Emotion. Emotion Defining Emotion Defining Emotion Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Elements of...
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EmotionDefining EmotionElements of Emotion 1: The BodyElements of Emotion 2: The MindElements of Emotion 3: The CulturePutting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender
EmotionA state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules.
Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary and secondary emotionsThe face of emotionThe brain and emotionHormones and emotionDetecting emotions: Does the body lie?
Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary emotionsEmotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt.Secondary emotionEmotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures.Three biological areas of emotion are facial expressions, brain regions and circuits, and autonomic nervous system.
Universal Expressions of EmotionFacial expressions for primary emotions are universal.Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them.Facial feedbackProcess by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed.Infants are able to read parental expressions.Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion.
The Face of AngerAnger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the face.In each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form.
Facial Expressions in Social ContextAcross and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing.People dont usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around.Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances.People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them.
The Brain and EmotionThe amygdalaResponsible for assessing threat. Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear.Left prefrontal cortex Involved in motivation to approach others.Damage to this area results in loss of joy.Right prefrontal cortex Involved in withdrawal and escape. Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria.
Hormones and EmotionWhen experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released.EpinephrineNorepinephrineResults in increased alertness and arousal.At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally.
The Autonomic Nervous System
Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal.Typical measures:Galvanic Skin ResponsePulse, blood pressureBreathingFidgeting
Polygraph TestsEmpirical support is weak and conflicting.Test is inadmissible in most courts.It is illegal to use for most job screening.Many government agencies continue to use for screening.
Elements of Emotion 2: The MindHow thoughts create emotionsThe two factor theory of emotion.Attributions and emotions.Cognitions and emotional complexity
Two-factor Theory of EmotionPhysiological arousalSweaty palmsIncreased heart raterapid breathingCognitive LabelAttribute source of arousal to a causeTo have an emotion, both factors are required
Attributions and EmotionsPerceptions and attributions are involved in emotions.How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it.For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal.Philosophy of life is also influential.
Cognitions and Emotional ComplexityCognitions, and therefore, emotions, become more complex as a childs cerebral cortex matures.Self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, do not occur until after infancy, due to the emergence of a sense of self and others.People can learn how their thinking affects their emotions and can change their thinking accordingly.
Elements of Emotion 3: The CultureCulture and emotional variationThe rules of emotional regulationDisplay rulesBody languageEmotion work
Culture and Emotional VariationCulture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about.Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.Ex. SchadenfreudeSome cultures dont have words for emotions that seem universal to others.Tahitian and sadnessDifferences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages.
The Rules of Emotional RegulationDisplay RulesWhen, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched.Body LanguageThe nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express.Emotion WorkActing out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion.
Putting it all together: Emotion and GenderPhysiology and intensitySensitivity to other peoples emotionsCognitionsExpressivenessFactors which affect expressivenessEmotion work
Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and GenderPhysiology and intensityWomen recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men.Men experience emotional events more intensely than do women.Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women.
Sensitivity to Other Peoples EmotionsFactors which influence ones ability to read emotional signals:The sex of the sender and receiver.How well the sender and receiver know each other.How expressive the sender is.Who has the power.Stereotypes and expectations.
CognitionsMen and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger.Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard.Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers.
ExpressivenessIn North America women:Smile more than men.Gaze at listeners more.Have more emotionally expressive faces.Use more expressive body movements.Touch others more.Acknowledge weakness and emotions more.Compared to women, men only express anger to strangers more.
Factors Influencing Emotional ExpressivenessGender rolesCultural normsThe specific situation
Emotion Work and GenderWomen work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy.Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional.Why?Gender roles and status.
Figure 9.8 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Aronoff, J., Woike, B. A., & Hyman, L. M. (1992). Which are the stimuli in facial dislpays of anger and happiness? Configurational bases of emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1050-1066.Figure 9.6 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:
Figure 9.11 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Schachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 49-80. New York: Academic Press.