of

plasticity 196–207axon growth inhibitors201–4

axonal sprouting/newconnections 199–201

cellular regeneration 204–5excitatory signaling 197–9functional imaging 196–7

cognitive rehabilitation seecognitive rehabilitation

etiologies 385–7motor compensation after

600–2motor cortex reorganization

52–3, 55perinatal see perinatal brain

injurysecondary 543


678 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

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Page 6: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

stem cell therapies 586–93traumatic see traumatic brain

injurysee also specific conditions

brain–machine interfaces (BMIs)see brain-computerinterfaces

brain size, reserve capacity and509

brain stimulation 141–7genetic influences on response

29see also deep brain stimulation,

non-invasive brainstimulation

brain tumors, hippocampalneurogenesis and 294

BrainGate device 549, 578brainstem auditory evoked

responses (BAERs)390–1

breathing assistance, hightetraplegia 126

brevican 157, 381bromocriptine 540–1bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)

labeling, neural precursorcells 291–2

Brown–Séquard syndrome 169,617

buffer saturation model,facilitation 42

bulbospinal projections,locomotor control 169

Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft fürRehabilitation (BAR),Phasenmodell der 261

buspirone 182

C-Mill treadmill 100–3C3 transferase 421cadherins 323, 484Caenorhabditis elegansaxon guidance 304–5axon regeneration 329–30calcium signaling 416specificity of synaptic

connections 323caffeine 424CAG triplet repeat diseases

see polyglutamine(polyQ) repeat diseases

Cajal, Ramón y see Ramón yCajal

calbindin 42calcineurin, long-term

depression 56calcium (Ca2+)cell death in degenerative

diseases 262current facilitation 40–1extrusion, presynaptic

terminals 40growth cone motility and


mitochondrial handling 37, 40,42–4

postsynaptic signalinglong-term depression 56long-term potentiation53–4

long-term sensitization 67presynaptic signaling 36–43delayed asynchronousrelease 40

phasic release 39residual [Ca2+] 39–40short-term synapticenhancement and 40–3

signaling in axon injury 416uncaging 39Wallerian degeneration and

275calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin-

activated kinase II(CaMK II)

long-term depression 56long-term potentiation 53–5post-tetanic potentiation 43

calyx of Held 39Canadian neurological scale

(CNS) 593canes, walking 114, 156cannabinoids 640CAP-23 424captopril 427carbamazepine (CBZ) 552–3cardiovascular diseaseexercise capacity and 369–71spinal cord injury 421, 623stroke patients 263, 268

cardiovascular systemacute responses to exercise

367–8, 370assessment in spinal cord

injury 621autonomic disorders 419–27effects of inactivity 268, 369training-induced adaptations

372Care of Persons with Dementia

in their Environments(COPE) 527

care pathways see clinicalpathways

caregiversamyotrophic lateral sclerosis

658dementia rehabilitation role

522–8formal and informal 523

CAREN™ multisensory system200–1, 206–7

carotid sinus hypersensitivity(CSH) 425

carotid sinus massage 421carpal tunnel syndrome,

wheelchair users 161case manager 285caspases

neurodegenerative disorders259

neuronal death 257–8non-cell death roles 257

casting 316catechol-O-methyl transferase

(COMT) gene 28–30,538

catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) inhibitors 568

Catherine Bergego scale 470–1cationic liposomes 515Catwalk device 533–5cauda equina syndrome 617CAVE virtual reality system 200Cdc42 307–8, 359ceiling effects, outcome measures

41cell adhesion moleculesaxon regeneration role 425,

484neuronal regenerative ability

and 415cell death 256–7necrotic 256see also apoptosis, autophagy,

neuronal death,programed cell death

cell phones (mobile phones)reminder systems 483–4see also smartphones

cell replacement therapies, spinalcord injury 435–50

alternative sources of cells 448cell delivery methods 449clinical trials 442, 449–50development and properties of

cells 437–9fetal tissue transplants 436–7mobilizing endogenous

precursors 448–9neural stem and precursor cell

transplants 380, 439–48practical issues 449–50properties of candidate cells

439–40rationale 436relay formation 446–8time of engraftment 449see also cellular therapies, stem

cell therapiescell survival, neuronal

see neuronal survivalcellular therapiesbased on endogenous

precursors 294–5, 448–9demyelinating diseases 465for-profit centers 449–50gene therapy approaches

514spinal cord injury 496–508,

588–90, 592, 631olfactory ensheathingcell transplants 496,502–8

Schwann cell transplants496–502, 508

trophic factor-secreting cells521

see also cell replacementtherapies; stem celltherapies

center of body mass (CoM)105–6

Centers for Medicare andMedicaid Services (CMS)127, 163, 286

central cord syndrome 617central nervous system (CNS)

injuryaxon regeneration see axon

regenerationglial scar see glial scarinflammatory response

392–7neural consequences 317neuronal effects 1–2neurotrophins and repair

405–8oligodendrocyte death and

demyelination 6–8reactive growth responses of

neurons 1–7reorganization of neuronal

connections 8–17sensory loss 298–9see also brain injury, spinal

cord injurycentral nervous system (CNS)

stimulants 393, 528, 540central pattern generator (CPG)locomotor 83–4, 61–2cats 166–9changes after spinal cordinjury 177

coordinating interneurons173

human 343–4, 348mice 176–7rats 171–2

swallowing 406–7CERE-110 (AAV-NGF) 519cereal-eating test 535–6cerebellar Purkinje cells 26, 56channelopathy in

demyelinating disease462, 464

cerebellins 321–2cerebellumcontralesional hypoactivity

317learning and memory 25–6lesions, spinal fixation 84long-term depression 26,

56–7M1 connectivity 143

cerebral blood flowduring exercise 368regional (rCBF) 84stroke 12


679Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 7: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

cerebral cortexcontralateral, axon sprouting

after stroke 199–200experience-dependent

plasticityipsilateral, axon sprouting

after stroke 200see also neocortex

cerebral edema, post-stroke 602cerebral motor functions 99–110organization 99–103plasticity 103–9see also motor cortex

cerebral palsy (CP) 211–16abnormal corticospinal

connections 85–6exercise capacity 370exercise training 375gait disorder 347infantile spinal stretch reflexes

85–6neural plasticity 215–16pathophysiology 212–15underlying perinatal brain

injuries 211–12virtual reality applications 210,

212cervical dystonia (spasmodic

torticollis) 575–6medical and surgical treatment

577–8rehabilitation 578

cervical spinal cord,propriospinal pathways175

cervical spinal cord injuryautonomic dysfunction 421clinical trial endpoints 237–9forelimb motor recovery

measures 532–5locomotor recovery in rats 171nonhuman primates 537recovery and functional

outcomes 625–7upper extremity

neuroprostheses 546–7see also tetraplegia

chair, rising from a 42channelopathy, demyelinating

disease 462, 464chaperone-mediated autophagy

(CMA) 267–8chaperones, neurodegenerative

diseases 264–7Charcot–Marie–Tooth diseasedemyelinating forms, axonal

loss 278type 2A 277type 2B 277

charge storage capacity (CSC)542

chemoaffinity (orchemospecificity)hypothesis, Sperry’s115–18, 306, 334

childrencochlear implants 544with complex communication

needs 224–5with epilepsycognitive impairments 552management 557–8psychiatric/behavioralproblems 553–4, 556

psychosocial impact 551otitis media 132virtual reality applications

203–4, 210wheelchair design 169see also cerebral palsy;

perinatal brain injurycholesterol, synapse formation

and 322cholinergic polymorphisms 29cholinesterase inhibitors

see acetylcholinesterase(AChE) inhibitors

chondroitin sulfateproteoglycans (CSPGs)155–7, 381–2

axon growth inhibition 158,309, 344–5, 360, 381

axon regeneration inhibition243, 378, 381–2, 419

ocular dominance plasticityand 345

receptors 344–5, 381–2secretion after CNS injury

201–3, 381signaling, as therapeutic target

385as therapeutic target 159–60,

244, 384–5chondroitinase (Ch’ase, chABC)

157inhibition of scar formation 159promoting axon regeneration

381, 384–5spinal cord injury 6, 80,

159–60, 244chronic phase 161with rehabilitation 161with Schwann cell grafts 501

chorioamnionitis 212CHRNA4 gene 28chronic inflammatory

demyelinatingpolyneuropathy (CIDP)662–3

concurrent diseases 80electrodiagnostic testing 79–80

chronic pain 289–95behavioral interventions


see musculoskeletal pain,chronic

pharmacological interventions295

plasticity and 289–93

spinal cord injury 623see also neuropathic pain

ciliary neurotrophic factor(CNTF)

astrocytes induced by 370, 372derived astrocytes, spinal cord

transplants 443–4gene therapyamyotrophic lateral sclerosis520

Huntington’s disease 520inducing axon regeneration

385, 417cingulate motor area (CMA) 53,

55, 103post-stroke changes 85–6

citalopram 29, 320citicholine 539classical (Pavlovian)

conditioning 24–7, 63cellular analog 51neural mechanisms in Aplysia

68–70pain-related responses 291

classical test theory 35–8clavicle, osteolysis of distal 161climbing fibers, cerebellar 26, 56clinical pathways 70–6, 281benefits and risks 72continuous team education 72definition and characteristics

71design and implementation

74–5evidence for efficacy 72–4

clinical practice guidelines 70clinical test for sensory

integration in balance(CTSIB) 110–11

clinical trials 1–6, 231–40biological interventions 2confounding factors 5–6,

238–40CONSORT checklist 2–3inclusion/exclusion criteria

232–4interventions 4methodological quality 11outcome measures 4–5, 235–8phases and stages 1–2, 236–7preclinical criteria prior to

231–2principles for conduct of valid

239–40randomization 2–4, 234–5study designs 2–5, 234–5see also randomized controlled

trialsclonazepam 640clonidinechallenge, autonomic

dysfunction 422locomotor effects 181, 183

clothing fasteners 155cluster headache 293

CNS see central nervous systemcochlear implants (CI) 133,

544–5, 554plastic responses 555

cognitive activities, dementiaprevention 511, 518

cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT)

epilepsy 559post-stroke depression 608

cognitive functionassessment in dementia

511–14balance control 110, 112language interactions 440–1

cognitive impairmentsafter temporal lobectomy

560–1assistive technology 152–4communication support 225–6epilepsy 551–2, 557–8learning by individuals with

515–17multiple sclerosis 641transient, epilepsy 552traumatic brain injury 543virtual reality applications

203–8see also dementia, mild

cognitive impairment,specific deficits

cognitive neuroscientific models,dementia 514

cognitive orthotics 153cognitive rehabilitation 218–35challenges 218–19definition 218dementia 515memory dysfunction 481noninvasive brain stimulation

146–7, 219–35choice of technique 221clinical evidence 227–31diagnostic applications223–4

with other therapeuticinterventions 224–5

technical and otherchallenges 225–7

theoretical framework221–3

online training programs 219virtual reality systems 203–7

cognitive reserve 509cognitive stimulation, in

dementia 514–15, 526cognitive tasks, secondaryduring balance tasks 112, 359improving motor learning

97–8see also dual-task paradigms

cognitive trainingdementia 514–15healthy older people 517–18memory dysfunction 481


680 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 8: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

multiple sclerosis 648–9cohort, prospective inception

589collagen, after spinal cord injury

158–9collagenous scar 158–9collaterals, neuronalgrowth of new, after injury 10,

12–14principle of sustaining 5

coma 262, 387coma near coma scale 389coma recovery scale–revised

(CRS-R) 389commissureless (Comm) 308commodes, bedside 156communication devices 152–3,

219–28control inputs 220–1direct speech brain–computer

interfaces 579disorders of consciousness 397funding 223–4, 226mobile devices and apps

221–3, 225outputs 220–1selection of dedicated 223specific clinical populations

224–7types available 219–20visual scene approach 220,

222, 225–6web resources 230

communication-orientedapproaches, aphasiarehabilitation 440

communication systems,disorders ofconsciousness 395–7

compensation 7, 599–605adaptive 7–8after brain damage 600–2aphasia 438balance rehabilitation

112–13definitions 7–8, 599–600measurement 605mechanisms 602–5motor map plasticity and 109neural 509noninvasive brain stimulation

promoting 222redundancy and 603–5stroke recovery and 15–16substitutive see substitutionvs. neural repair 8–9see also motor compensation

compensatory plasticity 91competence-environmental press

model (CEPM) 523complex regional pain syndrome

(CRPS) 293compound motor action

potential (CMAP)80–2

compressive neuropathies,electrodiagnostic testing78, 81

computed tomography (CT),head injury 536

computer adapted testing (CAT)38–9

computer-assisted scaleadministration 38

computer trainingmemory deficits 480unilateral neglect 469

computersfor word processing 158see also mobile electronic

devices, tablet computersCOMT (catechol-O-methyl

transferase) gene 28–30,538

conditioningclassical (Pavlovian)

see classical conditioningcontextual 30fear see fear conditioningoperant see operant

conditioningtrace 29–30see also learning

conditioning lesion effect 379,416, 245

cAMP dependence 356, 379conduction (action potential)

459–60continuous, demyelinated

axons 460–1demyelinated/dysmyelinated

axons 459–60discontinuous, recovering

demyelinated axons 462myelinated axons 457, 459remyelinated axons 464–5slowed 459spinal cord axons

remyelinated by Schwanncells 498–9

temporal dispersion 459unmyelinated axons 457see also nerve conduction

studiesconduction block 459–60electrodiagnostic testing 78frequency-related 460impedance mismatch/

matching and 464–5role of blocking factors 460total 460

cone electrode 577confounders, clinical trials 5–6,

238–40connections, neuronal

see neuronal connectionsconsciousness, disorders of

385–400acute rehabilitation 391–400facilitating plasticity 394

goals 394–5medical and nursing care392–3

prognostic evaluation398–9

programs and protocols394–8

clinical assessment 391clinical presentations 262–3,

387–8diagnostic procedures 388–91duration, predictive value 399etiologies 385–7evoked potentials 390–1neurobehavioral evaluation

388–90neuroimaging 390

CONSORT (consolidatedstandards of reportingtrials) checklist 2–3

Consortium for Spinal CordMedicine 532, 162

constipation 429constrained action hypothesis,

external focus ofattention 96

constrained-induced aphasiatherapy (CIAT),memantine with 244

constraint-induced movementtherapy (CIMT) 10, 337,606–7

early intensive 16, 335–6increased sensory input 136outcome measures 338timing 241

construct validity 37contact heat evoked potentials

(CHEP) 618–19content validity 36–7context specificity of training

see specificity of trainingcontextual conditioning 30contextual-interference effect

98–9contiguity, in associative learning

24contingency, in associative

learning 24continuous performance tasks

(CPT), virtual classroom203

continuous team education 72contracts, self-rehabilitation

321contracturescasting and serial casting 316chronic stretch 314–15disorders of consciousness 397spastic paresis 312

contrecoup brain injury 385control groups 4, 234–5conus medullaris syndrome 617cooling therapy, multiple

sclerosis 647–8

cooperativity, long-termpotentiation 51

coordinative structures, motorcontrol 603

Copenhagen stroke study 593Cornichon proteins 55corpus callosum, surgical

transection 560cortical map plasticityafter stroke 13–14see also under motor cortex

cortical motoneurons (CM cells)101–2

changes after stroke 85–6degeneration after spinal cord

injury 5–6see also corticospinal tractaxons, upper motorneurons

cortical visual prostheses 545–6corticobasal degeneration (CBD)

569–70apraxia 448–9, 454, 457inflammatory response 394

corticospinal tract (CST)activity-dependent plasticity

88during development 85–6

lesionslocomotor recovery 169, 173neurotrophin-3 genetherapy 521

Nogo-A antibody therapy179

olfactory ensheathing celltransplants 504–5

recovery and compensationfor 57

retrograde neuronaldegeneration 5–6

Schwann cell accumulation498

stroke 56, 87origins and pathways 55–6regeneration from endogenous

progenitor cells 445stroke recovery and 14, 333,

596voluntary motor control

55–6corticospinal tract axons 55–6regeneration 11cerebral palsy 215gene knockout studies342–3

neurotrophins and 408sprouting 5–14, 159see also upper motor neurons

corticostriatal fibers, effects ofcortical injury 107

COSMIN checklist 39cost–benefit analysis,

rehabilitation robotics181

cough, aspiration risk and 264


681Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 9: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

coup brain injury 385cranial nerve palsies, after

temporal lobectomy 563CREB see cyclic AMP response

element-binding proteincredentialing, assistive

technology 172criterion-related validity 37critical illness 264–5critical illness myopathy (CIM)

264–5, 663, 666critical illness polyneuropathy

(CIP) 264–5, 663critical pathways see clinical

pathwayscritical periods (sensitive periods)acquisition of musical abilities

131auditory system development

132–3functional recovery after CNS

injury 371language acquisition 131locomotor recovery in

spinalized rats 171metaplasticity after stroke 206for plasticity, termination by

perineuronal nets 156–7stroke recovery 17, 202, 595–6visual system development 140

Cronbach’s α coefficient 36cross-modal plasticity, visual

system 140–8cross-talk, pathological 460crossover studies 235crustaceans, axon regeneration

329–30CSPG see chondroitin sulfate

proteoglycanscueing techniquesgait training 66Parkinson’s disease 571–2unilateral neglect 467–8

cuneate nucleus, changes aftersensory loss 78–9

CX3CL1 (fractalkine) 396CX3CL1R (fractalkine receptor)

396cybernetics 184cybersickness 199cyclic AMP (cAMP)axon guidance 308conditioning lesion effect

356, 379downstream effects, as

therapeutic targets 356–7infusion, spinal cord injury

159modulation of axon

regeneration 355–6,419–21

Schwann cell grafts into spinalcord and 502

cyclic AMP/protein kinaseA (cAMP/PKA) pathway

axon regeneration and 356mediating sensitization 65–7

cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-1(CREB1) 66–7

cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-2(CREB2) 67, 416

cyclic GMP (cGMP), axonguidance 308, 420

cyclic nucleotides, modulation ofaxon regeneration 420–1

cytokinesaxon regeneration and 416–18cerebral palsy 215inflammatory response 393responses to implanted devices

557cytoskeletal proteinsaxon regeneration role 422–4axonal transport 422Schwann cells 485synthesis in axon tip 424

cytoskeletongranular disintegration,

degenerating axons 275growth cone 301–2, 422–3regulation 307–8

cytoskeleton-associated proteinof 23 kDa (CAP-23) 424

dantrolene 542Data Safety Monitoring Board

(DSMB) 235DCC (deleted in colorectal

cancer) receptoraxon guidance 304, 308netrin binding 358

deafness see hearing impairmentdeconditioning 367effects of exercise training

372–4neurological disorders 369–72see also bed rest

deep brain stimulation (DBS)543–4

dementia 528dystonia 577–8Parkinson’s disease 345,

543–4, 568–9tinnitus 135vs. intracortical

brain–computerinterfaces 577

deep venous thrombosis (DVT),spinal cord injury 620–2

default mode, transcending the492

Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency(DARPA) 184–6

deficit-compensating strategy600

degenerationaxon see axon degeneration

cascading 6delayedneuronal, after ischemia 6oligodendrocytes, afteraxonal injury 6–8

retrograde, after axotomy 4–7transneuronal, after

denervation 4Wallerian see Wallerian

degenerationdegenerative diseases

see neurodegenerativediseases

DEKA Gen 2 arm system 185delayed non-matching to sample

task 30–1delirium 265dementia 529behavioral problems

see behavioral problemsin dementia

cognitive/behavioralassessment 511–14

cognitive neuroscientificmodels 514

neurogenesis theory 294new medications and devices

528–9Parkinson’s disease 569prevention 511rehabilitation 529caregiver involvement522–8

cholinesterase inhibitortherapy with 522

efficacy of learning 517–22learning theory and 515–17models 514–15neural substrate supporting509–10

relevance 510–11risk factors 512semantic, apraxia 449–50vascular see vascular dementia

dementia of Alzheimer’s type(DAT) see Alzheimer’sdisease

dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB) 569

demyelinated axons 457–67conduction abnormalities

459–60continuous conduction 460–1discontinuous conduction 462impedance mismatch/

matching 464–5molecular remodeling 462Na+ channel transfer from glia

462–4demyelinating diseasesaxonal degeneration 278cell transplantation 465neuroprotection of axons 466potassium channel blockers


sodium channelopathy 462,464

demyelinating polyneuropathiesaxonal degeneration 278electrodiagnostic studies 79–80

demyelination 457axonal degeneration 278–9trauma-induced 6–8

dendrites 3–4, 318–19dendritic cells 393dendritic spines 318, 324denervation 2–4diffuse vs. concentrated 15–16fate of CNS neurons after 2neuronal structural

modifications 3–4neurotransmitter receptor

changes 2–3reinnervation after

see reinnervationtransneuronal atrophy 3–4transneuronal degeneration 4see also axon injury, axotomy

denervation supersensitivity 2–3denial 469dental hygiene 155dentate gyrus (DG), adult

neurogenesis 285, 288–90depression (clinical)after temporal lobectomy 561critically ill patients 265deep brain stimulation 544in epilepsy 551, 553–6, 558–9epilepsy risk in 554genetic factors 28hippocampal neurogenesis 294multiple sclerosis 641post-stroke 607–8postictal 555spinal cord injury 620, 628–9traumatic brain injury 544

depression (neural)long term see long-term

depressionmechanisms in Aplysia 64–5short term see short-term

depressiondermatomyositis 80, 665–6descending pathwayschanges in injured spinal cord

179–80control of locomotion 167,

172–6control of spinal reflexes 85specific effects of

neurotrophins 407–8spinal cord plasticity after

lesions to 84stroke-related injury 86, 90–1voluntary motor control 55–7

descriptive studies 2desmopressin 424, 428developmentastrocyte function 368axon growth 114, 242–3


682 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 10: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

axon guidance 242–3, 302–8,357–60

neural cell 368neuromuscular synapse

remodeling 482neuronal cell death 255–8molecular regulation257–8

morphological features256–7

neurotrophic hypothesis 255,257, 400

retinotectal pathway 114–18somatosensory system

plasticity 79–80spinal cord plasticity 84–6trophic factors in neural 255

developmental ageaxonal growth after

transection and 12reinnervation of denervated

neurons and 16–17developmentally related axon

growth inhibitors 201,203

dexamethasone (DEX) 560dexamphetamine

see amphetaminesdexanabinol 539dexterity, manual see hand

functiondiabetes insipidus 541diabetes mellitusgastrointestinal dysfunction

429type II, spinal cord injury

624diabetic neuropathy 79, 81,

663–4diaphragmatic pacing 126diaschisis after stroke, recovery

from 12, 602diazepam 640dietitian 283differential learning 99–100diffuse axonal injury (DAI) 385,

399, 537diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)disorders of consciousness 399predicting stroke recovery

43–4, 90, 596with transcranial magnetic

stimulation 224traumatic brain injury 537

digital voice recorders 153dihydroergotamine 423–4L-threo-3-4-

dihydroxyphenylserine(L-DOPS) 424

disability assessment scale 313disinhibition (unmasking) 240somatosensory system injury

76, 78disorders of consciousness scale

(DOCS) 389–91, 399

distal axonal degeneration(DAD) 276–7

distributed network effects,noninvasive brainstimulation 222–3

dizziness, post-traumatic 544DKL-1 416donepezil 244, 479–80, 541, 641dopaminecontrol of locomotion 183, 344denervation supersensitivity 2reward learning 27

dopamine agonistsimpact on motor training 320locomotor recovery in spinal

animals 182Parkinson’s disease 567–8stroke rehabilitation 243–4traumatic brain injury 539–41unilateral neglect 469

dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH)deficiency 424

dopamine transporter gene 28L-DOPS (L-threo-3-4-


dorsal column lesionschondroitinase ABC therapy

159–60locomotor recovery in cats 169somatosensory system

plasticity 78–9dorsal funiculus, locomotor

control in rats 172–3dorsal premotor cortex

(PMd and prePMd) 53,99–100, 103

reorganization after stroke85–6, 89

voluntary motor control 55dorsal root ganglion (DRG)

neuronscAMP dependence of

conditioning lesion effect356

CSPGs and regeneration 382cytoskeletal proteins in

regenerating 423neurotrophins and

regeneration 403–4, 418see also sensory neurons

dorsal root injury,somatosensory systemplasticity 77

dorsolateral funiculus (DLF)lesions, locomotor recovery in

cats 169locomotor control in cats 167

Dosset boxes 484double blind clinical trials 234Down’s syndrome (DS) 259, 210,

370, 375Dragon (RGMb) 306–7dressingassessment in dementia 513

assistive technology 155dressing sticks 155drinking, assistive technology

156drivingspinal cord injury 625–7virtual reality applications

207–8drop foot see foot dropDrosophila melanogasteraxon guidance 303–4, 308specificity of synaptic

connections 323Wallerian degeneration 276

drug-induced myopathies 80dSarm 276Dscam 304, 323dual-task paradigmsAlzheimer’s disease 519balance control 112, 359virtual reality 205–7see also cognitive tasks,

secondaryDuncan, Carl 27–8dying back, axonal 276–7dynactins 422dynamic gait index 42, 112dynamic postural stability during

gait 109–10assessment 112treatments to enhance 114

dynamic post-urography 110–13dynamic splints 315dynamic turnover, principle of

16–17dynamic visual acuity (DVA)

testing 360–1dynamin-related protein 1

(DRP-1) 262–3dynein 422dysexecutive syndrome 489–91

see also executive dysfunctiondysmyelinated axons 457–67conduction abnormalities

459–60Na+ channels 461see also demyelinated axons

dysmyelination 457dysphagia 405–12causes 407disorders of consciousness

396–7evaluation see swallowing,

evaluationlearned non-use 411–12multiple sclerosis 648Parkinson’s disease 574pharyngeal stimulation 138,

245, 410–11recovery 409–10treatment 407–11acute phase 264alternative explanations ofeffects 412

effects on plasticity 409–11

multiple sclerosis 648negative effects 412outcome measures 409Parkinson’s disease 574rehabilitative 408–9stroke 609–10

dystonia 567, 574–9classification 574–5clinical features and diagnosis

576–7focal hand see hand dystonia,

focalgenetics 575–6medical and surgical treatment

577–8neurobiology 555, 576Oppenheim (DYT1) 575–6rehabilitation 578–9

dystrophic growth cones(dystrophic axons) 7,9–10, 376–8

cellular interactions 380stabilization by NG2+ cells

384DYT1 gene polymorphism 30

e-books 158early neurorehabilitation 261–72bed rest and its consequences

265–8clinical syndromes 262–3comorbidity and

complications 263–4critical illness 264–5interventions 268–71organization 271–2, 279–80upper extremity 270–1, 335–6

eating, assistive technology 156ecological validity 25economicsclinical pathways 73neurorehabilitation 285–6traumatic brain injury 535

ectopic impulse generation 460Edinburgh virtual errands test

(EVET) 206educationcontinuous team 72epilepsy 559falls prevention 114

educational leveldementia development and

509–10impact of epilepsy 551, 556–7spinal muscular atrophy 658–9

EEG see electroencephalographyeffect size 38ejaculation, retrograde 429elderlyauditory function 132–3carotid sinus hypersensitivity

425cognitive remediation studies

517–18dementia prevention 511


683Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 11: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

elderly (cont.)efficacy of aphasia

rehabilitation 444falls 105motor learning strategies 97stroke recovery 9see also aging

electric powered wheelchairs(EPW) 165–8

electrical feedback approaches528

electrical stimulationbiomimetic neural prostheses

542injured spinal cord in animal

models 183–4neuromodulation approaches

543–4paired associative, spastic

paresis 321see also brain stimulation,

functional electricalstimulation, peripheralnerve stimulation

electroconvulsive shock (ECS),memory dysfunction27–8

electrocorticography (ECoG)-based brain–computerinterfaces 549, 567

clinical use 577methods 568–9vs. intracortical BCIs 578

electrodesfunctional electrical

stimulation systems121–2, 254–5

implantable 121–2, 255intracranial brain–computer

interfaces 577–9surface 121, 254–5see also microelectrodes,

implantedelectrodiagnostic tests 77–82spinal cord injury 617–19see also electromyography,

nerve conductionstudies

electroejaculation 130, 430, 631electroencephalography (EEG) 565after stroke 87predicting recovery from brain

injury 399electroencephalography (EEG)-

based brain–computerinterfaces (BCIs) 549, 567

methods 567–8vs. intracortical BCIs 578

electromyography (EMG) 77–82assessment of weakness 77–80basic principles 77gait analysis 62, 81, 343interpretation of report 81in movement 80–1outcome assessment 81–2

powered orthoses using 184spinal cord injury 619surface (SEMG) 80–1

electronic aids for daily living(EADLs) 152

electronic memory aids 483–4eMagin head-mounted display

(HMD) 200–1embodied cognition theory 441embryonic stem (ES) cellsderived motor neurons, spinal

cord transplants 444–5directed differentiation 437isolation and properties 439neural induction 439spinal cord transplants 442,

449, 589emotional disorders

see psychiatric disordersemploymentafter temporal lobectomy 562epilepsy and 551, 556–8polio patients 660

encephalopathy of prematurity211

endocrine dysfunctionspinal cord injury 624traumatic brain injury 541

endoneurial tubes, peripheralaxon regeneration along473–4

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)stress 262, 264–7

enduranceimmobility and 270local muscular 331walking tests measuring 42

endurance training, multiplesclerosis 646–7

energy conservation course,multiple sclerosis 648

energy expenditure 374–8biomechanical and metabolic

factors 374–6effects of rehabilitation 377–8factors affecting 376–7

enriched environmentsadult neurogenesis and 289stroke recovery and 603

enrichment strategies,rehabilitation trials 5

enteral nutrition see tube feedingenteric nervous system 415entrainment enhancement,

noninvasive brainstimulation 223

entrapment neuropathies 78environment 279enriched see enriched

environmentsinfluences on balance control

112environmental control devices/

units (ECUs) 150, 152,625

environmental cueing, memorydysfunction 515

environmental dependencysyndrome 490

environmental modificationfalls prevention 114–15memory dysfunction 485

environmental skill-buildingprogram (ESP) 527

ependymal cells 392injured spinal cord 448

Eph receptorsaxon guidance 306regulation of synaptogenesis

321, 323retinotectal pathway

development 116retinotectal pathway

regeneration 118–19ephedrine 423ephexin 359ephrins 203axon guidance 306axon regeneration 309, 344,

359–60, 383changes after stroke 203regulation of synaptogenesis

321, 323retinotectal pathway

development 116retinotectal pathway

regeneration 118–19epidermal growth factor (EGF)astrocyte development 369neural precursor cell responses

287, 289epidural spinal cord stimulation

183–4, 548epigenetic adaptation, sound

localization cues 125–6epilepsy 550–63cognitive impairments 551–2,

557–8gene therapy 522impact on patients’ lives 550–1obstacles to personal and

social development 551–7pediatric see children, with

epilepsypost-traumatic 392, 542psychiatric disorders 550–1,

553–6, 558–60psychosocial problems 556–7,

559rehabilitation 550–63epilepsy surgery and 559–63need for 550strategies 557–9

surgery 559–63see also seizures

epileptic aphasia of childhood,acquired 550

epimysial electrodes 121, 255epinephrine (E)autonomic function 417

facilitation of memory 28plasma, orthostatic

hypotension 421–2epithelial V-like antigen (EVA-1)

305erectile dysfunction 429–30, 641ergometry, functional electrical

stimulation 125, 630ERGYS clinical rehabilitation

system 125ERK (extracellular-regulated

kinase) pathwayaxon injury 416axon regeneration and 356long-term potentiation 54neuronal survival 257

errorless learning 97–8aphasia 439dementia 515–17, 521–2executive dysfunction 482

erythropoietin 424, 539escaped fibers, during muscle

reinnervation 474–5,478–9

essential tremor (ET) 567, 569ethical issues, implanted neural

prostheses 550EVA-1 (epithelial V-like antigen)

305evoked potentialsdisorders of consciousness

390–1see also motor evoked

potentials; somatosensoryevoked potentials

excitability, brainafter stroke 197–9noninvasive brain stimulation

inducing 246excitatory postsynaptic potentials

(EPSP) 36EXCITE trial 335, 337, 606–7excitotoxicitycerebral palsy 214neurodegenerative diseases

261–2executive dysfunction 489–96clinical features 489–91noninvasive brain stimulation

227rehabilitation 492–6

executive function 489cognitive theories 491–2virtual reality applications

205–7exerciseamyotrophic lateral sclerosis

657brain reserve capacity and 509functional electrical

stimulation 125, 630induced hypotension 422inflammatory myopathies

665–6physiology of acute 367–8, 370


684 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 12: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

exercise capacity 367–74factors affecting 368–9measurement 368–9neurological disorders 369–72see also VO2 max

exercise trainingcritical illness myopathy 666energy costs of walking after

378genetic influences on response

28long-term adaptations 372in neurological disorders372–5

modes 372–3multiple sclerosis 373, 375,

646–7Parkinson’s disease 375, 570post-polio syndrome 659postural tachycardia syndrome

426recommendations 378stroke 9–10, 373, 375early phase 268–71

timing of onset 373see also treadmill training

expanded disability status scale(EDSS), Kurtzke 643

experience-dependent plasticitycerebral cortex 103–6disorders of consciousness 394genetic factors 29memory consolidation 31ocular dominance 160post-injury 108–9stroke recovery 12–15see also activity-dependent

plasticity, learningexperimental allergic

encephalomyelitis (EAE)axonal degeneration 278Na+ channel expression 461–2neuroprotection of axons 466stem cell therapies 587–8

experimental spinal cord injury232–3, 529, 531

bilateral staggered hemisection175–6, 182

clinical translation issues247–9

complete section see spinalcord transection

incomplete 169–76, 180locomotor recovery 161,

166–84, 349cat models 166–71, 348interventions stimulating180–4, 536–7

kinematic analysis seeunder kinematic analysis

mouse models 176–7olfactory ensheathing celltransplants 505

outcome measures 530,532–4

rat models 171–6spinal plasticity underlying177–80

locomotor training 61, 170–1,180–1, 184

lower vertebrates 330–4models and outcomes 530, 532nonhuman primates 537, 248sensorimotor outcome

assessment 529–37unilateral hemisection 532changes in 5-HT neurons179

changes in descendingpathways 179

locomotor recovery 169–71,173, 177

experimental study designs 2experimental treatmentsclinical trials see clinical trialscriteria for initiating human

studies 231–2expiratory muscle strength

training (EMST),Parkinson’s disease 574

explicit motor learning strategies97–8

extinction 160chronic musculoskeletal pain

291, 294–5extracellular matrix (ECM)effects of rehabilitation on 161injured nervous system 157–9,

243normal/uninjured nervous

system 155–7as therapeutic target, in spinal

cord injury 159–60, 244extracellular matrix (ECM)

moleculesaxon guidance cues 303–4inhibiting axon regeneration

243, 376–86secreted after stroke 201–3see also chondroitin sulfate

proteoglycansextubation 267eye movements, role in balance

359–60eye patches, neglect 468eyeblink conditioning 25–6,

29–30EyeToy, Sony PlayStation 200,

202, 209

F-actin (filamentous actin)301–2, 307–8

FAAST (flexible action andarticulated skeletontoolkit) 202

facial nerve injury,electrodiagnostic testing81–2

facilitated communication (FC)227

facilitation (neural) 36Ca2+-dependent mechanisms

41–2intermediate-term, in Aplysia

68long-term (LTF), in Aplysia

66–8quantal mechanisms 38synapse specificity 44–5vs. long-term potentiation 51see also sensitization

facilitation site models 41–2factorial study designs 235falls 105carotid sinus hypersensitivity

425fear of 110, 112prevention 112–15, 151–2Parkinson’s disease 572–3

traumatic brain injury 535vestibular dysfunction 363–4

familiar auditory sensorytraining task (FAST) 394

familycaregivers, dementia 523,

525–8epilepsy patients 559, 562nursing assistant interactions,

dementia 524support, disorders of

consciousness 393, 398fampridine see 4-aminopyridineFas–Fas ligand, neuronal death

257fatiguemultiple sclerosis 641traumatic brain injury 544

fearof falling 110, 112ictal 554–5

fear conditioning 26–7, 30chondroitinase ABC therapy

160feedbackelectrical 528facilitating sensory training

305gait training 66neglect rehabilitation 468,

471see also biofeedback, visual

feedbackfeeding behavior, Aplysia

69–70female reproductive dysfunction

430fetal neural precursor cells,

human, spinal cordtransplants 441

fetal spinal cord (FSC)transplants, spinal cordinjury 436–7

fetal tissue transplants, spinalcord injury 436–7

fibrinogen 344, 378

fibroblast growth factor-2(FGF-2) see basicfibroblast growth factor

fibroblast growth factors (FGFs),synaptogenesis 322

fibroblastsgeneration of neurons from

448olfactory ensheathing cell

populations 504fibromyalgia 290, 295fibronectin 158–9, 383fibrous scar 158–9Fick equation 367–8filopodiadendritic 318growth cone 301–2, 422–3

Finetech–Brindley (Vocare)bladder control system129–30, 428–9, 543

finger extension, post-stroke334, 596

finger-tapping task 85fingolimod 640fishadult neurogenesis 284–5axonal regeneration 118–19,

330–2retinotectal map development

114–15fitness, physical 269–70

see also exercise capacityflecainide, axonal

neuroprotection 466flexion-withdrawal reflexes 83,

535development 85–6

Flk1 see vascular endothelialgrowth factor receptor 2

floor effects, outcome measures41

Florida apraxia battery (FAB)456

fludrocortisone 422–3fluoxetine 29, 320fMRI see functional magnetic

resonance imagingfocal hand dystonia see hand

dystonia, focalFood and Drug Administration

(FDA) 449food preparation, assistive

devices 158food reaching and grasping tasks

534–6foot dropfunctional electrical

stimulation 125, 606motor neuroprostheses

256–8neural prostheses 547–8

footprint analysis 533–5foreign body response, implanted



685Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 13: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

forelimbamputations, somatosensory

reorganization 77injuries, motor cortex

plasticity 106motor recovery measures

534–5musculature, cortical

representations 99–100see also upper extremity

4.1N protein 55fractalkine (CX3CL1) 396fractalkine receptor (CX3CL1R)

396fragile-X syndrome 58free radicals 261–2Freehand System® 127–9,

258–9, 546, 630Frenchay arm test (FAT) 313frequency of rapid alternating

movements, of maximalamplitude 313

frequenin (NCS-1) 42Fresnel prisms 501frogsregeneration of retinal

ganglion cell axons118–19, 306, 334

retinal regeneration 333–4retinotectal map development

114–15spinal cord regeneration 333

frontal lobeexecutive function 489lesionsapraxia 450dysexecutive syndrome489–91

memory functions 31–2motor functions 53, 102–3

frontal lobe epilepsy 560frontotemporal dementia

260–1frontotemporal dementia with

parkinsonism linkedto chromosome 17(FTDP-17) 394

Fugl-Meyer assessment of motorperformance (FMA)

arm subscale (FM-A) 41, 338leg subscale (FM-L) 40–1

functional activities, virtualreality applications 207–8

functional assessment,sensorimotorsee sensorimotor functionassessment

functional connectivity analysis,aphasia 443

functional electrical stimulation(FES) 120–30, 555

applications 123–30, 546–8critical illness myopathy 666mechanisms of action 120–1motor neuroprostheses 253–6

spinal cord injury 125–30,630–1

functional recovery research125–6

functional uses 126–30therapeutic exercise 125

spinal muscular atrophy 658stimulation parameters 122–3stroke rehabilitation 124–5,

547–8, 605–6system components 121–2, 128see also neural prostheses

functional independencemeasure (FIM) 67

pattern of recovery after stroke591–3

predictive value in stroke 594functional magnetic resonance

imaging (fMRI) 84aphasia rehabilitation 442–3blindness 129–30stroke 13–14, 87–9predicting recovery 44–5,90–1

tactile perception 142–4transcranial magnetic

stimulation (TMS) with224

traumatic brain injury 537functional neuroimagingAlzheimer’s disease 510aphasia rehabilitation 442–3blindnessauditory spatial function127–30

visual cortical function 144disorders of consciousness 390praxis control 454stroke/focal brain injury 84–92cerebral reorganization13–14, 85–9, 196–7

choice of motor task 84–5predicting recovery 43–5,90–1

therapeutic interventions 90techniques 84transcranial magnetic

stimulation (TMS) with224

visual cortical function andtactile perception 142

see also specific modalitiesfunctional neuromuscular

stimulation (FNS)see functional electricalstimulation

functional reach test 110functional residual capacity

(FRC) 266

GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)effects of spinal cord injury

