Emotion Unit Overview Theories of Emotion Theories of Emotion Embodied Emotion Embodied Emotion ...

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Transcript of Emotion Unit Overview Theories of Emotion Theories of Emotion Embodied Emotion Embodied Emotion ...

  • EmotionUnit OverviewTheories of EmotionEmbodied EmotionExpressed EmotionExperienced EmotionStress and HealthClick on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.**Mollin

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  • Theories of Emotion**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    EmotionPhysiological arousalExpressive behaviorConscious experienceCommon sense theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    James-Lange theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    James-Lange theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    James-Lange theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    Cannon-Bard theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    Cannon-Bard theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    Two-factor theory Also knows as Schachter-Singer Theory**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    Two-factor theorySchachter-Singer**Mollin

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  • Theories of emotions

    Two-factor theorySchachter-Singer**Mollin

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  • Lets try this outYou are camping and enjoying a nice picnic lunch. All of a sudden a bison jumps out of the woods and begins chasing you. Attack caught on tape- 1 minLets review and write out what would happen in the following theories

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    James Lang Theory-

    Cannon Bard Theory-

    Two Factor Theory-

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  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic nervous systemSympathetic nervous systemarousingParasympathetic nervous systemCalmingModerate arousal is ideal**Mollin

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  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System**Mollin

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  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System**Mollin

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  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System**Mollin

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  • Physiological Similarities Among Specific EmotionsDifferent movie experimentFour rooms with four different movies- From control center the subjects perspiration, heart rate, and breathing were measuredMovie 1- horror filmMovie 2- anger provoking filmMovie 3- film that evokes sexual arousalMovie 4- boring film**Mollin

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  • What did this study show us?Very little difference in the physiological response your body has to such different emotional and cognitive responses from the different film. (Except the boring film)

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  • Physiological Differences Among Specific EmotionsDifferences in brain activityAmygdala- higher activity when experiencing fearFrontal lobes- more active when experiencing a positive moodNucleus accumbens- in left frontal lobe. A neural pathway the increases dopamine levels. Electrical stimulation in depressed patients has shown increased smiles, laughter, and giddy euphoria

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  • Are you lying? Polygraph- a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

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  • Dont call me a liar..Polygraphs are not very valid if you think about itOur physiological arousal is much the same from one emotion to anotherMany innocent people have been falsely accused because their emotions were heightened when they took the polygraphMany rape victims fail lie detectors when telling the truth about their assailants*Mollin*

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  • Does it ever work?No spy has never been detected by the FBI or CIA even though both agencies spend million of dollars a year testing their own employeesThe guilty knowledge test works- a person is shown photos or given certain information specific to a crime scene while on the lie detector test. This does show change in physiological response and can be effective.*Mollin*

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  • Cognition and EmotionCognition Can Define EmotionSpill over effect- emotions can spill over from one event to another. Think about the level of emotion from a major sports victory to a riot.Schachter-Singer experiment- with adrenaline shotsArousal fuels emotions, cognition channels it

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  • Detecting Emotion

    Nonverbal cues are usually enough for most of us to detect an emotion but we can often be tricked if one does not pay close attention to small detailsLifting the inner part of your eyebrow, which is hard to consciously do reveals worry . Eyebrows raised and pulled together signal fearLets try something out..**Mollin

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  • Which smile is real and which one is fake?*Mollin*

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  • The smile on the right is real

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  • Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior.. Which person is a male or a female?**Mollin

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  • The faces are gender neutralBut. People were more likely to view the face on the left as male because it looks more angry

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  • So what does this mean?Your gender interprets how you view others emotionIt is normal to want to empathize with people to interpret their emotions and that empathy is based on your own gender and biases*Mollin*

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  • Here is an exampleThe following chart comes from a study that measured how many facial expressions a viewer displayed by watching different films.As you will see it shows that women show their emotions more easily and guys are harder to read

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  • See for yourself*Mollin*

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  • Culture and Emotional Expression: Are nonverbal expressions of emotions universally understood?The meaning of gestures varies with cultureMany of our facial expression displays rules and are evident throughout culturesLets take a look at the next slide and see how we do

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  • From left to right, top to bottom: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust*Mollin*

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  • How does the culture effect how one displays emotion?Cultures that encourage individuality like U.S display visible emotionsIn Chinese cultures, which encourage people to adjust to others, personal emotions are much less visibly displayed*Mollin*

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  • Lets see how well we do when interpreting others facial expressions and emotionsFacial Expression TestReading Faces TestI will now pause this clip and want to see if we can come up with a consensus on what each of you think the emotion isWhat would you do Clip*Mollin*

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  • Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion **Mollin

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  • Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion **Mollin

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  • Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion **Mollin

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  • Levels of Analysis for the Study of Emotion **Mollin

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  • The Effects of Facial Expressions

    Facial feedback**Mollin

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  • Some more examples of the effects of facial feedbackOne study used Botox injections to paralyze the frowning muscles of 10 depressed patients. Two months later, 9 out of 10 non frowning patients were no longer depressed. This study needs more replication to be validated*Mollin*

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  • The psychology of fear*Mollin*

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  • What is the function of fear?Fear is adaptive. Its an alarm system that prepares our body to flee from danger man texts into a bearFear can bind groups togetherFear helps us focus on a problem and rehearse coping strategies

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  • How is fear learned?Observational Learning is a major factorThe Amygdala- Nerves running out of from these knots of neural tissue, one on either side of the brains center, carry messages that control heart rate, sweating, stress hormones and attention that rev up in threatening situations

