Embodied Emotion Chapter 12, Lecture 2 “The point to remember: Arousal fuels...

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Transcript of Embodied Emotion Chapter 12, Lecture 2 “The point to remember: Arousal fuels...

  • Slide 1
  • Embodied Emotion Chapter 12, Lecture 2 The point to remember: Arousal fuels emotion; cognition channels it. - David Myers
  • Slide 2
  • Embodied Emotion We know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).
  • Slide 3
  • Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System During an emotional experience, our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us.
  • Slide 4
  • Arousal and Performance Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.
  • Slide 5
  • Physiological Similarities Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar. Excitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal. M. Grecco/ Stock Boston
  • Slide 6
  • Physiological Differences Physical responses, like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy. The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.
  • Slide 7
  • Cognition and Emotion What is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)? Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
  • Slide 8
  • Cognition Can Define Emotion An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event. Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting. AP Photo/ Nati Harnik Reuters/ Corbis
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  • Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003). Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a) or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
  • Slide 10
  • When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004). Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, Dartmouth College, www.whalenlab.info Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
  • Slide 11
  • Two Routes to Emotion Zajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.
  • Slide 12
  • Lie Detection
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  • Slide 14
  • So is a 70% accuracy rate for polygraphs good? Things to consider: If 5 percent of 1000 employees are guilty of misconduct, and all are given the test, then 285 innocent employees will be wrongly accused.
  • Slide 15
  • Lie Detection So is a 70% accuracy rate for polygraphs good? Things to consider: Assume that 1 in every 1000 employees of a government and its defense contractors is a spy. If a test to detect spies has a 95 percent accuracy rate, what is the chance that a person who tests positively (is identified as a spy) is actually a spy? Only 2 Percent!!!
  • Slide 16
  • Lie Detection We know that 1 in 1000 is a spy. However, when the test is given to the 999 who are not spies, the test will identify 50 as spies. Thus, of the 51 employees testing positive, only one (approximately 2 percent) will actually be a spy. The base rate for spying indicates that the overwhelming majority of employees are not spies. When combined with even a small false-positive rate, we get a vast majority being falsely accused.
  • Slide 17
  • Homework Read p.507-514