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  • 1. Chapter 19:Reconstruction Section 2:Congressional Reconstruction

2. Thinking Question

  • What come to mind when you here the word radical?

3. Andrew Johnson & Presidential Reconstruction 4. Radical Republicans & Congressional Reconstruction 5. Radical Republicans React

  • Problems:
    • Black codes
    • Southerners elected people who had led rebellion
    • Laws passed that benefited wealthy landowners
    • Denying equal rights and violence against African Americans

6. Radical Republicans React

  • Radical Republicans:
    • Believed Congress needed to take a greater role in Reconstruction
    • Loyal state governments could only be created with participation of Unionists & African Americans

7. Radical Republicans React

  • Radical Republicans:
    • Wanted to give African American men the right to vote
    • Pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through Congress

8. Radical Republicans React

  • President Johnson vetoes Civil Rights Act of 1866:
    • Believed act gave too much power to federal government
    • Rejected principle of equal rights

9. Radical Republicans React

  • Congress reacts:
    • Congress overturns veto
    • 14 thAmendment to U.S. Constitution guaranteed citizenship and equal rights to African Americans

10. The Reconstruction Acts

  • 1866 elections:Republicans gain majorities in both houses of Congress
  • Congress passes Reconstruction Acts:
    • Southern state governments again declared provisional

11. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Congress passes Reconstruction Acts:
    • South dividedinto 5 military districts
    • States had to write new constitutions guaranteeing African American rights & suffrage
    • Ratify 14 thAmendment

12. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Marked beginning of Congressional Reconstruction
  • Congressional Reconstruction meant thatthe terms for rejoining the Union were made more difficult.

13. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Texas & Louisiana encompassed the Fifth Military District

14. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Philip Sheridan commander of the Fifth Military District

General Philip Sheridan 15. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Gen. Sheridan replaces Gov. Throckmorton withElisha M. Pease

16. The Reconstruction Acts

  • Andrew Johnson president who tried to block Congressional Reconstruction

Andrew Johnson 17. The Reconstruction Acts

  • President Johnson impeached by the House in 1866
  • President Johnson wasNOT removed from office.

18. The Texas Republican Party

  • Congressional Reconstruction led to development of Republican Party in Texas
  • Mostly Unionists, African Americans, & Mexican-Americans

19. The Texas Republican Party

  • Feb 1868:Republicans had strong turnout in elections for constitutional convention
    • More than 80% of black men voted
    • High ranking Confederate and most prewar officeholders could not vote
    • 78 of 90 delegates were Republican, 9 were African American

20. The Texas Republican Party

  • Republican Party splits
    • One Faction wanted to put Radical Republicans in power
      • Led by E.J. Davis & George T. Ruby

21. The Texas Republican Party

  • George T. Ruby African American leader of the Union League

22. The Texas Republican Party

  • Republican Party splits
    • Moderate Republicans
      • Led by Andrew J. Hamilton

23. The Constitution of 1869

  • Convention of 1868-69 controlled by Republicans
  • Gave equal rights to African Americans, including voting
  • 15 thAmendmentgave African American men right to vote

24. The Constitution of 1869

  • The Constitution
    • Gave governor power to appoint state judge & officials
    • Changed term of governor from 2 to 4 years
    • Increased school funding
    • School attendance compulsory

25. The Constitution of 1869

  • Constitution approved by wide margin
  • E.J. Davis elected governor
  • 14 th& 15 thAmendments ratified
  • March 1870:Texas restored to the Union

Edmund J. Davis 26. Congressional Reconstruction Causes Effects

  • former Confederates and planters again in power in the South
  • Freedpeople being denied rights
  • Radical Republican belief that federal government needed to take a stronger role in Reconstruction
  • Radical Republican belief that Unionists and African Americans had to participate politically to create loyal southern state governments.
  • placed under military control
  • Required Texas leaders to guarantee rights for African Americans and ratify the Fourteenth Amendment for the state to rejoin the Union
  • Right to vote for black Texas men and gains in political office
  • Development of Texas Republican Party
  • Republican control of Texas government
  • Texas restored to Union in 1870