Electronics Technologies and Trends in Automotive field

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    Torino, June 12, 2008

    D. Albero

    Diesel & Hybrids Controls & Software Dept.FPT R&T

    Electronics Technologies and Trends in Automotive field

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    Automotive Forum 2008 2June 12, 2008

    Agenda

    Automotive Today NeedsAutomotive Today Needs

    Technology Solutions in Electronics Field: HighlightsTechnology Solutions in Electronics Field: Highlights

    PowertrainPowertrain: Key Technologies and Electronics Trends: Key Technologies and Electronics Trends

    Software ChallengesSoftware Challenges

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    Automotive Forum 2008 3June 12, 2008

    AutomotiveAutomotive TodayToday NeedsNeeds

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    Automotive Forum 2008 4June 12, 2008

    Automotive Today Needs

    Safety andSafety and ReliabilityReliability

    InnovationInnovation ((newnew functionsfunctions andand servicesservices))

    EnvironmentalEnvironmental carecare

    FuelFuel ConsumptionConsumption ReductionReduction

    ComfortComfort

    CostCost ReductionReduction at theat the samesame qualityquality levellevel

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    Automotive Forum 2008 5June 12, 2008

    TechnologyTechnology SolutionsSolutions inin

    ElectronicsElectronics FieldField::

    HighlightsHighlights

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    Technology Solutions: Highlights

    DrivingDriving AssistanceAssistance and Safetyand SafetyIntelligentIntelligent Parking AssistParking Assist

    Fiat-Valeo, 844 (New Lancia), 2008Q4

    LaneLane WarningWarning//KeepingKeeping

    IVECO, Stralis, since 2006

    Fiat-TRW, 844 (New Lancia), 2008Q4

    Ultrasonic systemsC-MOS based systems

    Electric Steering Systems

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    Technology Solutions: Highlights

    DrivingDriving AssistanceAssistance and Safetyand SafetySide AssistSide Assist CollisionCollision MitigationMitigation

    C-MOS based systems

    24 GHz short range radar

    3D C-MOS based systems

    77 GHz long range radar

    Laser scanner

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    Centralized Architecture or Distributed Architecture?

    On going debate among Vehicle Manufacturers for a Centralized vs aDecentralized Architecture

    Bugs and Failures areisolated

    Spreads processingdemand around vehicle

    Customers do not pay forsystems/functions they do

    not want

    Increases modularity andscalability (options)

    Cost effective

    Saves spaces and weightReduces failures and

    bugs

    Reduces number ofsuppliers for OEMs

    Simplifies tuning stage

    CentralizedCentralized DistributedDistributed

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    Domain-related interconnected architecture

    ECU 2 ECU 3ECU 1

    Gateway1 Gateway2

    ECU 2 ECU 3ECU 1

    ECU 2 ECU 3ECU 1

    Gateway3Backbone Backbone

    Domain 1

    Domain 2

    Domain 3

    Interconnections amongautomotive functional domainsare more effective than traditionaloverloaded networks.

    Every domain can use a dedicatednetwork protocol, in order to fulfillad-hoc needs (e.i. CAN, FlexRay,MOST, LIN, etc.)

    A backbone communication canlink all network together, to

    exchange data between systems.

    ApplicationApplication DomainsDomains

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    PowertrainPowertrain: Key Technologies and: Key Technologies and

    ElectronicsElectronics TrendsTrends

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    What have Electronics enabled to do till now?Fuel consumption reduction

    Increased average fueleconomy

    Reduced emissions(Carbon Monoxide (CO),Hydrocarbon (HC),Nitrogen Oxides (NOx),

    particulates (PM))

    A new car today is about30 times cleaner than a

    new car in the early 80s

    Source: Strategy Analitics

    Fuel consumption trendsFuel consumption trends

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    Emission targets A world wide challenge

    European emission Standards are,today, mainly focused to improveEuropean cities air quality and toimprove fuel economy.

    In order to achieve above mentionedgoals, OEMs are developinginnovative technologies to meetemission target without penalizingperformance and consumptions

    NOxNOx and PMand PM emissionsemissions

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    Diesel NOx Reduction Low Temperature Combustion Tech.

    The reduction of in-cylinder NOx formation throughlower combustion temperature is the most cost-effectiveapproach for passenger cars.

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    Diesel Soot and NOx Reduction Premixed Combustion

    FundamentalsFundamentals

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    Diesel Soot and NOx Reduction Premixed Combustion Control

    An internal chamber pressure sensor is needed.

    ECU acquires and filters internal chamber pressure signal.

    ECU calculates the 50% of Mass Burnt Fraction (50%MBF,the barycenter of combustion) in real-time, and regulates theinjections accordingly.

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    Global Engine Trend 2005 - 2015

    Source: Frost & Sullivan

    In 2015 the 68%In 2015 the 68% ofof soldsold vehiclesvehicles estimatedestimated toto runrunGasolineGasoline, 26% Diesel, and 6% Hybrid, 26% Diesel, and 6% Hybrid VehiclesVehicles

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    Hybrids and Alternative Fuel

    FIAT produces CNG vehicles since 2000 (Multipla, Punto, Panda)

    IVECO focuses on Diesel Hybrids (Daily)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell not usable technology until now for highproduction cost and difficulties in distribution

    Micro Hybrid:Micro Hybrid: Stop&StartStop&Start

    usingusing anan integratedintegrated starterstartergeneratorgenerator

    Source: Robert Bosch Corp.

    Full Hybrid:Full Hybrid: ICIC EngineEngine ++ electricalelectrical motormotor

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    New safety requirements IEC61508 and new ISO 26262

    Today there is not a safety standard the automotive industry will

    comply with.

    Anyway, legally the industry has to comply at least with what isconsidered the state of technology

    IEC61508 standard is considered the state of technology, so

    automotive industry has to refer to it.

    A new safety standard, expecially applicable to automotive systems,will arrive soon: ISO 26262. Engine control is considered safety-relevant.

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    ISO 26262 Functional Safety

    Functional Safety is part of the overall safety that depends on asystem or equipment operating correctly in response to its inputs.(IEC TR 61508-0, September 2005). It is the Absence ofunacceptable risk due to hazards caused by mal-functionalbehaviour of E/E systems.

    Correctly with regard to: Specification, implementation or realization errors failure during operation period reasonably foreseeable operational errors reasonable foreseeable misuse

    ISO 26262 addresses hazards caused by safety related E/Esystems due to malfunctions, excluding nominal performances ofactive and passive safety systems

    ISO 26262 adopts a customer risk-based approach for thedetermination of the risks at vehicle level, provides automotive-specific analysis methods to identify the safety integrity level(ASIL) associated with each undesired effects, which ASILestablishes product process and methods tailoring

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    Automotive Forum 2008 26June 12, 2008

    ISO 26262 - Product Development Process

    Concept phaseConcept phase Production andProduction andoperationoperation

    Initiating SW development

    SW safety requirementsspecification

    SW architecture and design

    SW implementation

    SW unit test

    SW integration and test

    SW safety acceptance test

    HW requirements analysis

    HW architecture design

    Quantitative requirementsfor random HW failures

    Measures for avoidanceand control of systematicHW failures

    Q