III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

download III.Overview of  Eukaryotic cell         structure and function

of 25

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)


III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function. A. Plasma membrane - regulates the - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

III. Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function A. Plasma membrane - regulates the flow of materials into and out of cell, protection for the cell, gives the cell shape. Made of a double layer of phospholipids imbedded with proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for various functions, such as communication between cells and cell recognition.

B.Nuclear envelope - double layer around nucleus, regulates movement into and out of nucleus



2Nucleus spherical structure that contains DNA (In the form of chromosomes). Usually the largest organelle in a cell. Contains the nucleolus also.

Nucleolus mini- nucleus in the nucleus, contains RNA

nucleusnucleolusDNARNA3Endoplasmic reticulum - (ER) complex of membranes for production and transport materials through cell * smooth ER (lipids produced) *rough ER (proteins produced)

Ribosome small spherical structures, site of protein synthesis, can be free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the RER -rough ER - w/ribosomes -smooth ER - w/out ribosomes


RERSER5G.Golgi apparatus

-smooth stack of membranes for modification, packaging and transport of materials

-the small spheres (vesicles) can carry various substances. ex: lysosomes, peroxisomes


6H.Lysosomes Vesicles -digestive sacs that containenzymes to destroy foreign material orcell itself.

I. PeroxisomesVesicles that contain catalase forhydrogen peroxide metabolism

J.Mitochondria - "power house", aerobic respiration, producing energy (ATP) from glucose and other organic molecules

8K. VacuolesSac-like structures for storage of water, minerals and other substances.

Animals: very small vesiclesPlants: Very large, can fill of a plant cell

L. Chloroplast (only plants) Use sunlight to produce glucose in a process called photosynthesis, contains the green pigment, chlorophyll that absorbs the sunlight.


11M. Cell Wall (only plants) Thick layer of interconnecting and overlapping cellulose fibers surrounding the plant cell for protection and support.

Cellulose of the wall12N. Cytoskeleton

A network of protein fibers throughout the cytoplasm for structural support and motility

1.Microfilaments: the protein actin, twisted double chain for support in the cell membrane. involved in movement-attached to protein motors


2. Intermediate fibers: many protein fibers supercoiled, cell shape and anchors to organelles.

3. Microtubules: straight hollow tubes globular proteins called tubulin, act as tracks for organelles

Cilia ( many small hairs)Flagella (few long hairs)*microtubules wrapped in cell membrane

Centrioles - active in animal cell division, always in pairs perpendicular to each other.

*made of microtubules, protein actinsimilar to cytoskeleton in clusters like straws18P. The Extracellular Matrix Produced by animal cells, helps to hold cells in tissues, protect membrane.

* glycoproteins; like collagen *integrins bind proteins to membrane like snaps, transmit signals to loosen or tighten connections.

Q. Junctions between cells Cells need to interact, adhere, andcommunicate

Animal cells: 1. Tight junctions: a seal between cells to prevent fluid from leaking, proteins attach like gluing paper together.

2. Anchoring junctions: protein snaps to keep cells together, good for stretching tissue, allows for movement, butkeeps the cells connected.Ex: skin

3. Gap Junctions : small molecules move across from one channel protein in one cell to the channel in other cell. The channels do not touch and have a gap.

Plant cells Plasmodesmata: openings in the cell wall where ERs connect between cells to pass substances back and forth.

Super website for basic info onanimal and plant cell organelleshttp://www.sheppardsoftware.com/health/anatomy/cell/index.htm