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    Future of Networking, 20061Gregor v. Bochmann, University of Ottawa

    Presentation given at the e-Science Institute, Edinburgh

    September 14, 2006

    Gregor v. Bochmann

    School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE)University of OttawaCanada

    http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~bochmann/talks/FutureNetworking

    Challenges

    for the Future of Networking

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    Abstract

    The technical foundations for the Internet were developed more than 30years ago. Since over 10 years, it has developed into a generalcommunication infrastructure used by people and industry for a varietyof applications. While e-mail and the Web were first the most importantapplications, newer developments have introduced wirelesscommunication and new applications, including multimedia, e-commerce, etc. Certain applications, e.g. in the area of e-science, have

    extreme requirements in terms of bandwidth or delay that cannot beprovided by the current Internet. - This talk will give a personal view ofthe challenges that must be faced for the future of the Internet and thedistributed applications using it, including managerial and technicalaspects. Some of these issues are (1) the integration of wireless LANsand ad-hoc networks with the wired network, (2) fast optical switching,

    (3) user-empowered network management, (4) security and trustmanagement, (5) standards for distributed applications (e.g. ServiceOriented Architecture) and (6) ubiquitous computing. The talk willprovide a general discussion of these issues and present certainexamples of innovative applications.

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    Future of Networking, 20063Gregor v. Bochmann, University of Ottawa

    Overview

    The current Internet and applications Research management - Grand

    Challenges

    Research issues in networking

    Optical networks (the physical level)

    Issues for distributed applications

    Conclusions

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    Internet: Some Characteristics

    Packet switching Buffered in each router or switch (delay)

    IP : connection-less Logically simple, but requiring address look-up for each packet Connection-oriented service allows for more efficient switching, e.g. new

    MPLS technology

    There are not enough addresses. Solutions: use of internal addresses and address translation (NAT); however, internal

    addresses are not reachable or better: use IPv6

    TCP : controls flow between end-systems Provides reliable information flow Many applications need a logical connection between processes running in

    different hosts Not suitable for interactive voice or video traffic (retransmission introduces

    delays) Not suitable for very large bandwidths (order of Gbps)

    UDP : non-reliable alternative to TCP

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    Future of Networking, 20065Gregor v. Bochmann, University of Ottawa

    Some extreme applications

    Large bandwidth and low delay : Videoteleconference (e.g. round-trip delay of0.1 sec at 10 000 km)

    Need for multicasting: video broadcasting

    (e.g. 10 Mbps to 10 000 users : 100 Gbps) Extreme large bandwidth: e.g. 10 Gbps for

    e-science applications

    Extremely low delays: tele-manipulation(e.g. eye surgery training); distributedmusic ensemble

    Ad hoc networking (without fixed

    infrastructure) people in local meeting

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    Network management and scalability

    Need for interworking between differentdomains (subnetworks belonging todifferent organizations) Limited visibility

    Service level agreements (static dynamic)

    Large number of (scalability) Domains

    Routers / switches

    Host computers

    Communicating devices (terminals, phones, TVs, kitchen stoves, etc.)

    Security and reliability A faulty behavior of a single router should only have local impact;

    idem for failures

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    R&D - a long path:From new idea to market place

    Typical time : 20 years Example: Modeling distributed systems by state transition

    diagrams 1969: Bartlett describes a communication protocol with finite state

    machines (FSM) 1976: First version of SDL includes FSM notation 1977: Bochmann and Gecsei propose Extended FSMs for modeling

    communication protocols 1980ies: Standardization of formal description techniques (FDTs) by

    ISO and ITU, including SDL; university-based tool development 1987: Harel proposes State Charts (including certain extensions of

    above notations) 1990ies: Commercial development of software tools supporting

    these notations 1995 ?: Unified Modeling Language (UML) defined by OMG Around 2005: Integration between SDL and UML Version 2

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    The research planning process (B)

    Community-based research planning Consensus building: through mailing lists, discussions

    at workshops / conferences, research collaborations

    Examples:

    The UK Grand Challenges: a perspective on long-term basic andapplied research

    NSF (USA) Workshop on Overcoming Barriers to DisruptiveInnovation in Networks

    Research program of E-NEXT (a EU - FP6 Network ofExcellence)

    CoNEXT conference in Toulouse, Oct. 2005 http://dmi.ensica.fr/conext/

    Canadian research network on Agile All-Photonic Networks(AAPN, funded by NSERC and 6 industrial partners)

    G d Ch ll i i t

    http://dmi.ensica.fr/conext/http://dmi.ensica.fr/conext/
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    Grand Challenges e ine in t eUK)

    See http://www.ukcrc.org.uk/grand_challenges/index.cfm Definition of a Grand Challenge

    A grand challenge should be defined as to have international scope, so thatcontributions by a single nation to its achievement will raise ourinternational profile.

    The ambition of a grand challenge can be far greater than what can beachieved by a single research team in the span of a single research grant.

    The grand challenge should be directed towards a revolutionary advance,rather than the evolutionary improvement of legacy products that isappropriate for industrial funding and support.

    The topic for a grand challenge should emerge from a consensus of thegeneral scientific community, to serve as a focus for curiosity-drivenresearch or engineering ambition, and to support activities in which they

    personally wish to engage, independent of funding policy or politicalconsiderations. (Note: the quotes, here and in subsequent slides, indicatethat the text is copied from the source documentation)

    The following two slides are from Robin Milners talkA scientifichorizon for computingat the World Congres 2004 of the InternationalFederation for Information Processing (IFIP), held in Toulouse.

    http://www.ukcrc.org.uk/grand_challenges/index.cfmhttp://www.ukcrc.org.uk/grand_challenges/index.cfm
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    Grand Challenge Exercise

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    UK Grand Challenge Proposals

    Note: No GC is dedicated to networking issues

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    Ubiquitous ComputingGrand Challenge

    Combination of GC 2 and GC 4 See http://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.html

    Objective:We propose to develop scientific theory and the designprinciples ofGlobal Ubiquitous Computingtogether, in a tight

    experimental loop.

    Engineering challenges: design devices to work from solar power, are aware of their

    location and what other devices are nearby, and form cheap,efficient, secure, complex, changing groupings and interconnectionswith other devices;

    engineer systems that are self-configuring and manage their own

    exceptions; devise methods to filter and aggregate information so as to cope

    with large volumes of data, and to certify its provenience.

    business model for ubiquitous computing, and other human-levelinteractions.

    b

    http://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.htmlhttp://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.htmlhttp://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.htmlhttp://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.html
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    Ubiquitous ComputingGrand Challenge (ii)

    Scientific challenges: discover mathematical models for space and mobility, and develop their

    theories; devise mathematical tools for the analysis of dynamic networks; develop model checking, as well as techniques to analyse stochastic

    aspects of systems, as these are pervasive in ubiquitous computing; devise models of trust and its dynamics;

    design programming languages for ubiquitous computing. A comment: It is not clear where in the context of

    ubiquitous c