Automotive Electricity & Electronics

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Transcript of Automotive Electricity & Electronics

Glen Ellyn, Illinois
4 DELMAR a 0 CENGAGE Learning-
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Automotive Electricity and Electronics, Second Edition Al Santini
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ISBN-I 3: 978-1 -4283-9961 -7
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Notice to the Reader Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any independent analysis in connection with any of the product information contained herein. Publisher does not assume, and expressly disclaims, any obligation to obtain and include information other than that provided to i t by the manufacturer. The reader i s expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities described herein and to avoid all potential hazards. By following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions. The publisher makes no representations or warranties of any kind, including but not limited to, the warranties of fitness for particular purpose or merchantability, nor are any such representations implied with respect to the material set forth herein, and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such material. The publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material.
Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 1 1
Automotive Electricity and Electronics, 2nd Edition, has been written to fill a void in post-secondary text- books. Many books lack the required breadth or depth needed to cover this complex subject, and oRen text- books reproduce only factory circuits, which dates the material and the book. For this reason, I have generally avoided specific specialized circuits, and instead con- centrated on component testing from a generic stand- point. Because we frequently find the same component on a variety of vehicles, the testing procedure can be universal-plus this approach greatly enhances the student’s ability to comprehend the material.
But the real strength of this text is its ability to teach, in a logical sequence, transferable skills, fiom the fun- damentals to more advanced procedures. The knowledge that will be needed to repair tomorrow’s vehicles is rooted in the basics, and this text begins with an educa- tion in those essential skills. Circuit design, various ap- plicable laws, wiring principles, and a hands-on practical approach in the use of test equipment have all been in- corporated. This means that the automotive electricity student will develop a strong foundation to build upon in the remainder of the text, which covers batteries, starting, charging, ignition (both distributed and distributorless), and accessories. On-vehicle testing is also stressed throughout the book, especially the use of digital multi- meters, scanners, and digital storage oscilloscopes.
Finally, an emphasis has been placed on readability in this text.’Most students will find it easy to com- prehend, and the relaxed style of writing should im- prove the enjoyment of a basic electricity class. If the students’ first exposure to our industry is a positive experience, I believe those students will become the technicians of the future that our industry needs.
A1 Santini
ORGANIZATION AND FEATURES OF THE SECOND EDITION
In Automotive Electricity and Electronics, you’ll notice several differences from a traditional textbook. First, a large number of short chapters divide complex material into chunks. Instructors can give tight,
detailed reading assignments that students will find easier to digest. These shorter chapters can be taught in almost any order, allowing instructors to pick and choose the material that best reflects the depth, direction, and pace of their individual classes.
This title features an art-intensive approach to suit today’s visual learners-images drive the chapters. From drawings to photos, you will find more art to better understand the systems, parts, and procedures under discussion. Look also for helpful graphics in features like You Should Know and Interesting Fact that draw attention to key points.
The text starts off with a section on safety and communication, which stresses safe work practices, tool competence, and familiarity with workplace “soft skills” such as customer communication and the roles necessary to succeed as an automotive technician. From there, learners are ready to tackle the technical material in successive sections, ultimately leading them to the real test-an ASE practice exam in the Appendix. Finally, in addition to the many revisions that have brought the content up-to-date, look for these new featureshpdates to the second edition of Auto- motive Electricity and Electronics:
w Two-color illustrations and text design to enhance the presentation of the chapter material
w All new content on battery testing (see Chapter 31) w A full chapter devoted to coil-on-plug ignition
systems (Chapter 52) w All new Chapter 53: Diagnosing and Servicing
Coil-&-Plug Ignition Systems rn An enhanced supplements package designed to
engage students and help instructors easily and effectively prepare for time in the classroom and shop
SUPPLEMENTS
Instructor R ~ u l c e s An Instructor Companion Site is available to in-
rn Chapter presentations in PowerPoint structors and includes the following components:
xix
Customizable chapter test banks in ExamView NATEF task correlation chart
tos and illustrations from the text
Workbook The Workbook to accompany Automotive Elec-
tricity & Electronics, 2nd Edition, is designed to re- inforce the chapter material through various written activities and review questions. Job sheets are also included in all applicable chapters, offering step-by- step procedures for common diagnostic and repair procedures related to the vehicle’s electrical and electronic systems.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many individuals have helped with this text. To mention all would fill several pages. I have retired from full-time teaching at the College of W a g e in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, and am thankful that it was the kind of community college where not only students could learn, but instructors were also encouraged to create positive student-oriented activities, such as this text. Mike Gustafson from OEM Tools has been very supportive of my efforts. Not only do they sell and support some of the best automotive test equipment available, but they are willing to help instructors learn how to improve their teaching.,
Last, I want to thank my wonderful family. My wife, Carol, helped a great deal with this text, organizing all the illustrations. Without her, you would not be reading this. I thank her and love her more and more every day.
The author and publisher wish to thank the fol- lowing instructors for their valuable feedback during the development of this textbook:
Brian Blackburn Golden West College Huntington Beach, CA John Eichelberger St. Philip’s College San Antonio, TX Patrick English Ferris State University Big Rapids, MI George Hritz College of Marin Kentfield, CA
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Al Santini has been involved in automotive edu- cation for over 40 years. He is semiretired and is currently teaching technician seminars. Before retire- ment, he taught automotive electricity and electronics for 22 years at the College of W a g e in Glen Ellyn, Illinois. He has also taught at an area vocational center and a local high school.
In addition to Automotive Electricity and Elec- tronics, A1 has authored OBD II Functions, Monitors and Diagnostic Techniques. He is an active member of the Illinois College Automotive Instructors As- sociation (ICAIA) and the North American Council of Automotive Teachers (NACAT). When he is not teaching, A1 enjoys sailing, camping, and bike riding.
................................................. Preface xix
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
SECTION 5
SECTION 6
SECTION 7
SECTION 8
SECTION 9
SECTION 10
SECTION 11
Vehicle Circuits 51
Electronic Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Wiring Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Starting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Charging Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Ignition Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
SECTION 1 SAFETY AND COMMUNICATION ................................ 1
CHAPTER 1 Safe Working Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Workclothes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Air We Breathe and Noises We Hear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Material Safety Data Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
'Battery Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :6 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
CHAPTER 2 Working as an Electricity/Electronics Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Introduction . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 YourToolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Access to Wiring Diagrams and Repair Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Communicating with the Customer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Working around Air Bags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SECTION 2 CIRCUIT FUNDAMENTALS AND BASIC TEST EQUIPMENT ......... 17
CHAPTER 3 Voltage. Current. and Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Wattage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Insulators and Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .…