Psychotherapy Types

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Transcript of Psychotherapy Types

MENTAL HEALTH

Types of Psychotherapiesby

Rashid Hussain, Zaitoon BibiPost R.N BSc Nursing Faculty: Mr. M.Zubair Khan Khyber Medical University Post Graduate Nursing College Hayatabad Peshawar.

1

Introduction

Psychotherapy includes those means by which a therapist attemps to provide new interpersonal experience for another human being These experiences are designed to enhance one ability to manage subjective disstress

ContiIt can not alter the problem of world in which patient lives But it can enhance self acceptance, empower the patient to make life changes and help patient to cope with environment more effectively environ

Objectives

Define Psychotherapy Describe the characteristics of psychotherapies

Explain different types of psychotherapies

Psychotherapy

The treatment of a patient's with mental and emotional problems through verbal communication between patient and therapist. therapist. There are many types of psychotherapy, varying in aims, intensity, duration, and theoretical bases. bases.

www.phacaspc.gc.ca/mhsm/pubs/schizophreniawww.phacaspc.gc.ca/mhsm/pubs/schizophreniaschizophrenie/glossary-eng. schizophrenie/glossary-eng.php

Classification of Psychotherapy Is according to who is involved in the treatment

An individual A group A couple A family therapy

Conti

According to the content and methods used Analytic Interpersonal Cognitive,behavioral, cognitive behavioral All psychotherapies are aimed at changing aspects of the patient

Characteristics common for all psychotherapies

Based on interpersonal relationship used verbal communication between two or more people as healing element specific expertise on the part of the therapist in using communication and relationshop in healing way

Characteristics common for all psychotherapies

based on rationale or conceptual structure that is used to understand the patient problem use of the specific procedure in relationship that is linked to rationale structure relationship expectation of improvement the

Behavior therapy Behavior therapy focuses on

changing overt behavior It is also called behavior modification It uses learning principles to help people

replace maladaptive behaviors with more effective ones Behavior therapists assume changes in the

environment affect peoples responses

Behavior therapy

Aim : change the behavior. behavior. derived from British empiricism, Pavlov studies of conditioning, research on

stimulus response relationship conducted by behaviorists (such as Skinner, Wolpe, Eysenck.) Eysenck.

Conti

work

with

objective,

observable

phenomena, referred to as behavior, behavior, including physical activities

(drinking, eating, talking, completing a serial sequential activities that lead to habit formations and social

interaction)

The forms of behavioral therapy

Work on what the patient does Relaxation training Systematic desensitization Flooding

Relaxation training

Used to teach patient to control over their bodies To achieve voluntary control over their feeling of tension To achieve relaxation ( they are instructed to move through the muscle groups of the body and make them tense and relaxed)

Systematic Desensitization Systematic desensitization is a three-stage three-

counterconditioning procedure The client is first taught to relax

The client then describes the specific

situations that arouse anxietyWhile deeply relaxed, the client imagines

increasingly vivid scenes of the situations causing anxietyThis gradually exposes the client to the

source of the anxiety

Flooding

Aim : to extinguish anxiety produced by feared stimuli How : placing the patients in continuous contact with the stimulus and helping them learn that stimulus does not lead to any feared consequences

Aversive Conditioning Another method using

counterconditioning is aversive conditioning A noxious stimulus is paired with a

stimulus that elicits an undesirable behavior This will cause the undesirable behavior

to stop The goal is to teach a new response to

the aversive stimulus

Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapists assume that

distorted, undeveloped ideas prevent people from establishing effective coping behaviors Cognitive therapy focuses on changing

client behavior by changing the persons thoughts or perceptions Cognitive therapy is derived from three

propositions

Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapy is derived from

three propositions: Cognitive activity affects behavior Cognitive activity can be monitored Behavior can be changed by altering cognitive patterns

Cognitive Therapy Many behavior therapists currently

incorporate thought processes into treatment This is called cognitive behavior therapy Cognitive therapy is also known as cognitive restructuring Cognitive therapy is effective for people who have attached narrow or inappropriate labels to certain behaviors or situations

Cognitive behavioral therapy

refers to a range of techniques which focus on the construction and rereconstruction of people's cognitions, emotions and behaviors. behaviors. Generally in CBT the therapist, through a wide array of modalities, helps clients assess, recognize and deal with problematic and dysfunctional ways of thinking, emoting and behaving. behaving.

Conti

There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders. disorders.[

Individual psychotherapy

Covers broad range of psychotherapeutic techniques which are usually done individually - single therapist working with single patient

Conti

Individual psychotherapy involves regularly scheduled talks between the patient and a mental health professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or nurse. nurse. The sessions may focus on current or past problems, experiences, thoughts, feelings, or relationships. relationships.

Group Therapy In group therapy, several people meet therapy,

together with a therapist to receive treatment This allows a therapist to see more clients Since fees are shared, it is also less expensive Group therapy can also be more effective than individual therapy

Conti

Group therapy can also be more effective

than individual therapy The social pressure in the group can help shape members behavior Group members can also act as useful models Mutual reinforcement and support can also be provided

Psychoanalysis (Freudian psychology) psychology) is a body of ideas developed by Sigmund Freud and continued by others. others. It is primarily devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior, although it can also be applied to societies

Conti

Psychoanalysis has three applications: a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; a method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

concepts

are

embodied

in

psychoanalytic theory (it does not involve rigidly defined techniques that charakterized classical

psychoanalysis)

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

based on idea of self exploration and self understanding open up the possibilities for change in personality and behaviour treatment of : personality disorder, sexual dysfunction, somatoform , anxiety disorders, mild depression

Types of psychodynamic psychotherapy psychoanalysis psychoanalysis exploratory psychotherapy - aims at understanding motivations and uncousious forces (focus on current life)

Conti

supportive psychotherapy: psychotherapy: Lessening of anxiety through reassurance, advice, modifications of social factor (it helps patients to get through difficult situations), it is incorporated into any of the other types os PT

Insight oriented psychotherapy

based on psychodynamic concept focused on interpersonal relationship - here and now situation the patient are encouraged to achieve an intellectual understanding of the mainspring of their behavior that will assist in changing it as needed

Interpersonal therapy

based on idea that mental illness may reflect and be expressed in problems with relationship. relationship. emphasizes working on improving interpersonal realtionship during the process of psychotherapy. psychotherapy.

References

Waldinger RJ: Psychiatry for medical student, Washington DC : American Psychiatric Press, 1997 Collier JAB, Longmore JM, Harvey JH : Oxford handbook of clinical specialties, specialties, Oxford, 1998 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychoanalysis