Nucleic Acids Powerpoint1

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    NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA and RNA)

    DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    •DNA controls all living processes including

     production of new cells – cell division

    •DNA carries the genetic code – stores and

    transmits genetic information from one

    generation to the next •Chromosomes are made of DNA

    •DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell

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    !e distribution o" nucleic acids

    in t!e eu#aryotic cell

    • DNA is found in the nucleus $it! small amounts in mitoc!ondria and c!loro%lasts

    • RNA is found throughout the cell

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    Model of DNA:

    •The model was developed ! &atson and Cric#  in "#$%&

    •The! received a nobel %ri'e in "#'(for their wor)&

    •The model loo)s li)e a twisted

    ladder – double !elix&  

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    Died in *

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    *il)ins + ,ran)lin -"#$(.: /0ra!

    cr!stallograph!

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    1ntwisted it

    loo)s li)e

    this:

    • The sides of the ladder are:

    2 3 %!os%!ate

    4 3 sugar molecule

    • The ste%s of the ladder are C5 65 T5 A 3

    nitrogenous bases

    -Nitrogenous means containing the

    element nitrogen&.

    A 3 Adenine

    T 3 !ymine

    A alwa!s pairs with T in DNA

    C 3 Cytosine

    6 3 +uanine

    C alwa!s pairs with 6 in DNA Nucleotide

    (A%%les are asty)

     (Coo#ies are +ood)

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    • 7t is the order of these base %airs that determines

    genetic ma#eu%

    • 8ne %!os%!ate 9 one sugar 9 one base 3 one nucleotide

    • Nucleotides are the building bloc#s of DNA –

    thus5 each strand of DNA is a string of nucleotides  

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    NUCLEIC ACID SRUCURE

    •  Nucleic acids are %olynucleotides

    • Their uilding loc)s are nucleotides

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     N1C;8T7D; 4TR1CT1R;

    ,-.S,AE SU+AR 

    Riose or

    Deox!riose

    NUCLE.IDE

    BASE

    PURINES PYRIMIDINES

    Adenine (A) Guanine(G)

    Cytocine (C) Thymine (T)

    Uracil (U)

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    Riose is a pentose

    C1

    C5

    C4

    C3 C2

    O

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    RI/.SE DE.01RI/.SE

    C-.-

    -

    .-

    C

    C

    .- .-

    C

    .

    - --

    C

    C-.-

    -

    .-

    C

    C

    .- -

    C

    .

    - --

    C

    4pot the difference

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    -E SU+AR2,-.S,-AE

    /AC3/.NE

    • The nucleotides are all orientated in

    the same direction

    • The phosphate group

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    ADDIN+ IN -E /ASES

    • The ases are attached

    to the "st Caron

    • Their order is important

    7t determines the

    genetic information of the molecule

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    +

    C

    C

    A

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    DNA IS MADE OF

    TWO STRANDS OF

    POLYNUCLEOTIDE

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    C

    G

    G

    T

    A

    A

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    P

    G

    C

    C

    A

    T

    T

    Hydroge !od"

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    2urines + 2!rimidines

    ,urines ,yrimidines

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    *atson + Cric) =ase pairing

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    DNA Replication

    •Cell division involving mitosis produces 2

    daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and genetically identical to the parent cell

    •Remember that for this to happen, DNA in the parent cell must be replicated (copied) before the cell divides  this process occurs during Interphase in the cell cycle

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    -ydrogen bonds etween

     ase pairs are bro#en ! the en>!me -elicase and DNA

    molecule un'i%s

    DNA molecule

    separates into com%lementary !alves

     4T;2 "  

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    Nucleotides match up with

    complementar! ases

    ,ree nucleotides aundant in nucleus

    4T;2 ( 

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    Ne$ 4trand

    .riginal 4trand

     Nucleotides are lin)ed into ( new strands of DNA !

    the en>!me5 %olymerase ?DNA pol!merase also

    %roo"reads for cop!ing errors

    4T;2 %

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    Diagram Exam%les o" DNA Re%lication4

    -@ou could see DNA replication represented different wa!s&.

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    RNA ? Ribonucleic Acid

    •RNA is a messenger that allows the instruction o"

    DNA to e delivered to the rest o" t!e cell

    •RNA is different than DNA:

    "&The sugar in RNA is ribose the sugar in DNA is

    deoxyribose (&RNA is a single strand of nucleotides DNA is a

    double strand of nucleotides

    %&RNA has Uracil -1. instead of !ymine -T. which is in DNA

    B&RNA is found inside and outside of the nucleus

    DNA is found only inside the nucleus

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    Complete the chart by reading each term or phrase and placing a chec" in the appropriate column#

    DNA RNA $oth

    Deo%yribose   

    Ribose    double stranded   

    single stranded   

    nucleotides   

    found in nucleus only   

    found in and out of nucleus

      

    Cytosine   

    &uanine   

    Adenine     'hymine   

    racil   

    double heli%   

    replication   