Facilitating Learning

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John Flavell Metacognition consist of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experience. Person variables - This includes how one views himself as a learner and thinker. Knowledge about how human Task Variables includes knowledge about the nature of the task as well as type of processing demands it will place upon the individual. Strategy Variables Knowledge of strategy variables involves awareness of strategy you are using to learn a topic and evaluating whether this strategy is effective. Meta attention awareness of SPECIFIC STRATEGIES SO THAT YOU CAN KEEP YOUR ATTENTION FOCUSEDON THE TOPIC OR TASK AT HAND Metamemory Awareness of memories strategies that work best for you Metacognition Highest level of thinking Expert learners - Employed metacognitive strategies in learning Novice learners Have limited knowledge in different subject areas. 14 psychological principles are divided into a. cognitive and metacognitive b. motivational and affective c. developmental and social d. invidual difference Cognitive and metacognitive facotrs 1. Nature of learning process The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of on constructing meaning form information and experience 2. Goals of the learning process The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance and create meaningful, coherent representation of knowledge. 3. Construction of knowledge The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways. 4. Strategic thinking The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals.

5. Thinking about thinking higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operation facilitate creative and critical thinking 6. Context of learning Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices Motivational and affective factors 7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning What and how much is learned is influenced by the learners motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individuals emotional states, beliefs, interest and goals, and habits of thinking . 8. Intrinsic motivation to learn the learners creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by task of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and interest 9. Effects of motivation on effort Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner efforts and guided practice. Without learners, motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort in unlikely without coercion. Developmental and social factor 10. Developmental influences on learning As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account. 11. Social Influences of learning Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communications with others. Individual differences factors 12. Individual differences in learning Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity. 13 Learning and diversity Learning is most effective when differences in learners linguistic, cultural, and social background are taken into account.

14 Standards and assessments Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment are integral parts of the learning process.

Part 2 Jean Piaget- cognitive theory of development how individual constructs knowledge. Piagetian task a research method involved observing small number of individuals as they responded to cognitive task that has designed. Genetic epistemology - Piaget general theoretical framework Interested in how knowledge developed in human organism Basic Cognitive Concepts Schema - refer to cognitive structure by w/c individuals intellectually adapt to and organize their environment. Ex. If a child seesa dog for the first time, he creates his own idea what a dog is Assimilation Process of fitting its new experience into an existing or previous schema Ex. If the child sees another dog and it is smaller one he is adding new schema of a dog Accommodation - a process of creating a new schema Ex. If a child sees now another animal that looks kike little bit like a dog, but somehow a different height try fit it into a his schema of a dog Equilibration proper balance of assimilation and accommodation Cognitive disequilibrium experience not match to schemata or cognitive s structure Piagets Stages of Cognitive development Stage 1 Sensori motor stage first stage corresponds from birth to infancy. Ex. Child is gasping sucking reaching more organized Object permanence This is the ability of the child to know that an object still exist even without sight

Stage 2 Pre-Operational stage The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven years old Intelligence at this stage is intuitive in nature Ex Can make mental representation/ can use of symbols Symbolic Function Ability to represent objects and events. Develops in the children 2 7 years old Egocentrism This is the tendency of the child to see only his own point of view Centration - refers to the tendency of the child focus on one aspects of a thing exclude other aspect. Ex. When a child is presented two identical glassand you transferred the other glass to a much higher glass, the child might say that there is much water on the taller glass than the other Irreversibility Preoperational children still has the inability to reverse thinking. Ex. Can understand 2+3 = 5 but cannot understand 5-3 = 2 Animism Tendency of children to attribute human like or characteristic inanimate objects Ex. Ask child where is the sun and he will tell reply mr.sun is asleep Transductive reasoning A type of reasoning that is inductive nor deductive Ex. A causes b vice versa everyday mommy is at home at 6 and if ask why is it evening the child will answer because home.

mommy is

Stage 3 Concrete operational stage the ability of the child to think logically but in terms concrete object only. For elementary years Decentering ability of the child to perceive the different features of objects and situation. Reversibility During the stage of concrete operations child can follow that certain operations can be done in reverse Conservation Ability to know that certain properties of objects like number mass or area do not change there is a change in appearance Seriation ability to order or arrange according to volume mass and weight

even if

Stage 4 Operational Stage Final stage of operations covering 12 and 15 years of age Thinking is more logical Hypothetical reasoning Ability to come up with different hypothesis about a problem and to gather and weight data to make a final decision or Judgment Analogical reasoning - Perceive the relationship in one instance and then use that relationship to narrow down answer to in another similar situation Deductive reasoning - This is the ability to think logically by applying a general rule to a particular instance or situation

possible or problem

Erik Erikson Psycho social theory 5 psychosexual development Theory was largely influenced by Sigmund Freud Cultural and social aspects Epignetic principle Principle says that we developed through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stage Psychosocial crisis- two opposing emotional forces Virtue psychological strength w/c help us through the stage of our lives Malignancy is the worse of the two, and involves too little positive and too much negative Maladaptation not quite bad but too much positive `Stage I Infancy Psychological Crisis - trust vs. mistrust Maladaptation-Sensory maladjustment Malignancy- withdrawal Virtue- Hope Stage II EarlyChildhood Psychological Crisis Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Maladaptation-Impulsiveness Malignancy- Compulsiveness Virtuepower/determination Will

Stage III Childhood Psychological Crisis initiative vs. guilt Maladaptation-Ruthless Malignancy- inhibition Virtue- courage Stage IV School age 6-12 Psychological Crisis Industry vs.Inferiority Maladaptation-narrow virtuosity

Malignancy- inertia Virtue- competency Stage V Adolescence 18 20 Psychological Crisis Ego identity vs. role confusion Maladaptation-Fanaticism Malignancy- Repudiation Virtue- Fidelity Stage VI Young Adulthood 18 30 Psychological Crisis Intimacy vs. Isolation Maladaptation-promiscuity Malignancy- exclusion

Virtue- love Stage VII Middle adulthood 25 45 Psychological Crisis Generavity vs. stagnation Maladaptation-Stagnation Malignancy- rejectivity Virtue- Caring Stage VIII Old age around 60 Psychological Crisis ego integrity vs despair Maladaptation- presumption Malignancy- disdain Virtue- Wisdom

Vygotsky Socio Cultural Social interaction plays a very important role in cognitive development Scaffolding - term for the appropriate assistance given by the teacher to assist the learner Accomplish a task Social interaction and language two central factor in cognitive development Social Interaction emphasize that effective learning happens through participation in social activities, making the social context of learning crucial. Zone of actual development when a child attempts to perform a skill alone she may not be immediately proficient at it. So, alone she may perform a certain level of competency. Zone of proximal development zone represents a learning opportunity where a knowledgeable adult such as a teacher