177–8retinotectal pathway

development 117–18

signaling after stroke 197–9somatosensory system injury

76GABAA receptor α-5 inverse

agonists, stroke recoveryand 198

GABAA receptors, spinal cordinjury 178

GABAergic neurons,replacement after spinalcord injury 446

gabapentin 428, 552–3, 623gaitcompensatory strategies after

stroke 15–16, 602dynamic stability during

see dynamic posturalstability during gait

speed see walking speedsee also locomotion; walking

gait analysis 62–3clinical relevance 42–3, 350electromyography (EMG) 62,

81, 343gait disorders 63–4, 343–51assistive technology 151–2hemiparesis 63–4, 346–8, 604paraparesis 64Parkinson’s disease 344–5spastic 345–8

gait trainer device 65, 190gait training 64–6applying learning theories

100–3approaches 64attentional focus and 102cues and feedback 66electromechanical and robotic-

assisted 190–5advantages 190–2devices available 190disadvantages 192multiple sclerosis 647subgroup analysis 193–4systematic review ofevidence 192–5

home based 66implicit 102neural repair strategies and 67Parkinson’s disease 66, 571–2pulse therapies 66rationale 61–2, 349spinal cord injury 184, 348–50rationale 61–2

stroke 190–5, 271, 348task-oriented 64–6variability of practice 102–3virtual reality applications 210see also treadmill training

games, computerexercise training 372rehabilitation robotics with

181–2gaming platforms, virtual reality

systems using 202

γ-aminobutyric acid see GABAγ-retrovirus gene vectors 515,

517gangliosides, myelin-associated

glycoprotein interactions352

GAP-43 (growth-associatedprotein-43) 10, 332, 424

gastroesophageal reflux 264gastrointestinal dysfunction

428–9spinal cord injury 429, 621see also bowel function

gastroparesis 429GAT-3/4 198gaze stabilityfunctional measurements 360role in balance control 359–60vestibular exercises 361

gene therapy 514–22ex vivo 514–15in vivo 514–15spinal cord injury 247, 518,

521trophic factor delivery 514–22limitations 522methodologies 514–17specific neurologicaldiseases 517–22

vector selection 516–17vectors 515–17

genetic factors 25–30attention to task 27–8axon regeneration in

adulthood 243depression 28learning 27less studied 29–30neuroplasticity 25–7therapeutic responses 28–9traumatic brain injury

outcome 537–8genitourinary evaluation, spinal

cord injury 621germinal matrix hemorrhage,

perinatal 211Geron Corporation 442, 449ghrelin 429Ginkgo biloba 480Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 389glatiramer acetate 640glial cells 367–73axon regeneration role 371–3lower vertebrates 333–4

CNS inflammation 392–3diversity, development and

functions 367–71Na+ channel transfer to axons

462–4regulation of synaptogenesis

322types 367, 392see also astrocytes; microglia;

oligodendrocyte(s);Schwann cells


686 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 14: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

glial-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF)

amyotrophic lateral sclerosisgene therapy 520

Huntington’s disease genetherapy 520

Parkinson’s disease genetherapy 519

peripheral axon regenerationand 403–4

peripheral neuron survival and402

spinal cord injurygene therapy 521with Schwann cell grafts 501

stroke gene therapy 522therapeutic potential 259

glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), traumatic braininjury 536

glial-restricted precursors (GRP)differentiation from

neuroepithelial cells 437isolation and properties 438–9spinal cord transplants 380,

441–7, 449glial scar 158–9, 376–86around implanted devices

557–8methods of studying 560–1strategies for minimizing559–60

cellular environment 379–81dystrophic axons 376–8formation 157–8, 360, 371,

378–9growth-inhibiting molecules

381–3growth-promoting molecules

383–4inhibition of axon

regeneration 360, 376–86molecular environment 381–4penumbra vs. core 384potential interventions 384–5protective role 376spinal cord injury 157–9

gliosis, reactive see astrogliosis,reactive

Gln-Tyr-Asn-Ala-Asp(QYNAD) peptide 460

globus pallidus internus (GPi)stimulation

dystonia 577–8Parkinson’s disease 543–4,

568–9glutamatecerebral palsy 212–14control of locomotion 182denervation supersensitivity 3enhanced uptake, long-term

sensitization 66long-term potentiation 52–5neurodegenerative diseases


stroke recovery and 198–9glutamate receptors (GluR)cerebral palsy 214long-term depression 55–7long-term potentiation 52–5metaplasticity 57neurodegenerative diseases

262role in locomotion 182subtypes 52–3synaptogenesis 319–20see also specific subtypes

glycine, spinal cord injury 177–8glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)

420glycoprotein 130 (gp130) 416–17glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) 156goal-attainment scaling 313goal-directed behavior 495–6goal selection and goal neglect

theory 492goldfish, neural regeneration

284–5, 331–2grab bars 151Gram-positive organisms,

cerebral palsypathogenesis 214

granular degeneration ofcytoskeleton, Walleriandegeneration 275

granule cells, hippocampal,newly generated 289–90

granulocyte colony-stimulatingfactor (G-CSF), stroketherapy 248

graspingmotor compensations after

stroke 600–2strategy, balance control 109systems restoring, in

tetraplegia 127–9tasks, animal models 534–6virtual reality applications

208, 210grating orientation tactile

discrimination task141–2

grid-walking test 533, 536GRIP1 protein 57grooming, assistive technology

155grooming test 534–5group B streptococcus (GBS),

cerebral palsypathogenesis 214

growth, axon see axon growthgrowth-associated proteins 424

see also GAP-43growth cones 301–2calcium and motility 422cytoskeleton 301–2, 422–3regulation 307–8

dystrophic see dystrophicgrowth cones

guidance see axon guidance

local protein synthesis 424modulating response to

guidance cues 308regenerating axons 423, 425

growth factorsdistal axonal degeneration 277neural induction of

pluripotent stem cells 439neural precursor cell responses

287–8neural stem cell differentiation

437–8therapeutic studies 248, 245see also neurotrophic factors;

specific factorsgrowth hormone deficiency 393,

541guanfacine 469guidelines, clinical practice 70Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS)

660–2electrodiagnostic testing 79, 81exercise capacity 370exercise training 375pathophysiology 459–60rehabilitation and outcome

660–2therapy in acute phase 660–1

gunshot wounds, head 385–6gustatory sweating 431

H-reflexesadaptive changes in normal life

86–8operant conditioning studies

88–91therapeutic applications of

conditioning 92H200 system see Ness H200

systemhabituation 23, 63neural mechanisms in Aplysia

64–5sensory, balance rehabilitation

112–13hand dystonia, focal 555, 576rehabilitation 578see also writer’s cramp

hand functionneuroprostheses, spinal cord

injury 127–9, 546–7strokechanging somatosensoryinput 246

compensatory strategies 16,600–2

functional electricalstimulation 124

predicting recovery 595–7virtual reality systems 208–10

hand function survey 300hand grip tasks, functional

neuroimaging 85handrails 151–2haptic discrimination

blindness 141neural basis of visual

involvement 143–4visual cortical involvement 142see also tactile perception

haptic feedback, virtual realitysystems 200–1

harnesses, for gait training 65Harrison, Ross Granville 301head and neck supports,

wheelchair 171–2head injury see traumatic brain

injuryhead mounted displays (HMD),

virtual reality systems199–201

head movementsmeasuring gaze stability

during 360vestibular control 108, 357–9

head-related transfer function(HRTF) 126

headachechronic tension 289post-traumatic 544see also migraine

hearing assessment, disorders ofconsciousness 395

hearing impairment 132–5auditory prostheses 544–5cochlear implants 133, 544–5cortical reorganization in

congenital 132during life span 132–3tinnitus and 134–5

heart diseaseexercise capacity and 369–71stroke patients 263, 268

heart rate (HR)during exercise 368training-induced changes 372VO2 max estimation 368

heat shock factors (HSFs) 264–6heat shock proteins (HSPs)

264–7heat stress response (HSR) 264–6Hebbian plasticity 50cortical motor systems 104development of visual

connections 116–18long-term potentiation 51–2NMDA receptor activation 53somatosensory system 76–7see also activity-dependent

plasticityhedgehog proteins 306hemi-cord syndrome

(Brown–Séquardsyndrome) 169, 617

hemineglect see neglect,unilateral

hemiplegia/hemiparesisafter temporal lobectomy

562–3anosognosia for 470


687Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

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hemiplegia/hemiparesis (cont.)assistive technology 152compensatory movements

15–16, 600–1corticospinal tract lesions 56functional electrical

stimulation 124–5gait disorder 63–4, 346–8peripheral nerve stimulation

137–8shoulder pain see shoulder

pain, hemiplegicthreshold joint angles 605upper extremity rehabilitation

330–9see also stroke

herbal remedies, memorydysfunction 480

hereditary spastic paraparesis(HSP) 277–8

herpes simplex virus (HSV)vectors 515, 517

heterotopic ossification (HO)543, 622–3

hierarchical substitution,principle of 16

high-load brief stretch (HLBS)315

high resolution perimetry (HRP)503–4

hip strategy, balance control108–9, 114

vestibular loss 357hippocampal formation 50hippocampusadult neurogenesis 288–90induced 292–3medical implications 294

architecture 50–1learning andmemory 25, 28–31long-term depression 55–6long-term potentiation 51–5neural precursor cells 285slice preparation 50–1

hippotherapy, multiple sclerosis647–8

HIV see humanimmunodeficiency virus

Holmes–Adie pupil 419, 431home automation systems 152home-based interventions,

dementia 527–8home environmentcontrol devices 150, 152falls prevention 114–15

homeostatic plasticity 2–3, 11–12horizontal fibers, motor cortex 104horizontal ladder test 533–4Horner’s syndrome 419hospital stay, duration, effects of

clinical pathways 72–35-HT see serotonin5-HTTLPR (serotonin-

transporter-linkedpolymorphic region) 28

human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-associatedperipheral neuropathy 277

human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-relatedmyopathy 80

huntingtin (Htt) 260, 264, 268Huntington’s disease (HD)apraxia 448, 457cell death mechanisms 259–61,

268gene therapy 518–20mitochondrial dysfunction 264rehabilitation 579

hyaluronic acid 243hyaluronidase 157hydrocephalus 393, 541–25-hydroxytryptamine

see serotonin25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD)

deficiency, Parkinson’sdisease 573

hyperacuity task, tactile see tactilehyperacuity task

hypercalcemia, immobilization624

hyperhidrosis 431hypertensionautonomic disorders 426–7supine 427

hypertensive subcorticalarterioscleroticencephalopathy 569

hyperthermia 431hypopituitarism, post-traumatic

393, 541hypotensionorthostatic (postural)

see orthostatichypotension

postprandial 422, 424hypothalamus, thermoregulation

430hypothermiaautonomic dysfunction 431therapeutic, traumatic brain

injury 538–9hypoxic-ischemic

encephalopathy 212, 214

IBB forelimb dexterity test 534,536

iceberg effect 76ICF see International

Classification ofFunctioning, Disabilityand Health

ideomotor apraxia test (IAT) 456imagery techniquesParkinson’s disease 571phantom limb pain 294unilateral neglect 469

imaging see neuroimagingimmersion, virtual reality

systems 198–9

immune response, activation 393impedance mismatch/matching,

demyelinated axons464–5

implantable electrodes 121–2,255

see also microelectrodes,implanted

implantable neuroprosthesessee neural prostheses

implanted pulse generator (IPG)122

implicit motor learning strategies97–8, 102

importins 416impulse reflection 460IN-1 monoclonal antibody 340,

350, 355see also Nogo-A antibodies

inclusion body myositis (IBM)665–6

Independence 3000 IBOTTransporter 166–7

Independent Data MonitoringCommittee (IDMC) 235

induced pluripotent stem (iPS)cells

directed differentiation 437neural induction 439production and properties 439spinal cord transplants 445

infants, language and speechdevelopment 131

infections, maternal intrauterine212, 214–15

inferential study designs 2inferior parietal lobule (IPL),

blind humans 129–30inflammatory myopathies 80,

665–6inflammatory response 392–7α-synucleinopathies 394Alzheimer’s disease 393–4amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

395–6axon regeneration and 416–18cerebral palsy 214–15glial cells 392–3glial scar formation 378–9implanted neuroprostheses

542–3, 557–8microelectrode insertion

procedure 557microglial signaling in

resolution 396–7Parkinson’s disease 394signaling mechanisms 393–4tauopathies 394

inhibition (neural)after stroke 198impaired, in dystonia 576injured spinal cord 177–8non-invasive brain stimulation

inducing 246–7see also disinhibition

inhibitory postsynapticpotentials (IPSP) 36

inpatient rehabilitation facility(IRF) 286

instrumental activities of dailyliving (IADL), assistivedevices 157–8

instrumental learning see operantconditioning

insular cortex, changes afterstroke 85

insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1)

after stroke 201, 204gene therapy, amyotrophic

lateral sclerosis 520neural precursor cell responses

287, 290integrated care pathways

see clinical pathwaysintegrins 304, 358intellectual disability 58intensity of therapyaphasia 443–4disorders of consciousness

394stroke 9, 282–4, 335–6,

604intensive care unit (ICU) 262,

264–8intensive language action

therapies 440interdisciplinary model 281interferon-β-1a 640interferon-β-1b 640interferon-γ (IFN-γ) 378–9interhemispheric balance effect,

noninvasive brainstimulation 223

interhemispheric inhibition(IHI) 142–3

interhemispheric rivalry concept144–5

interim analysis 235interleukin-1 (IL-1) 215, 378,

538interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

(IL-1ra) 538interleukin-6 (IL-6) 416, 538interleukin gene polymorphisms

28, 538intermediate-term sensitization

and facilitation, inAplysia 68

intermittent catheterization (IC),spinal cord injury 621,623

internal capsulecorticospinal tract axons 55lesions, post-stroke hand

function and 596–7International Campaign for

Cures of Spinal CordInjury Paralysis (ICCP)449


688 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 16: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

International Classification ofFunctioning, Disabilityand Health (ICF) 278–9

multiple sclerosis 643outcome measures and 35,

236–7recovery and compensation

599–600stroke recovery and 7, 585–6

international conference onharmonization (ICH) 234

International Society for StemCell Research (ISSCR)449

international standards for theneurological classificationof spinal cord injury(ISNCSCI) 237–8, 617

interneurons (INs)Aplysia reflexes 64spinal, locomotor control 167,

169, 173interpositus nucleus (IP),

cerebellar 25–6interpretability, outcome

measures 38InterQual guidelines 286interrater reliability 36InterStim system, Medtronic 543intracortical brain–computer

interfaces (BCIs) 549,567, 569–70

advantages 577–9direct speech 579future engineering efforts

581–2motor 579–81problems of long-term use

556, 581–2tetraplegia 578–9see also microelectrodes,

implantedintracortical microstimulation

(ICMS) 101, 104–5intracranial brain–computer

interfaces (BCIs) 577–82future engineering efforts 581–2signal sources and electrode

types 577–9see also electro

corticography (ECoG)-based brain–computerinterfaces, intracorticalbrain–computerinterfaces

intramuscular electrodes 121–2,255

intraneural electrodes 255Intrarater reliability 36intrauterine infections, maternal

212, 214–15intravenous immunoglobulin

(IVIg) 660, 662–4intraventricular hemorrhage,

perinatal 211

invertebrateslearning 23nervous system regeneration

329–30see also Aplysia californica;

Caenorhabditis elegans;Drosophila melanogaster

ion channels, myelinated axons457–9

iPads, communication apps221–3, 225

IRE1 266IREX (Interactive

Rehabilitation Exercise)system 200, 209

ischemia, delayed neuronaldeath 6

ischemic nerve block, motorcortical plasticity 245

IST-12 upper extremityneuroprosthesis 547

item response theory (IRT)38–9

Jackson, Hughlings 439JAK-STAT pathway, axon

regeneration 417, 421Jebsen–Taylor test (JTT) of hand

function 245, 300jewelry 155JNK pathway 257, 401–2The Jogger 153Jun 422

kainate receptors (KAR) 52Kalman filter 580Kdr see vascular endothelial

growth factor receptor 2Kinect gaming system, Microsoft

200, 202kinematic analysisdeforming spastic paresis 314experimental spinal cord

injury 533cats 166, 168–70mice 176–7rats 171–4

motor compensation 605movements in virtual vs. real

environments 210kinematic impairment index

(KIM) 338–9kinesin 422knowledge, explicit vs. implicit

97–8Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) 414

L-DOPA see levodopaL-DOPS (L-threo-3-4-


L1 protein (L1CAM)axon guidance 305–6axon regeneration 332, 415,


L300 system, Ness 256Lambert–Eaton myasthenic

syndrome (LEMS) 80,664–5

lamellipodia, growth cone 301–2,422–3

lamininsafter spinal cord injury 158–9axon guidance 303–4, 308CSPG interactions 381–2glial scar 383receptors 304structure 303

lamotrigine 466, 552–3lampreyheterogeneity in neuronal

regenerative ability 331,415

neurofilaments in regeneratingaxons 331, 423

spinal cord regeneration 330–1Landau–Kleffner syndrome 550languageacquisition 129–31automatic-voluntary

dissociation 439disorders, acquired 437function after temporal

lobectomy 561loss vs. dysfunction 438–9post-stroke recoverynoninvasive brainstimulation 146–7, 227–9,247–8

pharmacotherapy 242–4training and practice effects241

processingholistic vs. localizationistapproaches 437–8

multisystemic interactions440–1

visual cortex in blindness147

see also aphasiaLAR (leukocyte antigen-related)

proteins 309, 322, 381–2Lashley, Karl 28, 107lateral funiculus, locomotor

control in rats 172–3lateral occipital complex (LOC)haptic shape perception 143–4normal tactile perception

142–3tactile perception in blindness

145laterality index (LI), predicting

stroke recovery 44–5Laufband therapy see body

weight-supportedtreadmill training

learned non-useaphasia 439dysphagia 411–12traumatic brain injury 544

learningin Alzheimer’s disease 510,

518–22associative see associative

learningcellular and molecular

mechanisms 22–32, 58,63–71

Aplysia 63–71extracellular matrix 157

in cognitive impairment515–17

in dementia 517–22differential 99–100elementary forms 63enhanced, memory deficits

481–2errorless see errorless learningexplicit vs. implicit 97–8, 102genetic influences 27instrumental see operant

conditioningmodulating chronic pain

290–1motor see motor learningnonassociative

see nonassociativelearning

probabilistic 24rehabilitation and 71sensorimotor or cognitive

skills 23–4sensory retraining and 303,

305–6stimulus–response (S–R) 24stroke recovery and 197–9transfer, facilitating 306see also conditioning, memory

learning theoriesaphasia rehabilitation 439applied to gait training 100–3dementia rehabilitation

515–17Lee Silverman voice therapy

(LSVT), Parkinson’sdisease 573–4

leeches, axon regeneration329–30

leisure activitiesassistive devices 158virtual reality applications 208

Lennox–Gastaut syndrome 560lentivirus gene vectors 515, 517leucine-rich repeat kinase 2

(LRRK2) 260, 395leucine-rich repeat

transmembrane proteins(LRRTMs) 321–2

leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)417

levodopa (L-DOPA)effects on locomotor activity

168, 183impact on motor training 320multiple system atrophy 424


689Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 17: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

levodopa (L-DOPA) (cont.)Parkinson’s disease 567–8stroke rehabilitation 243–4

Lewy bodies 260, 395dementia with (DLB) 569

Liepmann, H. 447Life-H test 42light stimulationretinotectal pathway

development and 117–18retinotectal pathway

regeneration and 119LILRB2 (leukocyte

immunoglobulin-likereceptor B2) 353

limbic system, role in tinnitus134–5

limits of (postural) stability 105–7assessment 110treatment for reduced 112

lineage-restricted progenitors(or precursors) 437

isolation and properties 438–9terminology 284, 435see also glial-restricted

precursors, neuronal-restricted precursors

linear discriminant analysis(LDA) 581

linear summation model,facilitation 41

Lingo1 204, 309, 342, 353link protein 157lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 214liposomes 515–16lizardsadult neurogenesis 284axon regeneration 119, 334

local field potentials (LFPs),brain–computerinterfaces 567, 570

locked-in syndrome 262, 387–8locomotioncentral pattern generator

see central patterngenerator (CPG),locomotor

control in humans 343–4, 346,348

energy expenditure during374–8

spinal cord injury seeunder experimentalspinal cord injury; spinalcord injury

see also gait; treadmilllocomotion; walking

locomotor disorders see gaitdisorders

locomotor experience appliedpost-stroke (LEAPS)trial 65

locomotor trainingexperimental spinal cord injury

61, 170–1, 180–1, 184, 348

humans see gait traininglocus ceruleus cell transplants,

spinal cord injury 437Lokomat system 65, 190, 210long-term depression (LTD)

55–8cerebellar 26, 56–7extracellular matrix

components and 157hippocampal 55–6learning and memory and 58limitations of studies

investigating 57–8as mechanism of human

neuroplasticity 241metaplasticity and 57neuropathological insights 58

long-term facilitation (LTF),in Aplysia 66

long-term memory see memory,long-term

long-term potentiation (LTP)50–5, 57–8

classical conditioning inAplysia and 68–9

expression, mechanisms 53–5extracellular matrix

components and 157functional electrical

stimulation and 120–1glutamate and glutamate

receptors 52–5Hebbian properties 51–2heterosynaptic 51homosynaptic 51induction, mechanisms 53–4learning and memory links 58limitations of molecular

studies 57–8as mechanism of human

neuroplasticity 241–2metaplasticity and 57neuropathological insights 58newly generated hippocampal

granule neurons 289pathway, neuron and synapse

specificity 51relationship with long-term

depression 56stroke recovery and 197

long-term sensitization, Aplysia66–8

Lou Gehrig’s diseasesee amyotrophic lateralsclerosis

lower extremity, botulinum toxininjections 319

lower extremity functionassessment 313–14, 349–50paraplegia 627–8stroke 604predictive value 595

see also standing; walkinglower extremity rehabilitationdeforming spastic paresis 318

early onset 271functional electrical

stimulation 126–7, 630motor neuroprostheses 256–9neural prosthetic systems

547–8robotics, orthotics, and

prosthetics 190–5stroke 604–7virtual reality applications 210see also gait training

lower motor neuron lesions,electrodiagnostic testing78–80

LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeatkinase 2) 260, 395

LRRTM (leucine-rich repeattransmembrane) proteins321–2

LTD see long-term depressionLTP see long-term potentiationlumbar spinal cordlocomotion in cats 168–9locomotion in rats 171–2, 175

lumbar support, wheelchairs171

lysosomes 267

M1 see primary motor cortexmacroautophagy 267

see also autophagymacrophagesglial scar formation 378, 381regulation of activity 393responses to implanted devices

557–8zymosan-induced activation

385see also microglia

MAG see myelin-associatedglycoprotein

magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)

functional see functionalmagnetic resonanceimaging

parkinsonism 568spinal cord injury 619–20traumatic brain injury 536–7see also diffusion tensor

imagingmagnetic resonance spectroscopy

(MRS), traumatic braininjury 537

magnetoencephalography(MEG) 84

MAGUK (membrane-associatedguanylate kinase) familyproteins 55

male sexual dysfunction 429–30Maloney murine leukemia virus

(MLV) 515mammalian target of rapamycin

see mTORmanual dexterity task 105–6

MAPK (mitogen-activatedprotein kinase), long-term sensitization 67

maternal intrauterine infections212, 214–15

matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) 157–8, 383–4

maximal frequency of rapidalternating movements313

maximal oxygen consumptionsee VO2 max

mechanical in-exsufflator(MI-E) 622

mechanical ventilation 265–7amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

657Guillain–Barré syndrome 661weaning from 267–8

mechanosensitivity, increased460

medial geniculate nucleus, role intinnitus 134

medial temporal lobe, learningand memory 24, 28–9

median nerve section,somatosensory systemchanges 78

median nerve stimulationcortical effects 137paretic hand in stroke 137–8

medical alert tags 153medical model 280Medicarefunding of communication

devices 223see also Centers for Medicare

and Medicaid Servicesmedication reminders 153,

157–8, 484medications, impact on motor

recovery 319–20Medtronic InterStim system 543medulla, parapyramidal region

(PPR), control oflocomotion 172, 182

melodic intonation therapy(MIT) 440, 442

memantine 244, 480memory 478–9associative 24–6cellular mechanisms 22–32, 58consolidation 27–8declarative (explicit) 28–32,

479animal studies 29–31human observations 28–9

extracellular matrix function157

hippocampal neurogenesisand 290

intermediate-term, in Aplysia68

long-term 478–9categories 22–3


690 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 18: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

mechanisms in Aplysia66–8

nonassociative 23nondeclarative (implicit) 23–8priming 24procedural 23–4processing in Alzheimer’s

disease 510prospective 479, 484, 491reconsolidation 31semantic, neocortical storage

31–2somatosensory pain 290–1stroke recovery mechanisms

and 197–9working (short-term)

see working memorysee also learning

memory aids, external 153–4,483–5

memory awareness ratingscale–adjusted (MARSA)513–14

memory books, personalized524

memory dysfunction 478–85after temporal lobectomy

560–1compensatory strategies

481–5epilepsy 558frontal lobe lesions 490–1rehabilitation strategies 478restitution-oriented therapies

479–81traumatic brain injury 540–1virtual reality applications

204–5memory glasses 484memory training 480–1dementia 518–20, 526healthy elderly 518

mental health problemssee psychiatric disorders

mesencephalic locomotor region(MLR) 169, 175

mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)448, 587, 591

spinal cord transplants 589transplants in multiple

sclerosis 587–8transplants in stroke 590–1

mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS)559–60

metabolic equivalents (METs)369–70

training effects 372, 375metabolic syndrome 369metabotropic glutamate

receptors (mGluRs) 52–3long-term depression 56–7metaplasticity 57

metaplasticity 57critical period of, after stroke


1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP)-inducedparkinsonism 260

methylphenidatedementia 528disorders of consciousness

393, 539genetic influences on response

28post-stroke depression 608traumatic brain injury 539–40

methylprednisolone 502, 629–30,639–40

microautophagy 267microelectrodes, implanted

556–8brain tissue responses 542–3,

557–9dexamethasone-releasing 560insertion-mediated damage

555–7intracranial brain–computer

interfaces 577–9materials 556recording by 541–2, 556reducing stiffness 559–60see also electrodes

microglia 367Alzheimer’s disease 393–4cerebral palsy 212–15implanted device responses

542, 557–9inflammatory response 392–4Parkinson’s disease 394–5regulation of activity 393role in axonal regeneration

372–3signaling in neuroprotection

396–7microtubules (MT)axonal transport 422growth cone 301–2, 423regenerating axons 423–4

microwave ovens 158micturition control see bladder

controlmicturition syncope 425middle occipital gyrus (MOG),

blindness 129–30middle temporal (MT) complexcross-modal motion perception

in blindness 146–7normal cross-modal motion

perception 142midodrine 423migraine 293mild cognitive impairment

(MCI)deep brain stimulation 528virtual reality applications 205see also dementia

military traumatic brain injury 535Milliman Care guidelines 286mind mapping technique 482

minimal clinically importantdifference (MCID)38, 41, 236

minimal detectable change(MCD) 41

minimally conscious state (MCS)263, 387–8

diagnosis of emergence 389emergence and prognosis 398experience of pain 393incidence and prevalence 388

minimization principle 603minocycline, microelectrode

insertion and 560mirror therapy 148, 294mitochondriaaxonal degeneration and 277dysfunction in

neurodegenerativediseases 262–4

fission and fusion 262–3neuronal cell death and 257–8,

263presynapticCa2+ extrusion 37, 40, 42–3Ca2+ uptake 37, 40, 44regulation of energy supply44

mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) 263mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) 263mutations 277

mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), long-termsensitization 67

mitophagy 268mitoxantrone 640mixed reality stroke rehabilitation

system 338–9mnemonics 483mobile electronic devicesassistive technology 157, 159communication apps 221–3,

225memory aids 153, 483–4virtual reality-based

rehabilitation 212see also cell phones,

smartphonesmobility devices 64, 156–7electric powered 165–8see also wheelchairs

mobility impairmentmultiple sclerosis 640–1recovery after stroke 593see also locomotion, motor

impairments, walkingmobility scooters 157, 166mobilizationcritical illness myopathy 666early post-stroke 268–9

modafinil 540, 641Molaison, Henry 28–9Molyneux, William 140monoamine oxidase B inhibitors


mossy fibers 26motion sensitivity quotient

(MSQ) 362motor abundance 602–5motor activity log (MAL) 338motor adaptation 8motor brain–computer interfaces

579–81continuous decoders 579–80discrete decoders 580–1

motor compensationafter brain damage 600–2definition 8maladaptive 603–4measurement 605mechanisms 602–5stroke recovery and 15–16, 595

motor controldisrupted, Parkinson’s disease

571voluntary see voluntary motor

controlmotor cortex 99–110adult neurogenesis 292–3functional organization

99–103nomenclature 99–100non-primary areas (NPMAs)

53–5functional organization101–3, 53–5

reorganization after braininjury 55, 85–9

plasticity after deafferentation245

plasticity of motor maps103–9, 13

behavioral experiencemodulating post-injury108–9


post-injury 106–8post-stroke 106, 108, 196,13–14, 85–9

role in rehabilitation 109–10primary see primary motor

cortexsomatotopic organization 101strokeaxon sprouting 197, 199–200functional changes 106, 108,196

transcranial direct currentstimulation 247–8see also specific areas

motor equivalence 602–3motor evoked potentials (MEPs)

141–3spinal cord injury 618–19stroke 43

motor functioncerebral see cerebral motor

functionsearly rehabilitation 268–71


691Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 19: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

motor impairmentsassistive technology 151–2brain–computer interfaces

570–2, 579–81communication devices 224Parkinson’s disease 570–1virtual reality applications

208–10motor learning 95–103Alzheimer’s disease 520attentional focus effects 96–7definition 104Fitts and Posner’s (standard)

model 95–6implicit vs. explicit knowledge

97–8motor cortex plasticity 104noninvasive brain stimulation

and 145principles, rehabilitation study

designs 5–6Schmidt’s schema theory 99theories applied to treadmill

training 100–3variability of practice 98–100context-conditionedvariability 98–9

differential learning 99–100see also motor skill acquisition

motor neglect 465motor neuron disease

see amyotrophic lateralsclerosis

motor neurons/motoneurons(MNs)

activity-dependent plasticity88–90

Aplysia reflexes 64changes after spinal cord

injury 177cortical see cortical

motoneuronsdiseases of 655–60fetal spinal cord transplants 437genetically engineered

progenitors 448neurotrophins and

regeneration after injury402–3

reinnervation of musclesee muscle, reinnervation

replacement, spinal cordinjury 444–5, 448

trophic factors in development255

motor neuroprostheses (MNP)253–9

functional electricalstimulation 253–6

orthotic uses 253principles of action 253systems for restoring limb

function 256–9therapeutic uses 253see also neural prostheses

motor recoverybrain injury, motor cortex

reorganization 52–3, 55compensation and 599–605ICF definitions 599–600importance of spared territory

57medications influencing

319–20spinal cord injury 625nonhuman primates 537preclinical measures 532–5

strokeAMPA receptor signaling198–9

Brunnstrom stages 603–4compensatory strategies15–16

cortical map plasticity13–14

neuroimaging for predicting43–5

noninvasive brainstimulation therapy 247–8

pharmacologicalinterventions 242–3

somatosensory input and244–5

spontaneous 592training and practice effects241

transient regional anesthesia246

upper extremity 333–4see also stroke recovery

traumatic brain injury 544motor restoration, neural

prostheses 546–50motor skill acquisitiondefinition 104motor cortex plasticity 105–6Schmidt’s schema theory 99spinal cord plasticity 91in normal life 86–8operant conditioning studies88–90

see also motor learningmotor systemredundancy and abundance in

602–5voluntary motor control 51–7

motor tasks, functionalneuroimaging 84–5

motor trainingdeforming spastic paresis

316–18impact of systemic

medications 319–20neural consequences 317–18pharmacological interventions

with 242–3role in functional recovery

241timing 318

motor unit recruitment

electrically induced 120, 254strength and 330

motor unit transformation,spastic gait 347

motor vehicle collisions 535, 615Move, Sony PlayStation 202movement disorders 567–79electric powered mobility

devices 167–8see also dystonia, Parkinson’s

diseaseMPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-

1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine)-inducedparkinsonism 260

mTOR (mammalian target ofrapamycin)/mTORpathway

axon regeneration 11, 345,357, 379, 419–20

Huntington’s disease 268Muller glia 368multidisciplinary model

280–1multiple brain trauma/lesions,

noninvasive brainstimulation 225–6

multiple object test 456multiple sclerosis (MS) 637–49clinical features 637diagnosis 637–9exercise capacity 369–70pathogenesis 637axonal degeneration 278, 466conduction abnormalities459

Na+ channel blockingfactors 460

Na+ channel expression461–2, 464

rehabilitation 641–9evaluating outcome 642–3exercise training 373, 375,646–7

multidisciplinary 643–6noninvasive brainstimulation 227

specific modalities 646–9treatment 638–41axonal neuroprotection 466disease-modifying 640potassium channel blockers459, 640–1

relapses 638–40stem cell therapies 586–8,592

symptomatic 640–1multiple sclerosis functional

composite (MSFC) 643multiple system atrophy (MSA)

419, 569diagnosis 422gastrointestinal dysfunction

429orthostatic hypotension 424–5

Parkinson variant (MSA-p) 569supine hypertension 427urinary dysfunction 428

multipotent progenitor cells(multipotent stem cells)

glial scar 380isolation and properties

437–8terminology 283–4, 435transplants, spinal cord injury

440–1see also neural stem cells

MUNC-13 43MUNC-18 321, 323muscarinic receptors 415muscledenervation supersensitivity 2effects of bed rest 265–8effects of stretch 314excessive extrasegmental

co-contraction 312functional electrical

stimulation 120length–force relationship

330–1power 331reinnervation 474–84causes of failure 484damaged/regeneratedmuscle fibers 479–81

endoneurial tubes guiding473–4

escaped fibers 474–5, 478–9guidance of nerve sprouts481

guidance of Schwann cellgrowth 481

molecular mechanisms484–6

reoccupation of synapticsites 481–2

from severed nerve 475–6sprouting of nerve terminal475–6

study methods 474vital imaging 476–9

spastic overactivity 312local treatments 318–19transcranial magneticstimulation and 320

see also spasticitystrength see strengthweakness see weaknesssee also neuromuscular

junctionsmuscle contractures

see contracturesmuscle diseases 80, 665–6muscle fibersdamaged, reinnervation

479–81newly generated, innervation

481muscle-specific tyrosine kinase

(MuSK) 317


692 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 20: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

muscle toneassessment 542Parkinson’s disease 345spasticity 346–7

muscular efficiency, walking 376musculoskeletal assessment,

spinal cord injury 620musculoskeletal pain, chronicamyotrophic lateral sclerosis

657behavioral interventions

294–5cortical reorganization 289–91post-polio syndrome 660

music interventions, dementia526–7

musical abilities, acquisition131–2

musician’s cramp 577–8myasthenia gravis (MG) 80, 664myelin 369inhibition of axon

regeneration 339–40peripheral pattern 497

myelin-associated axonal growthinhibitors 243, 309,339–46, 349–54

changes after stroke 203–4genetic studies 342–3molecular identification 340–2other 344–5prototypic see myelin-

associated glycoprotein,Nogo, oligodendrocytemyelin glycoprotein

receptors 341–2, 352–3signaling pathway 309–10,

341–2, 354, 359sprouting vs. regeneration 343–4synaptic plasticity and 345as therapeutic target 354–5,

244–5myelin-associated glycoprotein

(MAG) 203, 341–2,351–60

axon growth inhibition 309,351, 418–19

axonal degeneration anddemyelination 278–9

gene knockout studies 343receptors 341–2, 352–3signaling pathway 204,

309–10, 341–2, 354stroke 204

myelin basic protein (MBP),traumatic brain injury 536

myelinated axons 457action potential conduction

457, 459molecular organization 457–9neuroprotection in

demyelinating diseases 466myelinationby grafted olfactory

ensheathing cells 506–8

see also demyelination,remyelination

myoelectric control, implantedupper extremityneuroprostheses 546–7

Myomo e100 robotic system 178,183–4

myopathies 80, 665–6myosin light chain kinase

(MLCK) 43

N-cadherin (NCAD) 425, 484N-methyl-D-aspartate

see NMDANa+ see sodiumnail care 155nanoparticles, DNA delivery 516Narp 323narrow beam-walking test 533–4nasogastric (NG) tube, stroke

609–10natalizumab 640National Institutes of Health

Stroke Scale (NIHSS)591, 593–4

national joint committee for thecommunication needs ofpersons with disabilities225–6

NCAM see neural cell adhesionmolecule

necroptosis 257necrotic cell death 256need-driven dementia-

compromised behavior(NDB) model 524

neglect, unilateral 463–9anosognosia for 470–1assessment 463–5neuroanatomy 463–4noninvasive brain stimulation

147, 231–2specific modalities 465treatment 465–9, 610–11virtual reality applications

204negotiated equilibrium concept,

spinal cord 90, 92nematodes see Caenorhabditis

elegansneoassociationist approach,

aphasia rehabilitation 440neocortexadult neurogenesis 286, 290,

292–3learning and memory 31–2see also cerebral cortex

neogenin 307, 415neonatal brain injury

see perinatal brain injurynerve conduction studies (NCs)interpretation of report 81lower motor neuron lesions

78–80outcome assessment 81–2

spinal cord injury 619wheelchair users 161see also conduction

nerve cuff electrodes 122, 255nerve electrodes 255nerve growth factor (NGF) 400Alzheimer’s disease gene

therapy 517–19cellular actions 400–1Parkinson’s disease gene

therapy 519peripheral axon regeneration

and 403–4peripheral neuropathy therapy

521receptor 400signal transduction 401spinal axon regeneration and

408, 418spinal cord injury, gene

therapy 502, 521therapeutic studies 385

nerve regeneration see peripheralnerve regeneration

nerve terminal sprouting,Schwann cells mediating475–6

Ness H200 system 124, 129,256

Ness L300 system 256nestin 292NET (norepinephrine

transporter) gene 30netrins 203axon regeneration 310, 344,

358changes after stroke 203developmental axon guidance

304receptors 304synaptogenesis 322–3

network effects, distributed,noninvasive brainstimulation 222–3

networked neuroprosthesis(NNP) 549–50, 130

NeuN 288–9neural cell adhesion molecule

(NCAM) 306, 383, 425neural precursor cells (NPC)adult CNS 283–95endogenous, for cell

replacement 294–5,448–9

generation from pluripotentstem cells 439

glial scar 380heterogeneity 284hippocampal neurogenesis

288–90isolation and culture in vitro

290–1lineage-restricted see lineage-

restricted progenitorsmedical relevance 294–5

methodological issues of invivo study 291–2

motor neuron generation from448

olfactory bulb neurogenesis286–7

populations in adult CNS285–6

terminology 283–4, 435transplantation 285–6, 439–49see also neural stem cells;

neurogenesis, adult;progenitor cells

neural prostheses (biomimetic,implantable) 120, 541–50

brain responses 554–61foreign body/inflammatory542–3, 557–8

insertion-mediated damage555–7

methods of studying 560–1neurodegenerative 556–8plastic 555strategies for addressing559–60

current clinical applications554–5

interface features 541–3recording 541–2, 556stimulation 542

motor restoration 546–50integrated control 548–50lower extremity function547–8

natural volitional control549–50

upper extremity function546–7

neuromodulation throughstimulation 543–4

selectivity–invasivenesstradeoff 556

sensory restoration 544–6social and ethical issues 550spinal cord injury 546–7, 630bladder control 543integrated motor controlsystems 549

standing and walking547–8

upper extremity function546–7

see also functional electricalstimulation, motorneuroprostheses

neural repairstrokeparallelogram concept205–7

principles of 196–207vs. compensation 8–9

neural stem cells (NSCs)adult CNS 283–4, 586–7development and properties

437–9, 591


693Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 21: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

neural stem cells (NSCs) (cont.)generation from pluripotent

stem cells 439multipotent see multipotent

progenitor cellsplanarians 329subgranular zone (type-1 cells)

288terminology 283–4, 435transplantsmemory dysfunction 479multiple sclerosis 586–7spinal cord injury 588–9stroke 590see also stem cell therapies

see also neural precursor cells,pluripotent stem cells

NeuralStem Inc. 441, 450neuregulin 485neurexins 67, 321–3neuro-eye therapy (NeET)

502–5neurobehavioral sequelae,

traumatic brain injury543–4

neurocan 157, 381secretion after stroke 202

NeuroControl Corporation(NCC) 128–30, 546

see also Freehand System®neurodegeneration, at

electrode–brain interface556–9

strategies for minimizing559–60

neurodegenerative diseasesneurogenesis theory 294neuronal dysfunction and

death 258–69noninvasive brain stimulation

226–7, 231, 234neuroelectric blocking factors 460neuroepithelial (NEP) cellsisolation and properties 437–8transplantation studies 441

neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) 394neurofilaments (NFs)axonal transport 422demyelination and 278distal axonal degeneration 277regenerating axons 331, 423Wallerian degeneration 274

neurogenesis, adult 1, 283–95brain lesions/stroke 204–5consequences of disturbed

293–4defined 284discovery in mammals 285hippocampus 288–90induced in non-neurogenic

regions 292–3lack of constitutive cortical 290medical relevance 294–5methodological aspects of in

vivo studies 291–2

non-mammalian vertebrates284–5

normally non-neurogenicregions 286

olfactory bulb 286–7regions in brain 285–6spinal cord injury 448–9stroke 12–13, 204–5see also neural precursor cells,

neural stem cellsneuroglycan 2 (NG2) 157, 381neuroimagingdisorders of consciousness 390functional see functional

neuroimagingparkinsonism 568spinal cord injury 619–20traumatic brain injury 536–7

neuroligins 67, 321neurolinguistic-cognitive

approach, aphasiarehabilitation 440

neurological assessment, spinalcord injury 617

neuromuscular disorderselectrodiagnostic testing 80rehabilitation 655–66

neuromuscular electricalstimulation (NMES)see functional electricalstimulation

neuromuscular junctions (NMJ)aging animals 480–1developmental remodeling 482diseases of 655, 664–5remodeling after muscle fiber

damage 480Schwann cell role in

remodeling 482Schwann cell territories 482–4Schwann cells and axonal

reoccupation 481–2synapse formation 317

neuron(s)collaterals see collaterals,

neuronalcontralateral, axon sprouting

after stroke 199–201denervated see denervationgrowth inhibitors see axon

growth inhibitorsmolecular signaling of axon

injury 416responses to injury 1–7, 413trophic factors in development

255neuron-intrinsic determinants of

regeneration 413–26developmental loss 414, 425extrinsic modulation 416–19gene expression state 243heterogeneity 414–15intrinsic modulation 419–22site of injury and 415therapeutic modulation 245

vs. extrinsic inhibitors 345neuronal atrophyrescue 415retrograde, after axotomy 4–6transneuronal, after

denervation 3–4neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 (NCS-1)

42neuronal connectionsectopic, regenerating axons 10effects of injury 1–2reorganization after injury

8–17, 199–201neuronal death 255–69after axotomy 4–6after denervation 4around implanted devices 557,

559strategies for minimizing559–60

autophagic (type 2)see autophagy

cascading 6cytoplasmic (type 3) 256–7delayed, after ischemia 6developmental 255–8molecular regulation 257–8morphological features256–7

mechanisms inneurodegenerativediseases 261–9

neuropathological role 258–61newly generated cells in adult

brain 287, 290nuclear (type 1) 256p75NTF-mediated regulation

257, 401–2types 256–8see also neuronal survival

neuronal replacement therapiesbased on endogenous

precursors 295, 445spinal cord injury 443–8alternative sources of cells448

relay formation 446–8neuronal-restricted precursors

(NRP)differentiation from

neuroepithelial cells 437isolation and properties 438spinal cord transplants 443–4,

446–7, 449neuronal survivalmolecular regulation 257–8neurotrophins and 402–3, 405regeneration programs and 415site of axotomy and 415see also neuronal death

NeuroPage 153, 483–4neuropathic paincortical reorganization 291–3GABAergic neuron

replacement 446

pharmacological therapy 295spinal cord injury 623

neurophysiological testsspinal cord injury 617–19see also electrodiagnostic tests

neuropilin 1 (Nrp1)after brain injury and stroke

203axon guidance 306regulation of axon

regeneration 358neuropilin-2, synaptic pruning

324neuropilins 305, 358neuropraxia, electrodiagnostic

testing 78, 81neuroprostheses see neural

prosthesesneuroprotectionaxonal, in demyelinating

diseases 466by enhanced somatosensory

input 136spinal cord injury 249

neuropsychologist 283neurorehabilitation

see rehabilitationneurospheres 290–1, 370, 441NeuroText 484neurotmesis, electrodiagnostic

testing 81neurotransmitter receptorsdenervated neurons 2–3injured spinal cord 178

neurotransmittersautonomic nervous system

415, 417facilitating synaptogenesis

318–19synaptic transmission 36asynchronous release 40phasic release 39quantal mechanisms 38

neurotrophic factors (NTFs,trophic factors)

delivery by gene therapy514–22

molecular signaling 257–8neuronal development 255,

258peripheral axon regeneration

485role in neuropathology

258–61Schwann cell grafts into spinal

cord and 501–2therapeutic potential 259, 245see also growth factors,

neurotrophin(s)neurotrophic hypothesis of

neural development 255,257, 400

neurotrophic tyrosine kinasereceptor (NTKR) genes30


694 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

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neurotrophin(s) (NTs) 400–8axon guidance 306axon regeneration 402–8, 418cellular actions 400–1family members 400hearing impairment 545peripheral nerve injury 402–5receptors 400signal transduction 400–1spinal cord injury 404–8, 418acute vs. chronic lesions 406cell survival effects 405changes in expression 405–6effects on specific fibertracts 407–8

functional effects 182, 406–7methods of administration406

neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) 400gene polymorphism 30peripheral nerve injuryaxon regeneration and403–4

cell survival effects 402–3peripheral neuropathy therapy

521receptor 400spinal cord injuryaxon regeneration and 385,406

fiber tract specificity 408functional effects 406–7gene therapy 406, 521with Schwann cell grafts 501

neurotrophin-4 (NT-4, NT-4/5)400

axon regeneration after spinalcord injury 408

cell survival after spinal cordinjury and 405

receptor 400neurovascular niche, post-stroke

neurogenesis 205NeuroVR 201neurturin (NTN) 519–20NeuRx Diaphragm Pacing

System® 126newts, adult neurogenesis 284NFIL3 (nuclear factor regulated

by IL-3) 421–2NG2 (neuroglycan 2) 157, 381NG2+ cells 286glial scar 380role in axonal regeneration

372–3stabilization of dystrophic

growth cone 384see also oligodendrocyte

precursor cellsnicotinamide mononucleotide

acetyltransferasessee Nmnat1, Nmnat2,Nmnat3

Nintendo Wii 201–2, 209–10nitric oxide (NO)

autonomic function 417neurodegenerative diseases

261–2NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate),

initiation of locomotion171, 181

NMDA antagonists, traumaticbrain injury 539

NMDA receptors (NMDA-R) 52associative learning in Aplysia

68–9cerebral palsy 214fragments, traumatic brain

injury 536locomotion control 181–2long-term depression 55–6long-term potentiation 53metaplasticity 57neurodegenerative diseases

262retinal ganglion cell axon

development 117retinal ganglion cell axon

regeneration 119synaptogenesis 319–21, 323–4

Nmnat1 275–6Nmnat2 276Nmnat3 276NOD-like receptors (NLRs),

Alzheimer’s disease 394nodes of Ranvier 369, 457action potential conduction

459remyelinated axons 464sodium channels 458

Nogo 203, 340–1, 350–1changes after stroke 204gene cloning 340–1gene knockout studies 342–3,

351inhibition of axon regeneration

309, 418–19inhibition of axon sprouting

343isoforms 340–1, 350neutralizing agents 342, 244–5receptors 341–2, 352–3signaling pathway 204,

309–10, 341–2, 354synaptic plasticity and 345

Nogo-A antibodiesdevelopment 340, 342, 350preclinical studies 80, 179, 340

Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) 204,341–2, 352

antagonists 342, 355co-receptors 309–10, 342,

352–3inhibition of axon

regeneration and 418signaling pathway 354synaptic plasticity and 345

Nogo receptor 2 (NgR2) 204,341–2, 352

Nogo receptors (NgR) 309, 342

inhibition of axonregeneration 309–10

noise exposure, loud 134nonassociative learning 23,

63–71Aplysia 23, 64–8emerging principles 71forms 63

non-convulsive status epilepticus(NCSE) 265

noninvasive brain stimulation(NBS, NIBS) 141–7

cognitive rehabilitation 146–7,219–35

choice of technique 221clinical evidence 227–31diagnostic applications223–4

focal lesions 225with other therapeuticinterventions 224–5

technical and otherchallenges 225–7

theoretical framework221–3

deforming spastic paresis320–1

dementia 528neurorehabilitation strategies

246–8combined approaches 248facilitation of lesionedhemisphere 247–8

inhibition of healthyhemisphere 247

safety 142stroke 143–7techniques 219, 246see also transcranial direct

current stimulation,transcranial magneticstimulation

non-traumatic spinal cord injury(NTSCI) 615

noradrenergic pathways, controlof locomotion 182–3

norepinephrine (noradrenaline)415, 417

inducing locomotor activity171, 183

plasma, orthostatichypotension 421–2

norepinephrine transporter(NET) gene 30

Notch 205, 448Nottingham sensory assessment

(NSA) 300NT see neurotrophin(s)NT-3 gene polymorphism 30NTKR (neurotrophic tyrosine

kinase receptor) genes 30nuclear factor regulated by IL-3

(NFIL3) 421–2nucleus accumbens 27, 135nursing assistants 524

nursing homes 285nutritional supportdisorders of consciousness 392see also tube feeding

O2A precursor cellssee oligodendrocytetype-2 astrocyte (O2A)precursor cells

object recognition, auditory129–32

occipital cortexauditory activation in

blindness 129–30, 132auditory object recognition in

blindness 132blood flow in blindness 127metabolic activity in blindness

144see also visual cortex

occupational therapist (OT) 283occupational therapy (OT)disorders of consciousness

397–8multiple sclerosis 648stroke 10

octreotide 424ocular dominance columns,

development 116–17ocular dominance plasticity 160odor discrimination 29odor perception, blindness 141olfactory axons, growth of new

502–3olfactory bulb, adult

neurogenesis 286–7olfactory ensheathing cells

(OEC), spinal cordtransplants 496, 502–8

A- and S-cell populations 504axon regeneration after 373,

405, 504–6migration after 503myelin formation 506–8rationale 502–3tunnel formation 504

olfactory feedback, virtual realitysystems 201

olfactory stimulation, visualcortex in blindness 147

oligodendrocyte(s) 367, 369–71axon regeneration role 372–3development 368–72function and diversity 369myelination role 7, 457remyelination 464–5replacementdemyelinating diseases 465spinal cord injury 441–2

trauma-induced death 6–8oligodendrocyte lineage cells (OLs)axon regeneration role 372–3mechanisms of perinatal

injury 212–15stages of development 212–13


695Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

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oligodendrocyte lineage cells (OLs)(cont.)vulnerability to perinatal

injury 212–13oligodendrocyte-myelin

glycoprotein (OMgp)203, 342, 351–2

after stroke 204gene knockout studies 343inhibition of axon

regeneration 309, 418–19receptors 341–2, 352–3signaling pathway 204,

309–10, 341–2, 354oligodendrocyte precursor cells

(OPCs) 367, 369–71,591

axon regeneration role 372–3cell surface markers 369–70glial scar 380injured spinal cord 448Schwann cell generation 373transplantsmultiple sclerosis 588spinal cord 441–2, 503, 589stroke 591–3

oligodendrocyte type-2 astrocyte(O2A) precursor cells368, 370, 438

transplant studies 441OMgp, OMG

see oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein

online cognitive trainingprograms 219

open label clinical trials 234OpenViBE system 572operant conditioning

(instrumental learning)27–8

dementia 515–17neural mechanisms in Aplysia

69–70pain-related responses 291spinal stretch reflexes/

H-reflexes 88–91opioid analgesics 623Optacon 141optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1)

263optic nerve 114damage, regeneration afterlower vertebrates 118–19,306, 332, 334

signaling pathways 11see also retinal ganglion cells

optic tectumdevelopment of retinal

connections 114–18regeneration of retinal

connections 118–20, 332,334

retinotopic map 114–15optimal linear estimator (OLE)


optokinetic stimulation, balancerehabilitation 113

oral feeding, disorders ofconsciousness 392, 396–7

ORMOSIL (organically modifiedsilica) 516

orthostatic hypotension 420–4initial 426management 422–4neurogenic 421supine hypertension 427symptoms 420–1

orthoticsenergy costs of walking and

377–8lower limb mechanical-

assisted 190–5motor neuroprostheses 253paraplegia 627powered 183–4tetraplegia 625–7upper extremity mechatronic

177, 183–4orthotist 283oscillopsia 360osteoporosis, spinal cord injury

624otitis media 132outcome measuresclinical trials 4–5, 235–8COSMIN checklist 39developing and testing 35–9dynamic approaches 38–9electrodiagnostic tests 81–2evaluative scale development

35–6applications 38generating items 35–6pre-testing 36reducing number of items 36testing 36–8

experimental spinal cordinjury see undersensorimotor functionassessment

floor and ceiling effects 41stroke rehabilitation 35–45laboratory gait analysis42–3

national guidelines 42neuroimaging-based 43–5principles of selection 40–2

walking 66–7oxidative stress 214, 261–2, 265oxybutynin 428, 641oxygen consumption, maximal

see VO2 max

P (synaptic release probability) 38mechanisms of increasing 40–1origins of short-term synaptic

plasticity 38p53 genotype 538p75 neurotrophin receptor

(p75NTF) 400

expression after spinal cordinjury 405–6

inhibition of axon growth309–10, 342, 352–3, 402

neuronal death and survival257, 401–2

peripheral axonal regenerationand 403

signaling 354P300-based brain–computer

interface 567–8P300 component, evoked

potentials 390–1PACE (promoting aphasics

communicativeeffectiveness) 438, 440

paclitaxel-induced painfulperipheral neuropathy 277

pager-based reminder systems153, 483–4

painamyotrophic lateral sclerosis

657assessment 393, 620chronic see chronic painexperimental spinal cord

injury 535multiple sclerosis 641neuropathic see neuropathic

painplasticity and 289–93post-polio syndrome 660post-stroke 263–4spinal cord injury 620, 623

paired associative stimulation,spastic paresis 321

paired-pulse facilitationsee facilitation

panic, ictal 554–5parallel fibers, cerebellar 56parallel group studies 235Paralyzed Veterans of America

(PVA) 532, 162paramedical treatment (PMT),

dystonia 578–9paraplegia/paraparesisgait disorder 64locomotor training 348–9lower extremity functional

electrical stimulation126–7

recovery and functionaloutcomes 627–8

see also spinal cord injuryparapyramidal region (PPR) of

medulla, control oflocomotion 172, 182

Parastep System® 127, 627, 630parasympathetic nervous system

415–16parietal cortexauditory spatial processing 128changes after stroke 85memory functions 32motor functions 102–3

reorganization in congenitaldeafness 132

visual cortical input 143PARK1 gene mutations 567parkin 260, 263–4, 268gene mutations 567

parkinsonism 567differential diagnosis 569–70MPTP-induced 260neuroimaging 568vascular 569

Parkinson’s disease (PD) 567–74apraxia 448, 455, 457balance control studies 96–7clinical features and diagnosis

567–8, 570–1deep brain stimulation 345,

543–4, 568–9dementia (PDD) 569exercise capacity 370gait disorder 344–5gene therapy 518–19genetics 567medical treatment 345, 424–5,

568–9neurobiology 567autophagic cell death 268inflammatory response 394mitochondrial dysfunction263–4, 277

neuronal cell death 260–1probabilistic learning 24rehabilitation 570–4balance training 572–3behavior modification 571–2exercise training 375, 570gait retraining 66, 571–2motor fluctuations 570–1noninvasive brain stimulation226–7, 231, 234

psychosocial counseling 574speech and swallowingtherapy 573–4

urinary dysfunction 427paroxysmal autonomic

instability with dystonia(PAID) 543

paroxysmal kinesiogenicdystonia/dyskinesia 577

participatory action research(PAR), dementia 526

passive movements, neglectrehabilitation 468

passive range of motiondisorders of consciousness 397exercises 315maximal, deforming spastic

paresis 313pasta-eating test 535–6pathogen-associated molecular

patterns (PAMPs) 214pathological cross-talk 460patient-reported outcomes

measurement informationsystem (PROMIS) 39


696 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 24: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

Pavlov, Ivan 24Pavlovian conditioning

see classical conditioningpaw placement test 534PC12 cell line, neurotrophin

signaling 401PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1)

domain proteins 55, 57PEAT (planning and execution

assistant and trainer) 153pediatric interactive therapy

system (PITS) 210pediatric patients see childrenpegylated neutral/anionic

liposomes 516pelvic support, wheelchairs 171penetrating brain injuries 385–6penumbral tissue 225, 384reperfusion 602reversibility of damage 15–16

perceptual training, neglect 469percutaneous intramuscular

electrodes 121Perdue pegboard test 605pericytes 367, 380perimetry, high resolution (HRP)

503–4perinatal brain injuryassociated with cerebral palsy

211–12etiological factors 212neural plasticity after 215–16pathophysiology of cerebral

palsy 212–15perineuronal nets (PNN) 155–7activity-related changes 161around CNS lesions 158chondroitinase ABC therapy

targeting 80, 160peripheral ganglia, denervation

supersensitivity 2peripheral nerve grafts 119, 475peripheral nerve injurychondroitinase ABC therapy

160electromyographic evaluation

81neurotrophins and axon

regeneration 402–5repair procedures 474sensory loss 298–9somatosensory system changes

78, 245spinal transections with 178–9see also axotomy

peripheral nerve regeneration339–40, 349

across lesion site 473–4between cut ends of nerves 475endoneurial tubes promoting

473–4historical note 472–3neurotrophins and 402–5role of Schwann cells 373, 403,

405, 472–86

peripheral nerve stimulation(PNSss) 135–8, 244–5

cortical effects 135–7, 244–5deforming spastic paresis 321paretic upper limb in stroke

137–8, 245pharynx in dysphagic stroke

138, 245rationale 135–7

peripheral nerves, functionalelectrical stimulation 120

peripheral nervous system (PNS)injury, sensory loss 298–9

peripheral neuropathies 655,660–4

electrodiagnostic testing 78–80gene therapy 518, 521–2quality of life 656see also axonal

polyneuropathiesperipheral somatosensory input

see somatosensory inputperiventricular hemorrhagic

infarction, perinatal 211periventricular leukomalacia

(PVL) 211–16PERK 266PerMMA (personal mobility and

manipulation appliance)167–8

perseveration 490persistent inward currents

(PICs), after spinal cordinjury 177–8

personal emergency responsesystem (PERS) 154

pesticides 260PET see positron emission

tomographyphagocytes, removal of dying

cells 258phantom limb pain/sensation

555behavioral interventions

293–4cortical reorganization 291–3pharmacological therapy 295somatosensory pain memory

concept 290–1phantom sensation, tinnitus as

auditory 133–5pharmacological therapychronic pain 295genetic influences on response

28–9human neurorehabilitation

241–3locomotor recovery after

spinal cord injury 181–4spinal cord injury 629–30stroke rehabilitation 242–4

Pharos Cognit 153pharyngeal stimulationcortical effects 136, 410–11dysphagic stroke 245, 138

phenobarbital 552–3phenol injections, deforming

spastic paresis 319phenytoin 466, 552–3ɸ-nodes 462phosphacan 157, 202, 381phosphatase and tensin homolog

deleted on chromosometen see PTEN

phosphatase PP2B/calcineurin 56phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/

