ELT In Iran: Globalization or Localization?
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ELT In Iran: Globalization or Localization
ELT In Iran: Globalization or Localization?Hassan SoleimaniPh.D. In Applied Linguistics, PNUarshia.email@example.comGlobalizationScheuerman, 2008
19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgGiddens (1990)19-Mayemail@example.comMalcolm, 199519-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgRobertson, 199519-Mayemail@example.comWorldwide social relations unfettered by the constraints of geographyLanguage : the medium of social interactionNew communication technologies enable individuals to have regular exchanges with distant others whom they have never met face-to-facesatellite televisionSocial capital: the exercise of power through language and culture (Bourdieu, 1993; Park, 2008
Social Capital19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgPre-modern phenomenonFifteenth century Europe when the nation-state was bornThe Catholic Church began to spreadworldwide and explorers began to map the planet and colonize the worldHistory19-Mayemail@example.comA few centuries ago, English area/shores of a small islandShakespeares era, English had little value outside England, not even in Ireland or WalesFortunes of Lg. not purely linguistically-basedCommercial/political power and prestige derived from scientific, cultural/other achievements (Leitner, 1992)Power and influence of their speakersLarge scale migration and settlement of native language speakers, military imposition (colonialism), Globalization of English19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgOutside colonies: 19th century, Industrial RevolutionBritain the leading industrial/trading nation (Crystal, 1997)New technology (telephone, telegraph) far-reaching communications network mainly dominated by EnglishToday, English the language of AmericaThe economic/political power of America and current position of English in the world (Leith, 1997)After WW II, the USA and USSR world superpowersAfter the Cold War, collapse of Russia and communism, the USA the sole superpower (Blake, 1996)
Globalization of English19-Mayemail@example.com-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgLinguistic Imperialism/Linguicism?Philipson, 199219-Mayemail@example.comKachru, 1985; Swaan, 2007English Territories
19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgGlobalization Appadurai, 199019-Mayemail@example.comTo me, as far as globalization and ELT is concerned, the major motivation is financial and economic!ELT materials produced/exported to Expanding Circle countriesExpanding circle authors no right for materials development in the global marketUnidirectional globalization!increase control over markets and to protect the wealth of inner circleEnglish market in global terms
ELT Financescapes19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgSpread of teaching materials from IC (USA and Britain) to ECInterchange, New interchange, Headway, Person to Person, Intercom, Streamline, .Interchange series: a pack consisting ofa Students book, Teachers manual, class audio CDs and Students audio CDS, filmTESOL teacher training programs, conductingseminars, work shops especially in Expanding Circle countries in various ways and meansthrough British councils or American centers
ELT Financescapes19-Mayemail@example.com territories with English as official or co-official language (2.24 billion people !! one third of world population)Users of English as first lg 329, 140, 800; second lg 430,614,500(Crystal, 2003: census 2000)Nearly 600 English language book publishing companies (Wikipedia)/196 universities in the US and EnglandIrans revenue from oil export vs. revenue from ELT materials developed in the US and imported to periphery/outer circle/expanding countries in the world ! (no statistics )
Financescapes19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgThe university of Chicago Press, the largest in the worldThe Chicago Manuel Style, existing in nearly all libraries in the worldResearchers all over the world have to follow the thinking framework, reasoning formula imposed by American scholars!Linguistic Imperialism?!
Ideoscapes: flow of ideasLinguistic Imperialism19-Mayemail@example.comLinguistic Imperialism
19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgWho is a native speaker? A reality or myth?!A controversial issueCriterion: Country of birth: then America, England (the white or black?)What about Canada, Australia, New Zealand?Eminent novelists: Conrad, Nabokov, SoyinkaNative speakers, the owners of English?
Ideoscapes: flow of ideas Native Speakerism/proficiency19-Mayemail@example.comA politico-economic matter, not-linguistic (Lele, 2005)Some native speakers of English see some other NSs of English as non-native speakersChomsky (cited in Davies, 2003): the difference between native and non-native speaker is pointless Everyone is a Native Speaker of the particular language states that the person has grown in his/her mind/brain. In the real world, that is all there is to saySupposing native speaker is a reality, then is it achievable?
Native Speaker: A Myth19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgPsychomotor variablesNative pronunciation not achievable!Critical Period HypothesisArticulators/muscles: tongue, larynx, vocal chordsLoss of plasticity after puberty (12)Not controlled by learners, instruction no role//, //, //, /l/, /r/Exaggeration, more American than American themselves !Justification? Fever of native-like pronunciation
Native Pronunciation: A Myth19-Mayemail@example.comDell Hymes: Native speaker competenceLinguistic,sociocultural,discourse, strategicCLT example of pedagogical ideoscape, a global flow of ideas about teachingWhat to teach/how to teach Acculturation modelLuring learners into western cultures, not immediate needs of learners
Ideoscapes: Communicative Competence 19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgAuthorities to blame: No official education policyCurriculum reform in ELT: social, political, economic, cultural, ideologicalCritical pedagogyLocal needs and local realitiesJapan: education reform since the 1980sKukosaika: blend Americanization, Westernization with nationalism Localization in Iran: authorities19-Mayemail@example.comTeacher education programsProfessionalism in language teachingTeachers: needs analysts, curriculum developers, syllabus designers, materials developersKumaravadivelu (2006): practicality, particularity, possibility
Localization in Iran: ELT experts19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgThink globally, act locallyReality of language learning in Expanding countriesBeing realistic: ecosystem of ELT in IranSelf-confidenceNot slaves to ELT packagesDesigners of their own methods based on unique needs of LsAction researchersScientists and artistsNot imposing our perceived needs upon learners
Localization in Iran: Teachers19-Mayemail@example.comAchievable real goals and objectivesAgency in the ecosystem of ELTNegotiate your felt needs
19-Mayfirstname.lastname@example.orgLocalization in Iran: Learners26Thank You for Your Attention19-Mayemail@example.com