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  • Amygdala and FearRabbits learn to react with fear to a tone that precedes an impending small shock unless their Amygdala is damaged.Rats that have their Amygdala deactivated show no fear learningHumans with damage to the Amygdala can sometimes not even experience fear!Amygdala and Fear Clips- 7 min (safari) *Mollin*

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  • Do Something That Scares YouWhat is the best way to overcome your fears?Do Something That Scares You ArticleWhat are your thoughts on the article? What is one quote that stood out to you?*Mollin*

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  • Conquering your fearSmash Fear- Ask Ted- 16 minConsiderHow hard is it to overcome your own fears?Why?While watching the film please record and create a top five advice from overcoming your fear from what you learned from the clip.*Mollin*

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  • Anger*Mollin*

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  • Anger

    Evoked by events, often times the anger is worst the event that caused" itCatharsisExpressing anger can increase angerCan lead to heart disease

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  • Happiness

    HappinessFeel-good, do-good phenomenonWell-being**Mollin

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  • HappinessThe Short Life of Emotional Ups and DownsWatsons studies**Mollin

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  • HappinessWealth and Well-Being**Mollin

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  • HappinessWealth and Well-Being**Mollin

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  • HappinessTwo Psychological Phenomena: Adaptation and ComparisonHappiness and Prior ExperienceAdaptation-level phenomenonHappiness and others attainmentsRelative deprivationThink of upward comparisonWould be better if we used downward comparison**Mollin

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  • Lets look at some researchEuropean 8-12 year olds with cerebral palsy experience normal psychological well beingStudies show it takes about five weeks after being diagnosed with HIV to feel much less emotionally distraughtIs happiness really just a state of mind?Do we place to much emphasis on our environments role in happiness?

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  • HappinessPredictors of Happiness**Mollin

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  • How to be happierRealize that happiness may not come from financial successTake control of your timeAct happyGet enough sleepGive priority to close relationshipsRecord your gratitude and count your blessingsHave a level of spirituality*Mollin*

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  • Some ResearchLets take a look at Does Money Buy Happiness?Once done: Create a top five to do list of being happy based on everything you learned today. Every piece of advice must be based on the information presented not just your opinionOptional Assignment- Do an article critique on the article. The article and instructions are on my website under the Article Critique Link*Mollin*

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  • Introduction to Stress!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Health psychologyBehavioral medicine**Mollin

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  • Stress and Illness

    StressStress appraisal**Mollin

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  • Stress and IllnessThe Stress Response SystemSelyes general adaptation syndrome (GAS)AlarmResistanceexhaustion**Mollin

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  • Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome**Mollin

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  • Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome**Mollin

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  • Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome**Mollin

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  • Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome**Mollin

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  • Stress and IllnessStressful Life EventsCatastrophesSignificant life changesDaily hassles**Mollin

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  • Stress and the Heart

    Coronary heart diseaseType A versus Type BType AType B**Mollin

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  • Which one are you?*Mollin*

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  • Stress and Susceptibility to Disease

    Psychophysiological illnessesPsychoneuroimmunology (PNI)LymphocytesB lymphocytesT lymphocytesStress and AIDSStress and Cancer**Mollin

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  • The End

  • Definition Slides

  • Emotion= a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.**Mollin

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  • James-Lange Theory= the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.**Mollin

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  • Cannon-Bard Theory= the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.**Mollin

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  • Two-factor Theory= the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.This is very similar to Cannon Bard theory except this time a cognitive appraisal or thought needs to trigger the emotional response**Mollin

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  • Polygraph= a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measure several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).**Mollin

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  • Facial Feedback= the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness.For example: The woman was asked to touch the golf tees together forcing her to frown. When showed scenes of war, sickness, and start without the tees a level of sadness was reported. That level of sadness was increased when the scenes were shown with the artificial frown**Mollin

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  • Catharsis= emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.Expressing anger can sometimes calm us down but only if the anger is directed against the provoker, it is justified, the target is not intimidating and little guild is felt afterwards**Mollin

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  • Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon= peoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.**Mollin

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  • Well-being= self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate peoples quality of life.**Mollin

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  • Adaptation-level Phenomenon= our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.We adapt to our current level of achievement or happiness, consider it normal, and require something better to have another surge of happinessConsider getting a new t.v (surge), getting a raise (surge). Having the surge wear off and wanting more

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  • Relative Deprivation= the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.Consider: Alex Rodriguez signed a 10 year 275 million dollar contract. Another player would then feel bad about their 20 million dollar contract who played the same position**Mollin

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  • Behavioral Medicine= an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavior and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease..Health psychology is a branch of behavioral medicine**Mollin

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  • Health Psychology= a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.Asks: How do our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease?What attitudes and behaviors help prevent illness and promote health and well being?**Mollin

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  • Stress= the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.**Mollin

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  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)= Selyes concept of the bodys adaptive response to stress in three phases Stage One- Alarm- Mobilize resources- you experience an alarm reaction due to the sudden activation of your sympathetic nervous systemStage Two- Resistance- Cope with stressor- Your temperature, blood pressure and respiration remain highStage Three- Exhaustion- Reserves depleted- Now you are more vulnerable to illness, or even in extreme cases collapse or death**Mollin

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  • Coronary Heart Disease= the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America.Correlation between prolonged stress and heart disease**Mollin

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  • Type A= Friedman and Rosenmans term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.**Mollin

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  • Type B= Friedman and Rosenmans term for easygoing, relaxed people.**Mollin

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  • Psychophysiological Illness= literally, mind-body illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.**Mollin

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  • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)= the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.**Mollin

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  • Lymphocytes= the two types of white blood cells that are part of the bodys immune system; B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.**Mollin

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