Discounting (Transactional analysis / TA is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and...

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Each time we meet a problem, We have two options. We can use the full power of our grown up thinking, feeling and action to solve the problem or We can go to into the script. Discounting is defined as unawarely ignoring information relevant to the solution to the problem.

Transcript of Discounting (Transactional analysis / TA is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and...

  • 1. Discounting

2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone 9744551114 Mail manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations. 3. Introduction Each time we meet a problem, We have two options. We can use the full power of our grown up thinking, feeling and action to solve the problem or We can go to into the script. 4. Introduction If we do move into the script, we begin to perceive the world so that it seems to fit the decisions we made as an infant. We are likely to blank out our awareness of some aspect of the real situation. At the same time, We may blow up other aspects of the here and now problem into giant proportions. 5. Introduction Instead of taking action to solve the problem, we rely on the magical solution which our script offers. We hope in Child that by working this magic, we can manipulate the world into providing a solution to us. Instead of being active, we become passive. 6. Definition Discounting is defined as unawarely ignoring information relevant to the solution to the problem. 7. Example Imagine you are sitting in a crowded restaurant and you need a glass of water. You tried to catch the eye of the waiter several times but failed. At this time, you go into script. You replay the time when your mother was unresponsive. You become hopeless and say to yourself in your head Its no good. No matter how much I try, He is not going to come. 8. Example To get to this conclusion, you have had to ignore some information about here and now reality. You have discounted several options you have as a grown up. Options you did not have as a baby. You could have stood up, walked over the waiter and shouted in his ears or You could have gone to the nearest table where there was a water jug, asked for it and poured yourself a drink. Had you acted these ways, you would have been active in problem solving instead of passive. 9. Example In the same situation, your friend may get angry and snorts That fellow is obviously incompetent. If I had my way, I did see him fired!. He has also gone to script. But as a child, he decided upon the life position as I+U- , rather than being I-U+. Now, he sees waiter through his own spectacles. He discounts the waiters competence to respond to the call. He is also being passive. His action is not helping him get a glass of water. 10. Grandiosity Every discount is accompanied by grandiosity. This is an exaggeration of some feature of reality. The expression making a mountain out of a molehill aptly describes grandiosity. One feature of the situation is blotted out or diminished through discounting , so another feature is blown up out of proportion by grandiosity. 11. Grandiosity When you sat in the restaurant feeling hopeless because the waiter wasnt bringing the glass of water, you were not only discounting your own options, but were also crediting the waiter with the power he didnt have, the power to determine whether or not you got any water. Your friend discounted waiters competence and grandiose about himself. He was taking on himself the role of a judge and jury, when he had neither adequate evidence nor responsibility to do so. 12. Activity Think back to a recent situation in which the outcome was unsatisfactory for you. That situation represents a problem which you didnt solve. Looking back again, do you now identify a feature or features of reality that you were discounting? Could you have acted in different ways that you didnt think of at the time? Were you ignoring somebody elses ability to act in a particular way. Were there resources in the situation that were available but which you didnt think of using? 13. Activity Do you identify where you were being grandiose? What features of yourself, others or situation were you blowing up out of proportion? If you are working in a group or if you have a friend who is willing to help you, get a second opinion on your answers. It is often easier for us to spot other peoples discounting and grandiosity than to spot our own. Whether or not you have got immediate answers to these questions, keep your problem situation in mind. 14. Passive behaviors When I discount, I do so by making statement to myself in my own head. Thus a discount itself is not observable. Since you cant thought read, you have no way of knowing I am discounting unless I speak or act in some way which indicates the presence of the discount. 15. Passive behaviors There are four types of behavior which always indicate that the person concerned is discounting. They are Doing nothing. Over adaptation. Agitation. Incapacitation or violence. 16. Doing nothing The members of a TA group are sitting in a circle. The group leader says : Lets go round the group and each person say what he or she appreciates or resents about todays session. If you dont want to take part, its OK to say Pass. The exercise begins. People round the group each give an appreciation or resentment. One or two say Pass. 17. Doing nothing Then came Normans turn. There is a silence. People waited for Norman to say something but he doesnt. He sits unmoving and silent, staring into space. Since he doesnt seem to want to speak any appreciation or resentment, the person next to him waits for him to say Pass. But Norman doesnt do that either. He continues to sit as if dumb. 18. Doing nothing Norman is showing the passive behavior called doing nothing. Instead of using energy to take problem solving action, he is using into to stop himself from acting. A person exhibiting this passive behavior feels uncomfortable and experiences himself as not thinking. He is discounting his own ability to do anything about the situation. 19. Over adaptation Amy comes into the house after a hard days work. Her husband Brian is sitting reading a newspaper. Looking beyond him into the kitchen, Amy sees a huge pile of unwashed dishes besides the sink. Hi, says Brian, Hope youve had a good day. Just about time for tea, isnt it?. Taking her coat off, Amy goes straight through to the kitchen. She washes the pile of dishes and gets down to making tea. 20. Over adaptation Neither Brian nor Amy noticed that he has not asked here to wash the dishes and make tea. Nor has she asked him if he wants her to. Still less has she paused to think whether she herself wants to wash the dishes or whether it might be more appropriate if Brian Washed them. 21. Over adaptation Amys passive behavior is over adaptation. When someone overadapts, she is complying with what she believes in Child are the wishes of others. She does so without checking with them what their wishes are in reality, and without any reference to what her own wishes are. The person in overadapation, unlike the person in doing nothing, experiences herself as thinking during the passive behavior. He thinking actually proceeds from a contamination 22. Over adaptation Someone is overadaptation will often be experienced by others as helpful, adaptable or accommodating. Thus overadaptation is frequently stroked by those to whom the person relates. Because of this social acceptability and because the person appears to be thinking, overadaptation is the most difficult to detect of the four passive behavior. The person in overadaptation is discounting her ability to act on her own options. Instead, she follows options she believes others want. 23. Agitation The class of students is listening to the lecturer. At the back of the room sits Adam. The lecturer is speaking rather quietly and Adam has difficulty in hearing him. As the lecture period goes on, Adam has more and more trouble following what lecturer is talking about. He puts down his pen and starts drumming his fingers on the desk. He is waggling his foot rapidly up and own in time of his finger drumming. 24. Agitation Adam is showing agitation. In this passive behavior, the person is discounting his ability to act to solve the problem. He feels acutely uncomfortable, and engages in purposeless, repetitive activity in an attempt to relieve the discomfort. Energy is directed into the agitated activity instead of into action to solve the problem. During agitation, the person does not experience himself as thinking. 25. Agitation If Adam were using his clear Adult, he could simply attract the lecturers attention and ask him to speak up. As it is, his finger drumming and food waggling do nothing towards solving his problem. Many common habits entail aggression. Nail biting, smoking, hair twiddling and compulsive eating are all examples. 26. Incapacitation and violence Betty is in her late thirties. The younger of two daughters, she still lives at home with her aged mother, whom she looks after. The old woman, despite her age, is really in pretty and sound health. Out of the blue, Betty meets a man and they fall in love. Happily, she announces to her mother that she intends to move out to live with him and perhaps get married. 27. Incapacitation and violence A couple of days later, the mother begins having dizzy spells and has to take to her bed. The doctor can find nothing physically wrong with her. But Betty begins to feel guilty about her intention to move out. Mothers passive behavior is incapacitation. 28. Incapacitation and violence Here, the person disables herself in some way. Discounting her own ability to solve a problem, she hopes in Child that by incapacitating herself she can get someone else to solve it. Incapacitation can sometimes be in the form of psychosomatic ailments, as here. Alternatively, it can be achieved by mental breakdown or by abuse of drugs or alcohol. 29. Incapacitation and violence Robert has just had a fu