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1816-1874

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  • 1. Juan Diaz de Solis (Solis) First European to set foot on Argentine soil in 1516 BUT before Europeans:Population of about 100,000 Settlements in the northwest that were a part ofInca Empire ALSO nomadic Indians

2. 1536: First settlement of Buenos Aires by Mendoza whowas from Paraguay, but was destroyed by Indians 1580: Buenos Aires founded by Spaniard, Garay Spain establishes a permanent colony here Spanish brings: the Spanish language Catholicism 3. Created by Spain in 1776 Spains attempt to expand their Spanish empire Countries that made up the vice-royalty:Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia. Buenos Aires: the capital During this time Buenos Aires became asuccessful port1806: British invasion begins During this time in Europe = Napoleonic Wars British wanted to weaken Spains Empire So.take over their South American territory 4. San Martin: Leader of Argentinas fight1.) Natives ended upfor independencefighting off British July 9, 1816: Argentinainvasions on their own officially declares 2.) Spanish king independence from Spaincaptured by Napoleon FIRST independent country in Latin America SoMay RevolutionBut the independence ofbegins in 1810 the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata was also May 25, 1810:declaredArgentina creates itsown independentgovernment Succeeding battleagainst the royalistswas the Battle ofTucuman in 1812 5. Mainpolitical issue in early years of republic:Unitarists (favor centralization) VS. Federalists(demanding autonomy for the regions) Series of Civil Wars take place: Paraguay escapes Buenos Aires attempt to liberate itSo then declare independence and fall under the rule ofdictator Francia Artigas leads Uruguay toward independence But Uruguay didnt officially achieve independenceuntil 1828 with British mediation Bolivar helps Peru achieve independence in 1828 Peru renamed Bolivia after its liberator 6. United Provinces dissolve = Federaliststriumphed 1821: Rivadavia appointed chief minister advocated educational, social, and economic reform Founded University of Buenos Aires abolished ecclesiastical fuero & the tithe, & suppressed somemonasteries Greatest progress: cattle raising 1822: Rivadavia introduces Emphyteusis A program that distributes public lands through long-termleases at fixed rentals Result: the creation of a new & powerful estancieroclass, which was the enemy of Rivadavias progressiveprinciples 7. 1825: Rivadavia proposes constitution 1826: he was elected President War with Brazil (1825-1828) over Uruguay Later his agent signs peace treaty that recognized Uruguayas a part of Brazilian Empire He denies the treaty, but too late Combination of publics resentment over constitution and treaty =Rivadavias downfall Who doesnt like constitution? federalist caudillos because they feared that strong national governmentwould end their power sothey refuse to ratify constitution & even remove their delegates fromcongress Estancieros didnt like constitution because they didnt wanted to loseland privileges Basically rich people who didnt want to lose power1827: He resigns as president & goes into exhile = liberal programfor achieving national unity failed 8. Rosas becomes governor of Buenos Aires in 1829 Rosas long reign = reversal of Rivadavias policies People saw him as young, handsome, and a popular do-gooder But later becomes powerful dictator 9. ARGENTINA 1831-1845 10. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD-Mexico: Age of Santa Anna (1821-1855)-The Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1834) ~Charles Darwin and Robert Fitzroy Ro de laPlata, Patagonia and Tierra Del Fuego-The United States ~1830 the Underground Railroad is established ~1831 Nat Turners Slave Revolt in SouthamptonCounty, Virginia. (anti-literacy law) ~1835 Texas declares independence from Mexico ~ Presidents: John Quincy Adams , Andrew Jackson, Martin VanBuren , William Harrison, John Tyler, and James K. Polk 11. FEDERAL PACT : JANUARY 4, 1831 signed by: Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires,Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. created a federal military alliance to go against theUnitarians. Purpose: the federalist wanted to create a federation ofindependent provinces The Unitarians were against this idea May 31, 1831 :Federalists vs. Paz and his troopsresulted in the Unitarians defeat. Provinces of theUnitarian League eventually joining the Federal Pactand the Argentine Confederation. 12. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS 13. THE DISPUTE AND LUIS VERNET The British, Spanish, and French all claim tobasically own these islands. Luis Vernet approached the British and asks if itsok to build a settlement where the Spanishsettlement of Puerto Soledad used to be. He asksfor protection of the settlement if the British everywanted to have a permanent presence there. Aftermaking an agreement with them he continuallyprovides them with reports. 