Emotion, Stress, and Health

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chapter 13 . Emotion, Stress, and Health. chapter 13. Overview. Nature of emotion Emotion and culture Nature of stress Stress and emotion How to cope. Objectives- Nature of Emotion . Explain emotion and give examples Compare and contrast primary and secondary emotions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Emotion, Stress and Health

Emotion, Stress,and Healthchapter 13 OverviewNature of emotionEmotion and cultureNature of stressStress and emotionHow to copechapter 13

Objectives- Nature of Emotion Explain emotion and give examplesCompare and contrast primary and secondary emotions Who is Paul Ekman? What are his 2 terms?Describe the PHYSICOLOGICAL , Brain and body component, of emotion including amygdala and sympathetic and parasympathetic parts

Emotion- ob-#1Emotion- a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation ,cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward actionPhysiological changes face, brain, bodyCognitive process- interpretation of eventsCulture influences shape experience and expressionIf Human emotions =tree-bio capacity =trunk, root system;, thoughts explanations =branches; culture, the gardener that shapes, forms, prunes

EmotionA state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules

chapter 13

5Emotion and the bodyPrimary emotions- are biologically basedThought to be universalBorn with them: fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, contemptEach has physiological pattern & corresponding facial expression and the situations that invoke themSadness follows loss; fear follows threat of bodily harm; anger follows injustice or insultOn the other handSecondary emotions- include all the variations and blends of emotions that vary from culture to cultureDevelop graduallyIncreased cognitive maturity

The bodyPrimary emotionsEmotions considered to be universal and biologically based, usually thought to include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt

Secondary emotionEmotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultureschapter 13

8Your turnWhich of the following is a primary emotion?1. Love2. Suspicion3. Joy4. Jealousychapter 13

9Your turnWhich of the following is a primary emotion?1. Love2. Suspicion3. Joy4. Jealousychapter 13

10The Face of Emotion Facial expressions across cultures:Anger, fear, sadness, happiness(joy), disgust, surprise, contempt, (possibly pride)1872 Charles Darwin said facial expression allowed to tell friend from foePaul Ekman- gathered evidence for 7 facial features with emotionsStudied cultures Brazil, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, U.S. = most recognized facial features (Lab)

Universal expressions of emotionFacial expressions for primary emotions are universal.

Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them.

Facial feedbackProcess by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressedchapter 13

12The Functions of facial expressions Not only reflect internal feelings BUT influence themFacial feedback- the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressedTold to look happy (family pic) positive feelings increaseTold to look mean sports pic) pos. feelings decreaseSignaling function- when youre a baby come get mego away

Functions contGenerate emotions in others= moods are contagiousMood cognition- likely to start imitating peoples moods around youCreating a rapport; could be either wayStarting end of first year= infants imitate parentsAlter behavior to parents in reaction to parents facial expression of emotion

The brain and emotionThe amygdalaResponsible for assessing threat

Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality in processing fear.

chapter 13

15Emotion and the BrainIdentify parts of the brain involved in emotionsPrefrontal region :Right- withdraw or escapeFlee from danger, withdraw from disgusting scenePrefrontal region: Left approach othersHappiness= approach (positive) anger= Negative

Emotions Brain contAmygdala- small structure in limbic system (anger and fear)Evaluates sensory informationEmotional importance- fight or flightJump when feel hand on back in dark alleyDamaged= problems with recognizing fear or displaying it

The brain and emotionMirror neuronsA class of neurons, distributed throughout the brain, that fire when an animal sees or hears an action and carries out the same action on its ownFar more evolved and varied in humans than in other animals

Help us recognize others intentionschapter 13

18Emotion and brain cont..Mirror neurons- brain cells that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action Involved in empathy, imitation and reading emotions M.R.I. confirms key areas of brain activated when witness actions, emotions, feelings

The Energy of Emotion- Speed up or slow down sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system sends adrenal glands to 2 HORMONS EpinephrineNorepinephrineDilate pupils, increased heart beat, dry mouth, urinate uncontrollablyParasympathetic- slows down heart beat, saliva, genital stimulation Hormones and emotionWhen experiencing an intense emotion, two hormones are released.EpinephrineNorepinephrine

Results in increased alertness and arousal

At high levels, can create sensation of being out of control emotionally

chapter 13

21The autonomic nervous system

chapter 13

22SummaryEmotionsPrimary/secondaryPaul EkmanBrain/ Body and emotion