AKT (PI3K/AKT)pathway 257, 401

phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) 356inhibitor 356

phospholipase C (PL-C) 43phospholipase Cγ (PL-Cγ)

pathway 257, 401phrenic nerve pacing 126, 631physical activitychronic neurological

conditions 371–2exercise capacity and 369hippocampal neurogenesis and

289–90see also exercise

physical and rehabilitationmedicine (PRM) 283

physical therapist (PT) 283physical therapy (physiotherapy)disorders of consciousness 397dystonia 578multiple sclerosis 646Parkinson’s disease 570post-polio syndrome 659stroke, with pharmacotherapy

242–3physostigmine 541PICK1 protein 57Pick’s disease 260–1picture exchange communication

system (PECS) 227picture planner 153pilot studies 5PINK1 (PTEN-inducing putative

kinase 1) 260, 263–4, 268,277

PirB (paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B) 341–2,353

place cells, hippocampal 29placebo control groups 4, 234–5placebo effect 234, 412plan, rehabilitation 282–5planarians, CNS regeneration 329planning and execution assistant

and trainer (PEAT) 153plasma exchange 660, 664plasticity 555activity-dependent see activity-

dependent plasticityauditory functions 125–35cellular and molecular

mechanisms after injury196–207

cerebral motor functions 99–110cerebral palsy and neonatal

brain injury 215–16compensatory 91cross-modal, visual system


see experience-dependentplasticity

functional electricalstimulation and 120–1

genetic factors affecting 25–7homeostatic 2–3, 11–12mechanisms 241–2multisite and multilevel 88–91pain and 289–93primary 91reactive 91rehabilitation and 6, 109–10,

240–8, 284–5response to neural interfaces

555sensory retraining and 303,

305–6short-term see short-term

plasticitysomatosensory system 75–80spinal cord see spinal cord

plasticitystroke recovery 12–15underlying recovery 25visual connections 114–20see also synaptic plasticity

platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) 287, 370–1

PlayStation, SonyEyeToy 200, 202, 209Move 202

plexins 358axon guidance 305–6synaptic pruning 324

pluripotent stem cells 435directed differentiation 437induced see induced pluripotent

stem (iPS) cellsisolation and properties 439neural induction 439see also embryonic stem (ES)

cellsPocket Endeavor software 153podiatrist 285poliomyelitis 659–60

see also post-poliomyelitissyndrome

polyamines 357polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat

diseases 260, 268see also Huntington’s disease

polymyositis 80, 665–6polyneuropathies 660–4

see also axonalpolyneuropathies,peripheral neuropathies

pontomedullary locomotorregion (PLR) 175


697Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

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population vector algorithm(PVA) 580

positron emission tomography(PET) 84

aphasia rehabilitation 442blindness 127–30parkinsonism 568stroke 11–13, 44, 197swallowing control 409traumatic brain injury 537

post-poliomyelitis syndrome369–70, 375, 377,659–60

postprandial hypotension 422,424

postsynaptic density (PSD)317–20

postsynaptic potentials (PSP)36–8

postsynaptic terminal,differentiation 322–3

post-tetanic potentiation (PTP,potentiation) 36

Ca2+-dependent mechanisms42–3

quantal mechanisms 38synapse specificity 44–5vs. long-term potentiation

51see also long-term potentiation

post-traumatic epilepsy 392,542

post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) 265, 544, 629

post-traumatic syringomyelia623

postural controlseated, functional electrical

stimulation 127virtual reality-based

assessment 355see also balance control

postural hypotensionsee orthostatichypotension

postural orientation 105–10postural responses, automatic, to

perturbations 108–9assessment 111–12treatments addressing 114

postural stability (or equilibrium)105–10

assessment 355–6dynamic, during gait

see dynamic posturalstability during gait

limits of see limits of stabilitysee also balance control

postural support systems,wheelchair 170–2

postural tachycardia syndrome(PoTS) 425–6

postural verticality 107, 110posturing, daily 315posturography, dynamic 110–13

potassium channel blockersmultiple sclerosis 459, 640–1see also 4-aminopyridine

potassium (K+) channels,myelinated axons 458–9

potassium chloride co-transporter-2 (KCC2)178

potentiationlong-term see long-term

potentiationpost-tetanic see post-tetanic

potentiationshort-term (STP) 51

power, muscle 331PQRST technique 482practice effects, in


praxisneuroanatomy 453–5theoretical models 450–3see also apraxia

preclinical studiescriteria for translation to

humans 231–2neurorehabilitation 5

precursor cells, neural see neuralprecursor cells

preference-based stroke index(PBSI) 38

prefrontal cortex (PFC)executive control 492, 495memory functions 32,

490–2motor functions 102reward circuit 135ventromedial (VMPFC), role

in tinnitus 134–5visual cortical input 143

pregabalin 623prehension synergy 603premature infants, perinatal

brain injury 211premotor cortex (PM)axon sprouting after stroke

197, 200changes after M1 injury 107–8dorsal see dorsal premotor

cortexpost-stroke reorganization

85, 87, 89reorganization after brain

injury 55, 317ventral see ventral premotor

cortexpremyelinating oligodendrocyte

lineage cells (preOLs)injury in cerebral palsy 212mechanisms of perinatal

injury 212–15presence, virtual 198–9presenilins 259, 294pressure relief ankle–foot

orthosis (PRAFO) 397

pressure relief measuresdisorders of consciousness 397spinal cord injury 621upper limb orthoses 183wheelchair users 168

pressure ulcers 163, 622presupplementary motor area

(pre-SMA) 53, 99–100,103

presynaptic apparatus, assembly15, 319

presynaptic inhibition, spasticity346

priapism 620primary motor cortex (M1, area

F1) 51–3amputation-related plasticity

292brain–computer devices 581brain injury/stroke-related

reorganization 52–3,85–9, 91

cerebellar connectivity 143experience-dependent

plasticity 104–5focal lesionslocal reorganization after52, 317

recovery and compensationfor 57

remote changes after 55,106–8

neurons see upper motorneurons

organization 51–2, 101somatosensory input and

135–6transcranial magnetic

stimulation studies 142–3see also motor cortex

primary plasticity 91primary somatosensory cortex

(S1)changes after M1 injury 107–8enhanced sensory input and 135experience-dependent

plasticity 109plasticity in blindness 142reorganization in chronic

pain 289see also somatosensory cortex

primary visual cortex (V1)ablation, blindsight after 502congenital blindness 148cortical visual prostheses 546

primates, nonhumancortical motor areas 53, 99–103declarative memory 30–1emotional communication 131somatosensory system

plasticity 75–80spinal cord injury research

248, 537priming effects 16, 24prism adaptation, neglect 468

prisms, opticalneglect 468, 610visual field impairments 501

pro-oligodendrocytes 369probabilistic learning 24progenitor cellslineage-restricted see lineage-

restricted progenitorsmultipotent see multipotent

progenitor cellssubgranular zone (type-2 cells)

288terminology 283–4see also neural precursor cells,

neural stem cellsprogesterone 539prognostic studies, assessing

quality 587–90programed cell death (PCD)developing neurons 255–6,

258molecular regulation 257–8morphological features256–7

see also apoptosis, neuronaldeath

progranulin 261progressive supranuclear palsy

(PSP) 569apraxia 448, 457inflammatory response 394

progressively lowered stressthreshold (PLST) 523

prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PH)inhibition 159

PROMIS (patient-reportedoutcomes measurementinformation system) 39

proprioceptive feedback, neglectrehabilitation 469

proprioceptive reflexes 83development 85Parkinson’s disease 345, 571

propriospinal pathwayslocomotion control 167, 173–6locomotor recovery after

spinal cord injury 172–3,175–7, 179, 184

prosthesesimplantable neural see neural

prostheseslower limb mechanical-

assisted 190–5upper extremity mechatronic

177, 184–6proteasome 266protein(s)aggregation,

neurodegenerativediseases 264–7

synthesis, axon tip 424protein kinase A (PKA)axon guidance 308axon regeneration and 356behavioral sensitization 65–7


698 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 26: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

long-term potentiation 55regulation of neuronal survival

257protein kinase C (PKC)long-term depression 57long-term potentiation 54–5neuronal survival 257neurotrophin signaling 401post-tetanic potentiation 43sensitization in Aplysia

65–6protein kinase M (PKM), Aplysia

homolog 68protein tyrosine phosphatase

(PTP)σ 344–5, 381–2proteoglycansglial scar 360, 381see also chondroitin sulfate

proteoglycansproximity principle,

reinnervation 15pruning effect 12PSD-95 protein 55, 319, 323pseudoplasticity 76, 78psychiatric disordersafter temporal lobectomy

561–3critically ill patients 265deep brain stimulation 544in epilepsy 550–1, 553–6,

558–60epilepsy risk in 553–4spinal cord injury 628–9traumatic brain injury 543–4

psychogenic non-epilepticevents, post-surgical 562

psycholinguistic approach,aphasia 438–40

psychological interventions,multiple sclerosis 649

psychological/psychoeducationalapproaches, dementia523–6

psychosisafter temporal lobectomy 561ictal 555postictal (PIP) 555

psychosocial counseling,Parkinson’s disease 574

psychosocial problemsepilepsy 556–7, 559epilepsy surgery and 562

psychostimulants 393, 528, 540PTEN (phosphatase and tensin

homolog deleted onchromosome ten)

axon regeneration 11, 345,357, 379, 419–20

myelin-associated glycoproteinand 354

PTP (protein tyrosinephosphatase)-σ 344–5,381–2

pull-test maneuver, Parkinson’sdisease 572

pulmonary dysfunction, spinalcord injury 620, 622

pulmonary embolism (PE),spinal cord injury 620–2

punishment 63pure autonomic failure (PAF)gastrointestinal dysfunction

429orthostatic hypotension 422–4urinary dysfunction 428

purinergic receptors 393–4amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

395Schwann cell signaling 485

Purkinje cells, cerebellarsee cerebellar Purkinje cells

pushrim activated power assistedwheelchairs (PAPAW)164–5

putrescine 357pyramidal neurons, hippocampal


quadriplegia see tetraplegiaquality of life (QoL)epilepsy 550–1neuromuscular disorders 655–6polio 660spinal cord injury 628–9visual field rehabilitation

and 504quality of life in epilepsy

inventory (QOLIE) 550quantal content 38quantal hypothesis of

neurotransmitter release36–8

quantitativeelectroencephalogram(QEEG) biofeedback 481

quasi-experimental studies 2quipazine 182QYNAD (Gln-Tyr-Asn-Ala-

Asp) peptide 460

Rab proteins 277rabies virus, as neuronal marker

101Rac1 307–8radial nerve stimulation 137RAGE (advanced glycoxidation

end-products),Alzheimer’s disease 394

Ramón y Cajal, Santiagoaxon guidance 301axon sprouting 12CNS axon regeneration 1, 339,

496, 529peripheral nerve regeneration

472–3Ran binding protein (RANBP1)

416randomization 2–4, 234–5randomized controlled trials


CONSORT checklist 2–3rehabilitationenrichment strategies 5interventions 4methodological quality 11multicenter 1–2

study designs 234–5see also clinical trials

range of motion see active rangeof motion, passive rangeof motion

rapamycin 420raphe cell transplants, spinal

cord injury 437Ras, long-term potentiation 54Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk pathway 401Rasch analysis 39, 591reachingcompensatory strategies after

stroke 600–2tasks, animal models 534–6virtual reality applications 208,

210reaction times, motor cortex

organization and 53reactive astrogliosis

see astrogliosis, reactivereactive oxygen species (ROS)

261–2, 265reactive plasticity 91reading aids 158reality orientation therapy 524–5reciprocating gait orthosis

(RGO) 127recoverydefinitions 8, 599–600genetic factors 25plasticity underlying 25stroke see stroke recoveryvs. outcome 7see also motor recovery

recreational therapist (RT, TRec)283

red nucleus 5, 56redundancyand compensation 603–5motor system 602–5referent body configuration

(R) concept 603redundancy gain (RG) 503redundant target effect (RTE) 503referent body configuration (R)

603reflexes, spinal cord injury 178–9regenerationaxon see axon regenerationinvertebrate nervous system

329–30non-mammalian models

329–35regeneration-associated genes

(RAGs) 243rehabilitation


acute stage of disease see earlyneurorehabilitation

brain–computer interface(BCI)-based 571

clinical pathways see clinicalpathways

clinical trials 1–6cognitive see cognitive

rehabilitationdefinitions 261, 278delivery 279, 281dose-response relationships

110early see early

neurorehabilitationeconomics 285–6experimental spinal cord

injury 160–1, 536–7genetic factors 25–30intensity see intensity of

therapylearning and 71motor recovery and

compensation 599–605multisensory approaches

148neuroplasticity and 6, 109–10,

240–8, 284–5outcome measures

see outcome measuresperipheral somatosensory

input and 244–6phases 261–2planning 282–5principles 279service provision 279–85Slinky model 279during therapeutic clinical

trials 233–4, 239timing after injury 109–10training and practice effects

240–1World Health Organization

model 278–9Rehabilitation Engineering and

Assistive TechnologySociety of North America(RESNA) 172

rehabilitation engineeringtechnologist (RET) 172

rehabilitation medicine 283rehabilitation nurse 283rehabilitation physician 283rehabilitation team 278–82members 282–3, 285specialized stroke unit 601

reinforcement 63reinnervationdenervated neurons 14–17early studies 1muscle see muscle,

reinnervationnew presynaptic

specializations 15priming effects 16


699Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 27: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

reintegration to normal living(RNL) index 38

relay formation, injured spinalcord 446–8

reliability, outcomemeasurement 36

reminiscence therapy 524, 526remyelinationolfactory ensheathing cell

grafts and 506–8restoration of conduction

464–5Schwann cell grafts and 464–5,

497–9renin–angiotensin system 420reperfusion therapies, stroke 11repetitive strain injuries,

wheelchair users 161–2repetitive therapy, stroke

rehabilitation 605reproductive system dysfunction

429–30reptiles, axon regeneration 334repulsive guidance molecules

(RGMa, RGMb, RGMc)306–7, 344

RESCUE study 572resiniferatoxin, intravesical 428resistance trainingmultiple sclerosis 646upper extremity rehabilitation

336resources for enhancing

Alzheimer’s caregiverhealth (REACH) 527

respiratory complicationssevere brain injury 393spinal cord injury 622spinal muscular atrophy 658

respiratory failure, acuteneuromuscular 265

respiratory functionexercise capacity and 371polio patients 660spinal cord injury 620

respiratory system, effects of bedrest 266–8

respiratory trainingmultiple sclerosis 648spinal muscular atrophy 658

responsiveness, outcomemeasurement 37–8

restitution (functional)aphasia 438definition 7–8noninvasive brain stimulation

promoting 222vs. compensatory strategies 8–9

restless legs syndrome 567reticular formation, voluntary

motor control 56reticulon family of proteins 340reticulospinal-propriospinal

system, integrated 173–5reticulospinal tract

locomotor control 167, 172–3,179

neurotrophins and axonregeneration 408

post-stroke changes 86voluntary motor control 56

retinaimmature, waves of activity

118regeneration in amphibians

333–4retinal ganglion cells (RGC)

114–20axon development 114–18axon regeneration 118–20cAMP elevation and 356cell survival and 415developmental loss of ability414

inhibition by CSPGs 382lower vertebrates 118–19,306, 332, 334

molecules regulating 417,420

signaling pathways 11retinal prostheses 545–6, 554–5retinotopic map 114–15development 114–18regeneration 118–20

retraction balls 7, 9retrograde atrophy 4–6retrograde degeneration 4–7retrovirusesgene therapy vectors 515, 517labeling neural precursor cells

292reward learning/circuitry 27Rho GTPasesinhibition of axon

regeneration 309–10, 354,419

modulation of neuronalgrowth response 421

regulation by protein kinase A308

regulation of growth cones307–8, 359

as therapeutic target 355, 385,421

Rho kinase (ROCK) 421Rho/ROCK signaling pathway

158, 354rhythmic auditory stimulation

(RAS), Parkinson’sdisease 572

Rig1 308riluzole 260, 657rise-to-walk (RTW) test 42fluidity scale, evaluation

38, 43rising to walk 42rivastigmine 469, 479–80, 541Rivermead assessment of

somatosensoryperformance (RASP) 300

Rivermead mobility index (RMI),recovery after stroke 593

Robo (Roundabout) 304–5, 308,359

robotic systemsassisting gait training 65, 647functional electrical

stimulation with 124genetic influences on response

29lower limb rehabilitation

190–5mobility assistance 157upper extremity rehabilitation

177–83, 338robotic wheelchairs 166–7rolipram 356Ross’ syndrome 431rostral migratory stream (RMS),

migration of precursorcells 285, 287

rotary pursuit learning,Alzheimer’s disease520–1

Roundabout see Roboroute finding training, virtual

reality 208RPTP-σ (protein tyrosine

phosphatase-σ, PTP-σ)344–5, 381–2

RT300/RT600 devices 125rubrospinal tractlesions 5, 169, 405, 408voluntary motor control 56–7

Rutgers ankle rehabilitationsystem (RARS) 210

Rutgers Master II force feedbackglove 200–1

S1 see primary somatosensorycortex

S100β, traumatic brain injury 536saccadic exploration training

501–3sacral nerve root stimulators

129–30, 543, 630–1salamandersspinal cord regeneration 332–3visual system regeneration

333–4saliency of rehabilitation,

disorders ofconsciousness 394

salt loading, chronic 161SAP97 (synapse-associated

protein 97kDa) 55Sarm1 276scarcollagenous (fibrous) 158–9glial see glial scar

scavenger receptors 393schizophrenia 58, 207, 294Schwann cells (SC)axonal protection 277injured spinal cord 497–8

myelinating andnonmyelinating types 472

myelination role 457neuromuscular synaptic

remodeling and 482olfactory ensheathing cell

transplants and 507oligodendrocyte precursor

cell-derived 373peripheral nerve regeneration

373, 405, 472–86across lesion site 473–4causes of failure 484between cut ends 475–6damaged/regeneratedmuscle fibers 479–81

endoneurial tubes and473–4

escaped fibers 474–5, 478–9molecular mechanisms 403,484–6

nerve sprout formation 481reoccupation of synapticsites 481–2

sprouting of nerve terminal475–6

study methods 474vital imaging 476–9

remyelination of spinal cordaxons 464–5, 497–9

spinal cord transplants496–502, 508, 589–90

axon branching andterminal arborization499–500

axonal regeneration 500–1,505

gene transduction studies502, 521

migration properties 503with neurotrophic factors501–2

with olfactory ensheathingcells 502

plus other interventions501–2

rationale 496–7remyelination andconduction 497–9

territories, at neuromuscularjunction 482–4

transplants in multiplesclerosis 588

trophic support for axons 472tropic influences on growth

481schwannosis 497–8SCI see spinal cord injuryscoliosis supports, wheelchair

171scooters, mobility 157, 166seat cushions, wheelchair 170seated postural control,

functional electricalstimulation 127


700 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 28: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

seating protocols, disorders ofconsciousness 397

seating technology, wheelchairsee under wheelchairs

secondary brain injury 543secretases 259SeeMe virtual reality system 202seizurescognitive deterioration and

551–2hippocampal neurogenesis

induced by 289post-traumatic 392, 542psychiatric symptoms 554–5transcranial magnetic

stimulation-induced 142see also epilepsy

selective serotonin reuptakeinhibitors (SSRIs) 29, 608

selegiline 424–5self-awareness, lack of

see anosognosiaself-rehabilitation contracts 321self-stretch 315semantic dementia, apraxia

449–50semantic feature analysis (SFA)

