III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

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III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function. A. Plasma membrane - regulates the - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

III. Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function

III.Overview of Eukaryotic cell structure and function A. Plasma membrane - regulates the flow of materials into and out of cell, protection for the cell, gives the cell shape. Made of a double layer of phospholipids imbedded with proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for various functions, such as communication between cells and cell recognition.

B.Nuclear envelope - double layer around nucleus, regulates movement into and out of nucleus

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Nuclearmembrane

2Nucleus spherical structure that contains DNA (In the form of chromosomes). Usually the largest organelle in a cell. Contains the nucleolus also.

Nucleolus mini- nucleus in the nucleus, contains RNA

nucleusnucleolusDNARNA3Endoplasmic reticulum - (ER) complex of membranes for production and transport materials through cell * smooth ER (lipids produced) *rough ER (proteins produced)

Ribosome small spherical structures, site of protein synthesis, can be free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the RER -rough ER - w/ribosomes -smooth ER - w/out ribosomes

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RERSER5G.Golgi apparatus

-smooth stack of membranes for modification, packaging and transport of materials

-the small spheres (vesicles) can carry various substances. ex: lysosomes, peroxisomes

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6H.Lysosomes Vesicles -digestive sacs that containenzymes to destroy foreign material orcell itself.

I. PeroxisomesVesicles that contain catalase forhydrogen peroxide metabolism

J.Mitochondria - "power house", aerobic respiration, producing energy (ATP) from glucose and other organic molecules

8K. VacuolesSac-like structures for storage of water, minerals and other substances.

Animals: very small vesiclesPlants: Very large, can fill of a plant cell

L. Chloroplast (only plants) Use sunlight to produce glucose in a process called photosynthesis, contains the green pigment, chlorophyll that absorbs the sunlight.

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11M. Cell Wall (only plants) Thick layer of interconnecting and overlapping cellulose fibers surrounding the plant cell for protection and support.

Cellulose of the wall12N. Cytoskeleton

A network of protein fibers throughout the cytoplasm for structural support and motility

1.Microfilaments: the protein actin, twisted double chain for support in the cell membrane. involved in movement-attached to protein motors

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2. Intermediate fibers: many protein fibers supercoiled, cell shape and anchors to organelles.

3. Microtubules: straight hollow tubes globular proteins called tubulin, act as tracks for organelles

Cilia ( many small hairs)Flagella (few long hairs)*microtubules wrapped in cell membrane

Centrioles - active in animal cell division, always in pairs perpendicular to each other.

*made of microtubules, protein actinsimilar to cytoskeleton in clusters like straws18P. The Extracellular Matrix Produced by animal cells, helps to hold cells in tissues, protect membrane.

* glycoproteins; like collagen *integrins bind proteins to membrane like snaps, transmit signals to loosen or tighten connections.

Q. Junctions between cells Cells need to interact, adhere, andcommunicate

Animal cells: 1. Tight junctions: a seal between cells to prevent fluid from leaking, proteins attach like gluing paper together.

2. Anchoring junctions: protein snaps to keep cells together, good for stretching tissue, allows for movement, butkeeps the cells connected.Ex: skin

3. Gap Junctions : small molecules move across from one channel protein in one cell to the channel in other cell. The channels do not touch and have a gap.

Plant cells Plasmodesmata: openings in the cell wall where ERs connect between cells to pass substances back and forth.

Super website for basic info onanimal and plant cell organelleshttp://www.sheppardsoftware.com/health/anatomy/cell/index.htm