14. LUIS VERNET AS GOVERNOR Luis Vernet is proclaimed governor of the islands in1829. Britain is NOT ok with this. In 1831, Luis Vernet seized three American vessels(Breakwater, Superior and Harriet) for hunting sealsin Falklands waters. He takes their seals and thenarrests them. He goes to trial with them for violating restrictionson seal hunting. He is later expelled by the USSLexington and the island is declared free of allgovernment. 15. JUAN MANUEL DE ROSAS 16. BACKGROUND INFO born in Buenos Aires on March 30, 1793. born to one of the wealthiest families of Rio dePlata He came from money, like Carranza. Carranzabecame a presidential dictator and Rosas becomesa dictator as well. His name used to be Ortiz de Rozas but hechanges it to just Rosas. He starts military career at age 15. 17. CONQUEST OF THE DESERT (1833) The purpose: to expand and secure the farming lands from attacks. The attacks were called malones andwere done because the indigenouspeople were poor Thousands of square kilometers weregained by the end of the first conquest. The land was then distributed tohacendados 18. THE SUPREME CHIEF OF THECONFEDERATION At first, Rosas was just the governor of the BuenosAires Province from 1829 until he resigns after his 3year term is done He is elected the Supreme Chief of theConfederation in 1839.He was the last person tohave this title. He gains control of the ENTIRE country He destroys the liberty of the press, dissolvesCongress, organizes a secret police and he continueshis rule until he is overthrown in1852 Does this remind you of something? The signs of adictator: destroys peoples freedoms, makes a group ofpeople who only answer to him and are loyal, and getsrid of the existing people in congress. 19. 1845 Bernardino Rivadavia, the first president ofthe United Provinces of Argentine(1826), died under exile in Spain. The naval Battle of Vuelta de Obligado tookplace on the waters of the Paran River onNovember 20, 1845, between the ArgentineConfederation, under the leadership of JuanManuel de Rosas, and an Anglo-French fleet. 20. 1846 The Battle of Laguna Limpia, was part of theArgentine Civil Wars. It happened in thesouthwest of the Corrientes Province,Argentina on February 4, 1846, when thearmy under Entre Ros Province governorJusto Jos de Urquiza, defeated andcaptured the commander of the advancedcolumns of Corrientes army, JuanMadariaga. 21. 1847 Camila OGorman, a wealthy socialite, and Fr.Gutirrez, a Jesuit priest, eloped on horsebackand found refuge in Corrientes Province, whichwas then under the control of BenjamnVirasoro, hostile to the regime of Juan Manuelde Rosas. As the scandal broke, the supportersof Rosas suggested that she had beenkidnapped. Rosas exiled politicalopponents, and future President DomingoFaustino Sarmiento, declared that Rosastyranny was responsible for the moral corruptionof Argentine womanhood. 22. 1848 Camila OGorman and Ladislao Gutierrez areexecuted on the orders of Argentine dictatorJuan Manuel de Rosas. 23. 1849 On January 10, the head of the French naval forces inthe Rio de la Plata, Admiral LePredour is orderedFrance to negotiate with the Confederacy andembarks Argentina in Montevideo to Buenos Aires. On April 23, Justo Jos de Urquiza, enacts a lawprotectionism to favor the development of theprovincial economy. On June 9, two divisions invade Paraguayan provinceof Corrientes, aim to extend the territory betweenthe rivers Parana and Uruguay to facilitatecommunications with the Empire of Brazil. On July 28 Urquiza founded the Colegio deConcepcin del Uruguay. 24. 1850 Juan Manuel de Rosas presented hisresignation to the Board of Representativesof Buenos Aires on September 12th, eventhough his term ends on March 7, 1850. Hisresignation was rejected immediately. 25. 1851 The Platine War, also known as the War againstOribe and Rosas August 18, 1851 February 3,1852) was fought between the ArgentineConfederation and an alliance consisting of theEmpire of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentineprovinces of Entre Ros and Corrientes. The warwas part of a long-running contest betweenArgentina and Brazil for influence over Uruguayand Paraguay, and hegemony over the regionsbordering the Ro de la Plata (River Plate). Theconflict took place in Uruguay, on the Ro de laPlata and in the northeast of Argentina (thePlatine region). 26. 1852 The Battle of Caseros occurred on February3, 1852, between the Army of Buenos Airescommanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and theGrand Army (Ejrcito Grande) led by Justo Josde Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza, and governorof Entre Ros, defeated Rosas, who fled to theUnited Kingdom. This defeat marked a sharpdivision in the history of Argentina. Urquizas triumph terminated at long last the 20-years term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires 27. 1853 Urquiza sponsored the creation of theConstitution in 1853. Its first version waswritten in 1853 by a Constitutional Assemblygathered in Santa Fe, and the doctrinal basiswas taken in part from the United StatesConstitution. Argentina abolished slavery. 28. 1854 After overthrowing Rosas, the newconstitution est