Emotional Development. Emotions are not just “feelings” Components:  Desire to take...

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Transcript of Emotional Development. Emotions are not just “feelings” Components:  Desire to take...

  • Emotional Development

  • Emotions are not just feelings

    Components: Desire to take action Physiological changes Subjective feelings Cognitions


  • Why Emotions are so ImportantEmotional ExpressionsCommunicativeFacilitates learning (e.g. social referencing)Emotional PhysiologyMotivational (makes us want to change our state or keep it the same (i.e. operant learning)Strengthens memory for important events

  • Theories of EmotionCommon Sense ViewStimuli Emotion Physiological ChangesJames-Lange ViewStimuli Physiological Changes EmotionSupport: Pen in mouth studies Interpretive ViewStimuli Physiological Changes Interpretation EmotionSupport: adrenaline shot studies: known side-effects (no emotional change), near happy guy (happy) vs. near angry guy (angry)

  • Theories of EmotionDiscrete Emotions TheoryInnateeach emotion has a corresponding and distinct set of bodily and facial reactionsPresent very early in lifeFunctionalist ApproachEmphasize the role of environment and the functions emotions serve (e.g. anger-eliminate obstacle, disgustreject item, fearfight or flight)Some evidence for both sides

  • Emotional ExpressionPositive Emotions SmileFirst month = reflex responseBy 3rd month = social smiles toward peopleLaughingBy 3rd or 4th month = during play activities (e.g bouncing)Negative Emotions Newborns: Generalized Distress (facially an undifferentiated distress state? But different cries)Anger and Sadness: 2nd month = visible facial expression matches situationFear and Distress:67 months to 2 years = stranger anxiety8 months to 15 months = separation anxiety~712 months = fear of novel toys, noises, sudden movements, heights (e.g. visual cliff)

  • Emotional Expression in InfancyBirthinterest, distress, disgust, contentment

  • Emotional Expression in Infancy2-7 monthssadness, joy, surprise and anger

  • Self-Conscious EmotionsEmbarrassment, pride, guilt, and shame (~ 2 years of age)Children show no signs of self conscious emotions until after they pass the mirror self-recognition test (e.g. ~21 months).

    These emotions demonstrate self-awareness and consciousness of adult reactions

  • Shame vs. Guilt(Self vs. Other focus) Shame does not include concern for others Guilt includes empathy for othersParents can influence whether children are more likely to feel guilt over shame:Parental focus on the badness of the behavior rather than the childIf parents help the child understand the consequences of the childs behaviorTeach them the need to repair the damage theyve doneAvoid publicly humiliating them and communicate respect

  • Discrimination (~3mths) vs. Recognition (~7mths)Recognitionunderstanding some meaninge.g. social referencing

  • Emotion KnowledgeMost 2-year-olds know words for the 6 universal basic emotionsHappiness: Santa will be happy if I pee in the pottySadness: You sad, Daddy?Fear: Bees everywhere. Scared me!Anger: Dont be mad, Mommy!Surprise: Daddy surprised me.Disgust: Tastes yucky, Mom!They also understand something about the links between events emotions and actionse.g. I give hug. Baby be happy. Grandma mad. I wrote on wall.They recognize that if someone felt a certain way there must be a reason for it:e.g. You sad, Mommy? What daddy do?And they realize that you can tell something about how people feel by how they look:e.g. Katie not happy face. Katie sad.

  • Emotion Knowledge 18-month-olds understand that someone elses desires dont have to be consistent with their own AND

    They can use persons facial expressions to interpret emotionsE.g. Gross Cracker Study (video) Similarly, 2-year-olds understand that it is not reality or the outcome per se that leads to an emotion but that the outcome must be consistent with someones desire.

    e.g. boy looking for rabbit would be sad if he found his dog, whereas a boy looking for dog would be happy

  • Understanding EmotionsCausesabilities to understand that memories of past events can causes emotions develops with age.

    39% of 3-year-olds understood that memories might cause emotions while all 5-year-olds did.

  • Understanding Emotions

    Real vs. False FeelingsMichelle is sleeping over at cousin Johnnys house but she forgot her teddy bear. She is feeling sad inside but she doesnt want to show it because he will call her a baby.

    3-4 years olds were about 50% correct. 5 year olds were about 80% correct

  • ~10 years = mixed feelings; both positive and negative emotions can exist toward the same source or different source at the same timeUnderstanding Emotions The bottom-line is that the understanding of emotions continues to develop throughout childhood. Those that understand emotions better also tend to engage in moreprosocial behavior Those with limited emotional knowledge (e.g. mislabel expressions)tend to be angry, aggressive, and fearful.

  • abilities that are key to competent social functioning

    Components:Persistence when frustratedIdentify (and express) ones own feelingsIdentify others feelings (e.g. ability to read non-verbal cues)Empathy (an emotional reaction to anothers emotional state)Impulse control/Delay gratification Regulate emotionsUnderstanding of display rulesSecure attachment

    Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

  • Whats involved in Delay Gratification?

    Comparison of rewards


    Strategizing to simplify inhibition (e.g. distraction, imagination)

  • Masking Guilt

    im going out dont look in the boxLewis and colleagues set up a situation where a child was left alone in a room and told not to peek at a toy in a box. If they peeked, could they lie and hide their guilt afterwards?

  • Emotional Display Rules

    What is culturally and socially appropriate?E.g., displaying happiness when you receive a gift, even if it is very disappointing.

    children were better at generating positive behaviors in reaction to the disappointing gift as they got older.

    girls were better than boys at all ages

  • Early EQ predicts later social functioningEQ is a better predictor than IQ of how well people do in life (though the 2 are related)!

    e.g. single best predictor: early delayed gratification performance? related to later social functioning, academic performance, relationship success, self-esteem, drug-use, criminal behavior etc etc. up to 20 years later

  • How Parents Socialize Their ChildrenParents socialize their childrens emotional development through:Their expression of emotion with their children and other people (e.g. Expression of positive related to social competence, low aggression, high self-esteem; Negative expressions related behavioral problems and social and learning difficulties). Correlational!!!Their reactions to their childrens expression of emotionTheir discussions with their children about emotion and the regulation of emotion

  • Culture and Emotional DevelopmentCultural differences in parenting practices and values contribute to differences in emotional expression (e.g. more empathy in Japanese children)Sub-culture: parents ideas/values about the usefulness of particular emotions vary (e.g. Mothers living in a dangerous neighborhoods more tolerant of aggression, especially in girls)

  • Emotional Expression/Frequency of Experiencing EmotionsIn preschool and early school age increase in positive emotions and/or decrease in negativeTypical adolescence experience a mild increase in negative emotions and/or a decrease in positiveMinority (15-20%) experience a major increase (and clinical depression)physiological changes + increase in stressful peer and family interactionsMore common in females

  • Depression by Gender and AgeThought questions: Are gender differences in emotional dev. genuine? Is it a difference in level of feeling emotional or expression? What factors might be underlying this gender difference?

  • e.g. Temperament

    Constitutionally based (i.e. biological) individual differences in emotion, motor, reactivity and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations and over time

    Individual Differences:

    Biological Influences on Childs Emotional Dev.

  • Measure a childs activity level, attention span, persistence, approach/withdrawal behavior, mood, etc. Easy babies (40% of original study)Difficult babies (10% of original study)Slow-to-warm-up babies (15% of original study)(The rest did not fit into a category)

    Children who are negative, impulsive, and unregulated tend to have poor peer relations and get in trouble with the law. They are difficult partners and roommates.Behaviorally inhibited children are more likely to experience anxiety, depression, and phobias.

    3 Temperament Types:

  • Historical Underpinnings1930s and 1940s children raised in orphanages, or refugee camps during WWII or other institutions were, despite have their physical needs metSeemed to have no concern for othersWithdrawn, isolatedOthers overactive and abusivePhysically and mentally retardedSick, depressed, and more likely to die (37%) than at institutions with daily contact with mothers (0%)

  • Historical Underpinnings...Harlows MonkeysRaised infant monkeys in isolation from birthWhen placed with other monkeys at 6 months they had severe disturbances(biting and rocking themselves, avoiding other monkeys, unable to communicate or learn from others, females had no interest in sex, if impregnated they did not know what to do with their babies (ignore, reject, or kill them)Weakness = total social isolation not just caregiver bond butStrongly supports the view that normal development and social emotional competence is rooted in early social inter