439, 443–4semantic memory, neocortical

storage 31–2semaphorins 157, 203axon guidance 305–6brain lesions 203inhibition of axon

regeneration 309–10, 344,358–9, 382–3

spinal cord injury 158SENSe training program 304sensitive periods see critical

periodssensitization 23, 63chronic musculoskeletal pain

289intermediate-term 68long-term 66–8neural mechanisms 65–8short-term 65–6vs. classical conditioning 68see also facilitation

sensorimotor functionassessment

experimental spinal cordinjury 83, 529–37

bowel, bladder, andautonomic function 536

different paradigms 530–1forelimb motor recovery534–5

histopathology and 536integrative measures 535–6locomotor recovery 530,532–4

outcomes to measure529–30

rehabilitation and 536–7

sensory testing and pain535

white matter sparing 530human spinal cord injury

531–2, 617sensorimotor rhythmsECoG-based brain–computer

interfaces 568–9EEG-based brain–computer

interfaces 568sensorin 67sensory channel reweighting,

balance control 108sensory cortex see somatosensory

cortexsensory cueing, Parkinson’s

disease 571–2sensory loss (somatic) 298–307assessment see sensory testingassistive technology 154functional implications 299nature of impairment 298–9potential for recovery 300–1rehabilitation see sensory

rehabilitationsomatosensory system plasticity

after 76–80, 301–2sensory neurons (SNs)Aplysia reflexes 64neurotrophins and

regeneration 403–4transplantation into adult CNS

384see also dorsal root ganglion

(DRG) neuronssensory orientation (in balance)

107–8assessment 110–11treatments addressing 112–14

sensory rehabilitation 301–7efficacy 300–4future directions 306–7neural prostheses 544–6principles of plasticity and

learning 303, 305–6sensory stimulationdisorders of consciousness 395see also somatosensory

stimulationsensory testing 299–300experimental spinal cord

injury 535serial casting 316serotonergic (5-HT) neuronsregenerative ability 382transplantation studies 182

serotonin (5-HT)autonomic function 417hippocampal neurogenesis and

290locomotor control in rats

171–3, 179, 182mediating classical

conditioning 68mediating sensitization 65–7

serotonin (5-HT) agonists,locomotor effects 181–2,184

serotonin (5-HT) receptorblockers, locomotioneffects 181

serotonin (5-HT) receptors,injured spinal cord177–8

serotonin-transporter-linkedpolymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) 28

serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptorsinjured spinal cord 178locomotion and 182

serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors,locomotion and 182

serpentine splint 315sertraline 559, 561sexual dysfunction 429–30, 641SF-36 (36-item short form health

survey) 67Shank protein 323shavers, electric 155Sherrington, Charles 529shoehorns, long-handled 155shopping, assistive devices 158short message service (SMS)-based

reminder systems 484short-term depression 36, 43–4quantal mechanisms 38synapse specificity 44–5

short-term (synaptic)enhancement (STE) 36

Ca2+-dependent mechanisms38–43

decay rates 42quantal mechanisms 38synapse specificity 44–5see also augmentation,

facilitation, potentiationshort-term memory see working

memoryshort-term plasticity 36–45quantal mechanisms 36–8synaptic specificity 44–5

short-term sensitization, Aplysia65–6

shoulder movementscompensatory 601–2post-stroke, predicting

recovery 334, 596stretch reflex thresholds 605

shoulder pain, hemiplegic (HSP)263–4

functional electricalstimulation 124

management 607shoulder subluxation, post-stroke

124showering, assistive technology

154sialic acid residues 352sign language, visual 132sildenafil 430, 641

SIMA (maintaining andsupporting independentliving in old age) study 517

single blind clinical trials 234single photon emission

computed tomography(SPECT)

parkinsonism 568stroke 12

siphon-gill withdrawal reflex,Aplysia 64

Sirt1 275–6sitting balance, post-stroke,

predictive value 595situational syncope 425skills training, dementia 519skin caredisorders of consciousness 392spinal cord injury 621

Skinner, B.F. 27SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms

28–9sleep disorders, traumatic brain

injury 544sleep/wake cycles, disorders of

consciousness 392Slinky model 279Slit proteinsaxon guidance 304–5, 308axon regeneration 310, 359,

383receptors 304–5

slow-wave sleep (SWS), non-invasive brainstimulation and 223

Smads 416smart wheelchairs 167smartphonesassistive technology 157, 159memory aids 153, 483–4see also mobile electronic

devicesSMARTWheel kinetic

measurement system 161SMS (short message service)-

based reminder systems484

soap dispensers 155social concerns, implanted neural

prostheses 550social problems, epilepsy 550–1,

556–7social reintegration, spinal cord

injury 628–9social worker 283SOCS (suppressor of cytokine

signaling) proteins, axonregeneration and 417

SOCS3, axon regeneration and11, 417, 420

SOD1 see superoxide dismutase,copper/zinc

sodium (Na+) channel blockers,demyelinating diseases466


701Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 29: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

sodium (Na+) channelsdemyelinated axons 460–1impedance mismatch andmatching 464–5

mechanisms ofredistribution 462

prior to remyelination 462transfer from glia 462–4

injured axons 462–3maladaptive expression in

demyelinating disease462, 464

myelinated axons 458olfactory ensheathing cell

grafts and 506putative blocking factors 460remyelinated axons 464subtypes 458

somatosensory cortexamputation-related plasticity

77, 245, 291–2plasticity after sensory loss 13,

77–8, 245developing systems 80time course andmechanisms 78–9

plasticity after visualdeprivation 142

post-stroke plasticity 196,301–2

axon sprouting 197, 200primary (S1) see primary

somatosensory cortexsynapse-specificity of short-

term plasticity 44–5visual cortical input 143

somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEPs)

disorders of consciousness 391spinal cord injury 618–19traumatic brain injury

398–9somatosensory functionassessment 299–300defined 298loss of see sensory loss

somatosensory input(peripheral) 244–6

disruption 76–80, 245–6cortical reorganization 76–9,245

developing systems 79–80treatments to promoterecovery 80

see also peripheral nerveinjury

functional relevance inhumans 136–7

increased see somatosensorystimulation

modulation in animals 135–6somatosensory neglect 465somatosensory pain memory

290–1somatosensory stimulation

animal studies 135–6in congenital deafness 132functional recovery and 244–5visual cortical areas in blind

animals 144see also peripheral nerve

stimulation, tactileperception

somatosensory system 75–80, 298balance control 108, 356complexity 75–6plasticity after injury and

sensory loss 76–80, 301–2developing systems 79–80immediate and short-term76–7

long-term changes 77–8time course andmechanisms 78–9

treatments to promoterecovery 80

somatotopic organization 75–6songbirds 131sonic hedgehog (Shh) 306, 370–1Sony PlayStation see PlayStation,

Sonysound localization see auditory

spatial functionsspaced repetition (or retrieval)

technique 481, 518, 526spared axon conundrum 9spastic co-contraction 312spastic dystonia 312spastic paresis, deforming

312–21clinical assessment 312–14impact of medications on

training 319–20management 314–21motor training 316–18noninvasive brain stimulation

320–1stretch therapy 314–16treatment of muscle

overactivity 318–19spasticitydefined 312, 542, 604denervation supersensitivity

2–3disorders of consciousness 392energy costs of walking 377functional electrical

stimulation 123–4gait disorder 345–8generalized, fallacy of concept

318–19grade 313local treatments 318–19multiple sclerosis 640spinal cord injury 177–8, 620,

623spinal cord plasticity and 84strength training and 332–3stretch reflex thresholds 605stroke 604–5

transcranial magneticstimulation and 320

traumatic brain injury 542–3spastin 277spatial navigation, virtual reality

applications 204–5spatial perceptionauditory see auditory spatial

functionstactile, blind humans 140–1

specificity of trainingdisorders of consciousness 394somatosensory loss 306stroke rehabilitation 10upper extremity rehabilitation

336–7αII-spectrin breakdown

products, traumatic braininjury 536

speech and language pathologist/therapist (SLP/SALT)223, 225–6, 283

speech and language therapy (SLT)disorders of consciousness

395–7multiple sclerosis 648Parkinson’s disease 573–4stroke 271, 443–4, 609see also aphasia, rehabilitation

speech brain-computer devices(BCIs), direct 579

speech disorders 437speech generating devices (SGD)

220, 223speech perception 125, 129–31aging effects 132–3early phonetic environment

and 131via cochlear implants 133

spermidine 357Sperry’s chemoaffinity (or

chemospecificity)hypothesis 115–18, 306,334

spina bifida, exercise capacity 370spinal commissural neurons,

axon guidance 302–3spinal cord 83–92isolated in vitro preparations,

locomotor activity 171,177

negotiated equilibriumconcept 90, 92

neural precursor cells 286oligodendrocyte development

370–2traditional view 83

spinal cord hemisection seeunder experimentalspinal cord injury

spinal cord independencemeasure (SCIM) 238–9

spinal cord injury (SCI) 155,242–50

adjustment to 628–9

assessment 616–21international core data sets616–17

neuroimaging 619–20neurological 617neurophysiology 617–19standardized protocols 616,618

see also sensorimotor functionassessment

autonomic dysreflexia 427,621–2

axon regeneration seeunder axon regeneration

clinical syndromes 617, 619clinical trials 249outcome measures 237–8principles of conductingvalid 231–40

depression 620, 628–9epidemiology 615exercise capacity 370experimental see experimental

spinal cord injurylocomotor function 61, 348–9,

627–8assessment 350prediction 624

lower vertebrates 330–4medical complications 621–4bladder function 427–8, 621gastrointestinal 429, 621reproductive 430thermoregulatory 431, 624

neurotrophins and repair404–8, 418

non-traumatic (NTSCI) 615pathophysiological responses

435–6, 530–1astrocyte functionaldiversity 370–2

axon sprouting 5–14denervation supersensitivity2–3

extracellular matrix 157–9glial scar 157–9inflammatory response417–18

oligodendrocyte death anddemyelination 6–8

retrograde degeneration ofcortical motoneurons 5–6

Schwann cell accumulation497–8

plasticity after see spinal cordplasticity, post-injury

prognostic factors 624–5recovery and functional

outcomes 624–8rehabilitation 160–1, 615–31body weight support system(BWSS) 628

body weight-supportedtreadmill training 65,630


702 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 30: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

chondroitinase ABC therapywith 161

effects on plasticity 92,160–1, 536–7

exercise training 373, 375extracellular matrix changes161

functional electricalstimulation seeunder functional electricalstimulation

gait training see under gaittraining

neural prostheses seeunder neural prostheses

new and emerging methods629–31

by spinal level 625–8standard assessments 616strategies 155

therapies 242–50, 629–31aiding locomotor recovery180–4

cAMP elevation 159, 356cell-based see cellreplacement therapies,cellular therapies, stemcell therapies

chondroitinase seeunder chondroitinase

clinical translation 247–9combinatorial 245–6enhancing axonal plasticityand regeneration 243–5

gene therapy 518, 521, 247neurotrophins 406targeting extracellularmatrix 159–60, 244

traumatic 435–6, 615–16spinal cord injury locomotor trial

(SCILT) 65spinal cord plasticityactivity-dependent 83–92behavioral change and88–90

development 84–6importance 84motor skill acquisition andmaintenance 86–8

multisite nature 88–90normal life 84–8principles underlying 90–1recognition 83–4theoretical and practicalsignificance 91–2

post-injurychondroitinase plusrehabilitation and 161

chondroitinase therapy and159–60

chronic phase 161effect of rehabilitation160–1, 536–7

recovery of locomotion dueto 166–84

somatosensory system 77spontaneous 159

stroke recovery and 15spinal cord stimulationclinical studies 126, 548experimental spinal cord

injury 183–4spinal cord transection (complete

section) 529–32locomotor recovery in cats

166–9associated peripheral nervelesions 178–9

locomotor training effects180

at other spinal levels 168–9at T13 166–8

locomotor recovery in mice176–7, 180

locomotor recovery in rats171–2, 180–1

spinal fixation phenomenon,cerebellar lesions 84

spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)658–9

spinal pattern generator seeunder central patterngenerator

spinal shock 620spinal stretch reflexes see stretch

reflex(es)spinalization see spinal cord

transectionspinobulbar muscular atrophy

268splintsdynamic 315static 315–16

sprouting see axon sproutingsquid giant axons 457stair lifts 157stair test 42stairs, handrails 151–2standingcompensatory strategies after

stroke 15, 602functional electrical

stimulation for 126–7,547–8

spinal cord injury 126–7, 627Stargazin-like TARPs 55STAT3 (signal transducer and

activator of transcription3) 376, 417, 421

statistical analysis, clinical trials5, 240

statistical validity, prognosticstudies 589–90

status epilepticuscognitive impairment 552non-convulsive (NCSE) 265

steady-state visual evokedpotential (SSVEP)-basedbrain-computerinterfaces 568

Steele Richardson Olzewskysyndrome see progressivesupranuclear palsy

stem cell therapies 586–93memory dysfunction 479multiple sclerosis 586–8, 592spinal cord injury 439–48,

588–90, 592cell delivery methods 449clinical trials 449–50isolation and properties ofcells 437–9

time of engraftment 449stroke 590–3see also cell replacement

therapies, cellulartherapies

stem cells 591alternative sources, cell

replacement therapies448

multipotent see multipotentprogenitor cells

neural see neural stem cellspluripotent see pluripotent

stem cellsStemCells Inc. 441, 450stepping strategy, balance control

109, 114steroid sulfatase gene 28stigma, epilepsy 556–7stimulus generalization training

(SGT) 303–4stimulus–response (S–R)

learning 24Stimulus Specific Training (SST)

303–4STIMuSTEP™ 258STIWELL med4 257stochastic resonance effects,

noninvasive brainstimulation 223

strengthdefined 330inadequate, causing weakness

330–1, 333motor function and 331–2

strength trainingpost-polio syndrome 659upper extremity rehabilitation

332–3, 336stressfamily caregivers in dementia

526hippocampal neurogenesis and

283–90stress appraisal and coping

(SAC) model 628–9stress-induced analgesia 291stretchanimal research 314brief 314chronic 314–15deforming spastic paresis


modalities 315–16sustained 314

stretch reflex(es)adaptive changes in normal life

86–8development 85–6effects of stretch 314operant conditioning studies

88–91spasticity 346–7therapeutic applications of

conditioning 92thresholds 604–5

striatumadult neurogenesis 293reward circuit 27

STROBE (strengthening ofreporting ofobservational studies inepidemiology) 587

strobe light stimulation 117, 119strokeacute, complications and

comorbidity 263–4anosognosia 470apraxia 448–9, 452–5, 457depression after 607–8exercise capacity 370functional neuroimaging see

under functionalneuroimaging

gait disorder 63–4, 346–8, 604gene therapy 522interhemispheric competition

concept 144–5motor map plasticity 13–14,

85–9, 106, 108, 196neonatal 212neural repairparallelogram concept205–7

principles 196–207noninvasive brain stimulation

143–7outcome 7vs. recovery 7

predicting activities aftersee stroke recovery,predicting

reperfusion therapies 11sensory loss 299assessment 300recovery 300–1

severe 611stem cell therapies 590–3upper extremity weakness

330–3visual field deficits 500walking difficulties 61see also aphasia, dysphagia,

hemiplegia/hemiparesis,neglect, unilateral

stroke impact scale 67, 591stroke recovery 7–18Brunnstrom’s stages 603–4


703Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 31: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

stroke recovery (cont.)cellular mechanisms 11–12,

196–207axon growth inhibitors 201–4axonal sprouting/newconnections 12–13,199–201

cellular regeneration 12–13,204–5

peri-infarct excitatorysignaling 197–9

early intensive training and16–17

efficacy of rehabilitation 9–11factors affecting 602functional neuroimaging

13–14functional or adaptive 602genetic influences 27–9mechanisms 8, 11–18, 602compensation vs. restitution8–9

compensatory strategies 15–16experience-dependentplasticity 12–15

future research needs 18modeling 17–18reversal of diaschisis 12salvage of penumbral tissue11–12

motor compensations 8,15–16, 595, 600–2

neurological 602peripheral somatosensory

input and 244–6predicting 7, 585–97ADL independence 593–4assessing research quality587–90

clinical relevance 597definitions 585–7functional neuroimaging43–5, 90–1

rationale 587upper limb function 333–4,595–7

walking ability 595spontaneous 9, 590impact on activities 592measuring impact 592–3mechanisms 602

terminology 7–9time course/patterns 9, 41,

590–2measuring role ofspontaneous recovery592–3

plateau in chronic phase 593vs. outcome 7see also under motor recovery

stroke rehabilitation 601–11acute stage (early) 262–72,

603–4aphasia see under aphasiaclinical pathways 73–4

constraint-induced movementtherapy see constraint-induced movementtherapy

dose–response relationships9–10, 110

dysphagia 609–10economics 285–6efficacy 9–11exercise training 9–10, 373, 375early phase 268–71

functional electricalstimulation 124–5, 547–8,605–6

gait training 190–5, 271, 348growth factor therapy 248intensity 9, 282–4, 604long term 611lower extremity 604–7energy costs of walking and378

neural prostheses 547–8mixed reality system 338–9models of delivery 601motor learning strategies 98noninvasive brain stimulation

143–7, 247–8cognitive functions 146–7,227–32

combined approaches 248inhibition of intact side 247stimulation of lesioned side247–8

outcome measures 35–45peripheral nerve stimulation

137–8pharmacological interventions

242–4pharmacological targets 241principle of neural repair

206–7role of prognostic information

587sensory retraining 302–4, 306severe stroke 611somatosensory stimulation

245spasticity management 604–5specificity 10task-oriented vs. repetitive

therapy 605timing 109–10, 16–17, 373,

603–4training and practice 241treadmill training 10, 190, 607unilateral neglect see

under neglect, unilateralupper extremity 330–9, 604–7clinical pathways 74early onset of therapy270–1, 335–6

functional electricalstimulation 124, 606

intensity of therapy 335–6outcome measures 337–8

peripheral nerve stimulation137–8

predicting prognosis 333–4recovery vs. compensation334–5

robotic therapy 178–82somatosensory inputinfluencing 244, 246

strength training 332–3see also constraint-inducedmovement therapy

virtual reality applications 43,204, 206–10

stroke rehabilitation assessmentof movement (STREAM)38, 40

stroke units, specialized 601–2stroke volume (SV), during

exercise 368stromal-derived factor (SDF1)

204Stroop paradigm 490stunned neural circuits, after

stroke 197–9subasis bar 171subcutaneous electrodes 255subgranular zone (SGZ) 285,

288–9fate of precursor cells 291neurogenic response to stroke

204type-1 cells 288type-2 cells 288type-3 cells 288

subplate neurons, perinatalinjury 215–16

substitution (functional) 7definition 8sensory, balance rehabilitation

113–14subthalamic nucleus (STN)

stimulation 543–4, 568–9subventricular zone (SVZ) 285adult neurogenesis 286–7fate of precursor cells 291neurogenic response to stroke

204–5suicide risk, spinal cord injury

629sulfatide 203sunlight exposure, Parkinson’s

disease 573superior colliculus (SC)auditory spatial perception 125blind animals 127–8denervation, chondroitinase

ABC therapy 160superior temporal cortex,

reorganization incongenital deafness 132

superior temporal gyrus (STG),speech processing 131

superiority trials 235superoxide dismutase, copper/

zinc (SOD1)

mutations in amyotrophiclateral sclerosis 260, 395,656

toxicity of mutant 264, 395–6supervisory attention system

(SAS) 491, 512–13supine hypertension 427supplementary motor area

(SMA) 53, 99–100, 103post-stroke changes 85–6, 89reorganization after brain

injury 55voluntary motor control 53–5

supportive services, dementiacaregivers 523

surface electrodes 121, 254–5swallowinganatomy 405–6difficulties see dysphagiaevaluation 407, 610acute phase 264disorders of consciousness396

stroke 407learned non-use 411–12neurophysiology 405–7phases 609–10therapy see dysphagia,

treatmentsweating disorders 431sympathetic nervous system

415–16sympathetic skin response (SSR)

618sympathomimetics, orthostatic

hypotension 423–4synapse(s)activity-dependent elimination

323–4ectopic, regenerating axons 10formation of new

see synaptogenesisneuromuscular junction 317reorganization after injury 1,

8–17, 200silent 54unmasking or disinhibition76, 78

specificitylong-term potentiation 51short-term plasticity 44–5during synapse formation323

structure of CNS 317–18synapse-associated protein

97kDa (SAP97) 55synapsin 65synaptic cell adhesion molecule

(SynCAM) 320–1synaptic plasticitylong-term and long-term

depression 50–8myelin-associated axonal

growth inhibitors and345


704 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 32: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

short-term 36–45see also activity-dependent

plasticitysynaptic stripping 6, 482synaptic transmissionchemical 36–7newly forming synapses 319quantal hypothesis 36–8short-term depression

see short-term depressionshort-term enhancement

see short-term (synaptic)enhancement

synaptic vesiclesdepletion, causing depression

38, 43–4, 65function 36increased numbers, causing

augmentation 43phasic transmitter release

39quantal hypothesis 36–8during synapse formation

319synaptogenesis 317–24activity dependence 323–4adult brain 324CNS 317–24denervated neurons 14–15initial axon–dendrite contact

318–19molecular regulators 320–3glial-derived factors 322organizing postsynapticterminal 322–3

secreted factors 322trans-synaptic molecules320–2

neuromuscular junction 317specificity of synaptic

connections 323stroke recovery 12–13synaptic differentiation

319–20synaptotagmins 41–2SynCAM (synaptic cell adhesion

molecule) 320–1syncopeautonomic (neurally)

mediated 425vasovagal 420–1, 425

syndrome of inappropriateantidiuretic hormone(SIADH) 541

synergies, motor action 603α-synuclein 260, 567α-synucleinopathies 394syringomyeliafetal spinal cord transplants

437post-traumatic 623

tablet computerscommunication apps 221–3,


memory apps 153see also mobile electronic

devicestactile discrimination test (TDT)

300tactile hyperacuity taskblindness 141effects of practice 141visual cortical activation in

blindness 145tactile motion perception 142,

146tactile perceptionafter blindfolding 141, 144assessment measures 300blindness 140–1cross-modal visual cortical

involvement 142–4sighted subjects after practice

141visual cortical function in

blindness 145–7see also haptic discrimination

Tadoma method 141Tai Chi training 114tail-siphon withdrawal reflex,

Aplysia 64tailored activity program (TAP)

527–8TAJ see TROYTardieu scale 542target cellsavailability, and axon re-

growth after axotomy12

specificity of short-termplasticity 45

Tarlov and Klinger locomotorrating scale 532–3

TARPs (transmembraneAMPAR regulatoryproteins) 55

task-orientated training (TOT)stroke rehabilitation 10,

336–7, 605see also constraint-induced

movement therapytask specificity of training

see specificity of trainingtaste aversion learning 25taste stimulation, disorders of

consciousness 396tau 259, 394Parkinson’s disease 395traumatic brain injury 536

tauopathies, inflammatoryresponse 394

taxol 423tDCS see transcranial direct

current stimulationTDP-43 (transactive response

DNA-binding protein 43)260–1, 268, 395

team, rehabilitationsee rehabilitation team

telephonesassistive technology 157see also cell phones,

smartphonestelerehabilitation 66, 208, 212temperatureperception, testing 300regulation, disordered 430–1,

624short-term synaptic plasticity

and 43temporal lobe, memory functions

31–2temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)hippocampal neurogenesis and

289, 294surgery see temporal

lobectomytemporal lobectomy 560neurological complications

562–3rehabilitation and 560–3seizures after 560

tenascin-C (TN-C) 158–9tenascin-R (TN-R) 157, 159, 383tendon transfers, spinal cord

injury 627tenodesis splints 626–7tension headache, chronic 289territorial competition,

hypothesis of 120–1, 246test–retest reliability 36tetrabenazine 577tetraplegiaautonomic dysfunction 421,

621functional electrical

stimulationbreathing assistance 126hand grasp and release127–9, 258–9

seated postural control 127intracortical brain–computer

interfaces 578–9recovery and functional

outcomes 625–7see also cervical spinal cord

injurytetrodotoxin (TTX)axonal neuroprotection 466resistant (TTX-R) sodium

channels 458retinotectal pathways 117–19

TGF see transforming growthfactor

thalamuspraxis 455reorganization after sensory

loss 77–8, 301thermal bathing technique 525thermoregulatory dysfunction

430–1, 624theta burst stimulation (TBS)

141, 219continuous (cTBS) 219

intermittent (iTBS) 219thoracic spinal cordlocomotion control in cats

166–8locomotion control in rats

171–2, 175–6threshold control theory 604–5thrombolysis, acute ischemic

stroke 9, 11thrombospondins (TSP) 159, 322thumb abduction supinator

splint (TASS) 315thyroid hormone 333tic disorders 579time cells, hippocampal 29timed-up-and-go (TUG) test

42, 112responsiveness 40–1

timed walking tests 40, 42Timocco motion capture system

202tinnitus 133–5, 555tissue plasminogen activator

(tPA) 9, 11, 233, 601–2tizanidine 605, 640toileting, assistive technology

151, 156Toilevator 156Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 393,

396Alzheimer’s disease 394amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

395cerebral palsy 214

tolterodine 428, 641tone and positioning splint

(TAPS) 315topiramate 552, 558torsinA 575torticollis, spasmodic see cervical

dystoniatotal end range time (TERT)

theory 315touchclinical tests 300see also tactile perception

Tourette syndrome 579toxic myopathies 80toxic polyneuropathy 664TP53 (p53) genotype 538trace conditioning 29–30tracheostomy 267–8Training BIG to move faster

program 570training effects, in


transactive responsive sequenceDNA-binding protein-43(TDP-43) 260–1, 268,395

transcranial direct currentstimulation (tDCS)141–2, 219–20

aphasia 443


705Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 33: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

transcranial direct currentstimulation (tDCS) (cont.)cognitive rehabilitation 146–7clinical evidence 227–32, 234theoretical framework221–3

vs. transcranial magneticstimulation 221

deforming spastic paresis 320dementia 528neurorehabilitation role 247–8safety 142stroke 145–7visual field defects 505

transcranial magneticstimulation (TMS) 141,219–20

cognitive rehabilitation 147clinical evidence 227–32, 234diagnostic applications223–4

theoretical framework221–3

vs. transcranial directcurrent stimulation 221

deforming spastic paresis 320dementia 528with diffusion tensor imaging

224dystonia 576, 578with EEG (TMS-EEG) 224with functional neuroimaging

224genetic influences on

therapeutic response 29neurorehabilitation role 246–7paired pulse techniques 142–3praxis 453–4repetitive (rTMS) 141, 219safety 142stroke 87, 89assessing GABA signaling198

cognitive rehabilitation 147,227–32

motor rehabilitation 145predicting recovery 43–5,90–1, 596

swallowing control 409–10testing normal processes

142–3visual cortical function in

blindness 144visual cortical involvement in

tactile perception 142vs. transcranial direct current

stimulation 142transcranial magnetic

stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEP)224

transcription factors, modulatingaxon regeneration 421–2

transcriptome, post-stroke axonsprouting 200–1

transcutaneous electrical nervestimulation (TENS) 135,578

transcutaneous electricalstimulation of neckmuscles, neglect 468

transdifferentiation studies 448transdisciplinary team 281–2transforming growth factor-α

(TGF-α) 287transforming growth factor-β

(TGF-β) 67, 378transneuronal atrophy 3–4transneuronal degeneration 4transplantation therapies, cell

see cell replacementtherapies; cellulartherapies; stem celltherapies

transportation-related injuries 535traumatic brain injury (TBI)

535–44acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

480, 541acute phase treatment

391–400, 538–9biomarkers 536clinical syndromes 541–3diagnostic assessment 536–7disorders of consciousness

388epidemiology 535etiologies 385–6, 535exercise capacity 370exercise training 375genetic influences on outcome

27, 537–8military 535motor recovery 544neurobehavioral sequelae

543–4neuroimaging 536–7noninvasive brain stimulation

226post-acute interventions

539–41prognostic indicators 398recent clinical trials 538–41virtual reality applications

204–8see also consciousness,

disorders oftraumatic spinal cord injury

(SCI) 435–6, 615–16traxoprodil 539treadmill locomotiondorsolateral cord lesions 169energy expenditure 377experimental spinal cord

injury 166, 534unilateral hemisection 169–70VO2 max measurement 368

treadmill trainingapplying learning theories


body weight-supportedsee body weight-supported treadmilltraining

experimental spinal cordinjury 180

stroke rehabilitation 10, 190,607

see also exercise training, gaittraining

tremoressential (ET) 567, 569multiple sclerosis 640

trick maneuvers, Parkinson’sdisease 571–2

trihexyphenidyl 577trk (tropomyosin-related kinase)

receptors 400descending spinal pathways

408downstream signaling 401injured spinal cord 405neuronal uptake and transport

401regulating neuronal survival

402trkA 400–1trkB 400injured spinal cord 405peripheral axonal regeneration

and 403peripheral neuron survival and

402–3trkC 400trophic factors see neurotrophic

factorstropomyosin-related kinase

receptors see trk receptorsTROY 342, 352–3trunkcompensatory movements

600–1motion in space, vestibular

control 357–9muscles, vestibular inputs 357orientation, neglect 468

TSC1 (tuberous sclerosisprotein 1) 11, 379, 420

tube feedingdisorders of consciousness 392dysphagia 411

tumor necrosis factor (TNF)418

tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)215, 323, 557

turtles, axon regeneration 334two-dimensionally (2D) varying

patterns, perception inblindness 140–1

ubiquitin fusion degradationprotein 2 (Ufd2 orUbe4b) 275

ubiquitin/proteasome system(UPS) 265

neurodegenerative diseases264, 266–7

relationship with autophagy267

ubiquitination, protein 66–7UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-

terminal hydroxylase)gene 30

Uhthoff’s phenomenon 642,647–8

ulnar nerve stimulationcortical effects 135–7paretic hand in stroke 137–8

UNAFET-4® device 256–7UNC-5 receptorafter stroke 203axon regeneration 310netrin binding 304, 358netrin signaling 358regenerating lamprey spinal

cord 415UNC-6 323UNC-40 304unfolded protein response (UPR)

265–6unilateral neglect see neglect,

unilateralunmasking see disinhibitionunmyelinated axons 457unresponsive wakefulness

see vegetative stateupper extremitybotulinum toxin injections

319repetitive strain injuries,

wheelchair users 161–2see also forelimb, grasping,

hand function, reachingupper extremity functionassessment 313, 337–8stroke 604–5predicting recovery 333–4,595–7

tetraplegia 625–7weakness and 330–3

upper extremity rehabilitation330–9

constraint-induced movementtherapy see constraint-induced movementtherapy

deforming spastic paresis 318dosage 335–6functional electrical

stimulation 124, 546–7,606, 630

future prospects 338–9interventions 334–7measurement of outcome

337–8mechatronic orthotics 177,

183–4mechatronic prosthetics 177,

184–6motor neuroprostheses 256–9


706 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 34: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

predicting motor recovery333–4

recovery vs. compensation334–5

robotics 177–83, 338specificity of training 336–7strength training 332–3, 336stroke see under stroke

rehabilitationtiming of onset 270–1, 335–6virtual reality applications

208–10, 338upper motor neuron (UMN)

lesionselectrodiagnostic testing 78strength training 332–3weakness 331–2

upper motor neuronscurrent views of function

51–2see also cortical motoneurons;

corticospinal tract axonsurinals 156urinary function see bladder

controlurinary tract, autonomic

dysfunction 427–9urinary tract infections (UTI),

spinal cord injury 623utterance-based technology 224

V1 see primary visual cortexVA-ROBOTICS study 179–81vagus nerve stimulation, tinnitus

135validityoutcome measurement 36–7prognostic research 588–90

valosin containing protein(VCP/p97) 276

valproic acid 447, 552–3vanishing cues technique 481–2,

516variability of practice 98–100context-conditioned 98–9gait training 102–3hypothesis 99

vascular dementia 511–12vascular endothelial growth

factor (VEGF)axon guidance 307gene therapy 520–2neural precursor cell responses

287, 290vascular endothelial growth

factor receptor 2(VEGFR2) 306–7

vascular parkinsonism 569vasopressin see arginine

vasopressinvasovagal syncope (VVS) 420–1,

425vectors, gene therapy 515–17VECTORS trial 336, 603–4, 607vegetative state (VS) 262–3, 387

emergence 398experience of pain 393incidence and prevalence 388

venous thromboembolism, spinalcord injury 620–2

ventilation, mechanicalsee mechanicalventilation

ventral funiculus, locomotorcontrol in rats 172–3

ventral premotor cortex (PMvand pre-PMv) 53,99–102

changes after primary motorcortex injury 107–8

reorganization after stroke85–6, 89

voluntary motor control 53–5ventrolateral funiculus (VLF)locomotor control in cats 167locomotor control in rats

172–3ventromedial prefrontal cortex

(VMPFC), modulation oftinnitus 134–5

ventroposterior nucleus ofthalamus, reorganizationafter sensory loss 77–8

VERITAS trial 269versican 202, 381vertebrates, non-mammalianadult neurogenesis 284–5nervous system regeneration

329–34optic nerve regeneration

118–19, 332, 334verticality, postural 107, 110vestibular dysfunctionassessment 355–6attentional demands 359dynamic visual acuity testing

360exercises see vestibular

rehabilitationfalls and falls risk 363–4postural instability 357–9

vestibular feedback, virtualreality systems 200–1

vestibular rehabilitation 360–4vestibular stimulationanosognosia 470neglect 468

vestibular systemcontrol of balance 108,

356–9stabilization of gaze 360

vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR),balance control 359–60

vestibulospinal tract,neurotrophins and axonregeneration 408

Veterans Administration(VA)/Department ofDefense (DoD), strokecare guidelines 177

vibration exposure injuries,wheelchair users 162

vibration perception tests 300vibration stimulation of neck

muscles, neglect 468vibrotactile perceptioncongenital deafness 132congenital/early blindness 140visual cortical activation in

blindness 145video capture virtual reality

systems 199–200video feedback, neglect

rehabilitation 468, 471videofluoroscopic swallowing

evaluation (VFSE) 407, 610viral vectors 515safety concerns 522selection 516–17

virtual actionplanning–supermarket(VAP-S) 206

virtual automated teller machine(VR-ATM) 207

virtual classroom 203virtual MET (VMET) 206virtual office 204virtual reality (VR) 198–212based rehabilitationapplications 203–10attributes for 202–3balance 113, 209model 211Parkinson’s disease 573stroke 43, 204, 206–10upper extremity 208–10,338

vestibular dysfunction 362head mounted displays

(HMD) 199–201instrumentation 199–202key concepts 198–9postural control assessment

355video capture systems 199–200vs. computer games 182

virtual reality cognitiveperformance assessmenttest (VRCPAT) 205

vision restoration therapy (VRT)502–4

visual cortexauditory activation in

blindness 129–30, 132auditory object recognition in

blindness 132blood flow in blindness 127cross-modal involvement in

tactile perception 142–4modality-independent

perceptual-cognitivefunctions 147

neurorehabilitativeapplications of cross-modality 148

nonvisual tasks involving, inblindness 144–7

ocular dominance columns116

see also occipital cortex,primary visual cortex

visual cueingParkinson’s disease 571–2unilateral neglect 467–8

visual deprivationauditory activation of occipital

cortex 129monocular, chondroitinase

therapy 160somatosensory cortical

plasticity 142sound localization 126–7neural basis ofimprovements 127–9

visual cortex involvement innonvisual tasks 144

see also blindnessvisual feedbackrehabilitation robotics 181–2virtual reality systems 199–200

visual field impairment 500–5ADL and quality of life

measures 504–5after temporal lobectomy 562mechanisms for recovery

503–4rehabilitation 500–3

visual imageryneglect rehabilitation 469during tactile perception

143–4visual loss see blindnessvisual neuroprostheses 545–6,

554–5visual scanning training, neglect

467visual scene displays 220, 222,

225–6visual systemanatomy in blindness 147–8balance control 107–8, 356critical period for development

140cross-modal plasticity 140–8plasticity of connections

114–20regeneration in amphibians

333–4visual word form area (VWFA)

147visuohaptic shape representation,

common 143visuoperceptual assessment,

dementia 512visuospatial neglect 463, 465vitamin D deficiency,

Parkinson’s disease 573VMall 206, 209VO2 max (maximal oxygen

consumption) 367


707Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information

Page 35: Index [] · Index Aβ see amyloid-β ABILHAND questionnaire 591 abundance, in motor system 602–5 acarbose

VO2 max (maximal oxygenconsumption) (cont.)effects of bedrest 270, 369during exercise 367–8factors affecting 368–9measurement 368–9neurological disorders 369–72training-induced increases

268, 372VO2 peak 368neurological disorders 369–72training-induced increases 372

Vocare bladder control system129–30, 428–9, 543

vocational rehabilitationepilepsy 558multiple sclerosis 649

vocational rehabilitationtherapist (VR) 283

voice organizer 484vOICe technology 132voiding, voluntary control

see bladder controlvoluntary motor control 51–7descending tracts 55–7non-primary cortical motor

areas 53–5parallel distributed model 53primarymotor cortex (M1) 51–3role of spared territory in

recovery 57VR-DiSTRO 204

WalkAide® 256–7walkers 156walking 61–8assessment 62–4, 313–14assistive devices 64, 114, 156–7difficulties 61energy expenditure during

374–8outcome measures 66–7post-strokecompensatory strategies15–16, 602

functional electricalstimulation 125

predicting recovery 595see also foot drop

retraining see gait trainingspinal cord injury 61, 348–9,

627–8assessment 350functional electricalstimulation 126–7

prediction 624see also gait, locomotion

walking canes 114, 156walking competencydefined 40electromechanical-assisted gait

training and 193stroke, selecting outcomes to

measure 40–2gait speed 40–1more complex tests 41–2

walking index for spinal cordinjury (WISCI) 67

walking speed (or velocity)electromechanical-assisted gait

training and 193energy expenditure and 377gait kinetics and 43as measure of walking

competency 40–1recovery after stroke 593reliability and validity 40

walking tests 313–14timed 40, 42

Wallenda 416Waller, Augustus 274Wallerian degeneration 4, 7,

274–6active nature 275–6electrodiagnostic testing 78granular degeneration of

cytoskeleton 275indirect 5, 7latent phase 274oligodendrocyte death and

6, 8Wallerian-like degeneration 278–9washout period 235water temperature control

devices 154weaknessdefined 330electrodiagnostic testing 77–80

as inadequate strength 330–1,333

pathophysiology 331–2upper extremity 330–3motor function and 331–2strength training 332–3

Wechsler adult intelligencescale–revised (WAIS-R)512

Weiss, Paul 301wheelchair usersaccidental injuries 162functional electrical

stimulation for posturalcontrol 127

mobility within home 157pressure ulcers 163upper extremity repetitive

strain injuries 161–2vibration exposure injuries 162

wheelchairs 156–7, 161–73active indoor/outdoor-use 165amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

657applying evidence-based

practice 172–3depot 163electric powered (EPW) 165–8with elevating seats 169lightweight manual 163manual 163–4as motor vehicle seats 162positioning hardware 170–2preventing secondary

conditions 161–3pushrim activated power

assisted (PAPAW) 164–5robotic 166–7seat cushions 170with specialized features

168–70spinal cord injury 625–7stand-up 169–70standards 172–3tilt and recline functions 168–9ultralight manual 163–4

whisker maps, plasticity 13, 142whole-body vibration training,

post-polio syndrome 659

Wii, Nintendo 201–2, 209–10Wingless (Wg) proteins 306wisteria floribunda agglutinin

(WFA) 156, 158withdrawal reflexesAplysia 64, 68–9see also flexion-withdrawal

reflexesWlds fusion protein 275–6Wlds mouse 275Wnt proteins 306, 322Wolf motor function test

(WMFT) 338work see employmentworking memory 478, 491–2,

495dementia rehabilitation and

517frontal lobe lesions 490

World Health Organization(WHO)

model of rehabilitation 278–9see also International

Classification ofFunctioning, Disabilityand Health

wrist-driven flexor hinge splint626

wrist position sense test 300writer’s cramp 576–8

see also hand dystonia, focalwriting aids 158

Xbox Kinect gaming system200, 202

yohimbine 175, 181young animalsregenerative ability 8, 380, 414retrograde degeneration and

atrophy 5

zebrafish, neural regeneration284–5, 331–2

zero-sum effect, noninvasivebrain stimulation 223

zolpidem 540zymosan 385


708 Page numbers in bold refer to Volume II and otherwise to Volume I.© in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press978-1-107-01168-7 - Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation: Volume II – Medical Neurorehabilitation: Second EditionEdited by Michael E. Selzer, Stephanie Clarke, Leonardo G. Cohen, Gert Kwakkel and Robert H. MillerIndexMore information