Ch 8 - Appendicular Skeleton

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Transcript of Ch 8 - Appendicular Skeleton

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    Chapter 8:The Appendicular Skeleton

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    The Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objects

    Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs

    the supportive girdles

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    The Pectoral Girdle

    Figure 82a

    Also called the shoulder

    girdle Connects the arms to the

    body

    Positions the shoulders

    Provides a base for armmovement

    Consists of:

    2 clavicles

    2 scapulae

    Connects with the axial skeleton only at the

    manubrium

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    The Clavicles

    Figure 82b, c

    Also called collarbones

    Long, S-shaped bones

    Originate at the manubrium (sternal end)

    Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

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    The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades

    Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and

    collarbone

    Anterior surface-subscapular fossa

    Structures Body

    Sides superior border

    medial border (vertebral border) lateral border (axillary border)

    Corners superior angle

    inferior angle

    lateral angle

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    Head

    Holds glenoid cavity

    Which articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint

    Coracoid process-anterior, smaller Acromion-posterior, larger

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    Scapular spine:

    ridge across posterior surface of body

    Separates 2 regions:

    supraspinous fossa

    infraspinous fossa

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    The Upper Limbsarms, forearms, wrists, & hands

    Humerus-arm The long, upper armbone

    Articulates with the pelvic girdle

    Structures Proximal Epiphysis

    separated by intertubercular

    groove:

    greater tubercle:

    lateral

    forms tip of shoulder

    lesser tubercle:

    anterior, medial

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    Head:

    rounded, articulating surface

    contained within joint capsule

    Neck:

    Anatomical neck- margin of joint

    capsule

    Surgical neck: the narrow

    metaphysis

    Shaft

    Deltoid tuberosity:

    a bulge in the shaft

    attaches deltoid muscle

    Radial groove:

    for radial nerve

    posterior to deltoid tuberosity

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    Distal Epiphysis

    Medial and lateral epicondyles:

    for muscle attachment

    Condyle of the humerus:

    Trochlea:

    coronoid fossa & olecranon fossa

    articulates with ulna

    Capitulum: radial fossa

    articulates with radius

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    With radius

    articulates with head of

    radius

    forms proximal

    radioulnar joint

    Ulnar head:

    prominent styloid

    process

    attaches forearm to

    wrist

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    The Forearm-antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones: ulna & radius

    Ulna Articulations

    With humerus

    Forearm ext

    ended:olecranon (elbow

    point) enters

    olecranon fossa

    Forearmflexed:

    coronoid processenters coronoid fossa

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    Radius Articulations

    Ulnar notch: distal end

    articulates w/ wrist & radius

    Styloid process: stabilizes wrist joint

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    Wrist 8 carpal bones:

    allow wrist to bend and twist 4 proximal carpal bones

    Scaphoid bone: near styloid process

    Lunate bone: medial to scaphoid

    Triquetrum: medial to lunate bone Pisiform bone: anterior to triquetrum

    4 distal carpal bones Trapezium: lateral

    Trapezoid bone: medial to trapezium Capitate bone: largest

    Hamate bone: medial, distal

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    5 Metacarpal Bones

    long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral

    (thumb) to medial

    Articulate with proximal

    phalanges

    Phalanges

    Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal,

    distal)

    Fingers:

    3 phalanges (proximal,middle, distal)

    Hands

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    The Pelvic GirdleHipbones - Os Coxae

    Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium

    ischium

    pubis Acetabulum - hip socket

    meeting point of ilium,

    ischium, & pubis

    on the lateral surface ofthe os coxae

    articulates with head of

    femur

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    Marks

    Obturator foramen:

    formed by ischial and pubic rami attaches hip muscles

    Pubic symphysis:

    gap between pubic tubercles

    padded with fibrocartilage

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    The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, sacrum, & coccyx

    Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle,sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

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    Lower LimbsFemur

    Structures Proximal Epiphysis

    Femoral head:

    articulates with pelvis at

    acetabulum Neck

    narrow area between

    head & trochanters

    Greater & lesser

    trochanters

    tendon attachments

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    Shaft

    Linea aspera:

    most prominent ridge of shaft

    attaches hip muscles

    Distal Epiphysis

    Medial & lateral epicondyles:

    above the knee joint

    Medial & lateral condyles: form part of knee joint

    Patella - kneecap A sesamoid bone

    Base attaches quadriceps

    femoris

    Apex attaches patellar

    ligament

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    Tibia

    Figure 813

    Structures

    Proximal Epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial

    condyles

    articulate with medial & lateral

    condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity: attaches

    patellar ligament

    Shaft

    Anterior margin: sharp ridge ofshinbone Distal Epiphysis

    Medial malleolus: medial projection at ankle

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    Fibula Fibula/tibia articulations:

    head inferiortibiofibular joint

    Interosseous membrane:

    binds fibula to tibia Lateral malleolus:

    lateral projection of ankle

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    Ankle - tarsus consists of 7 tarsal bones

    Figure 814a

    Talus carries weight from tibia

    across trochlea

    Calcaneus (heel bone):

    transfers weight from talus to

    ground & attaches Achilles

    tendon

    Cuboid bone: articulates with

    calcaneus Navicular bone: articulates with talus and

    3 cuneiform bones

    Medial cuneiform

    Intermediate cuneiform

    Lateral cuneiform

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    Figure 814a

    5 metatarsal bones

    long bones of foot numbered IV, medial to lateral

    Articulate with toes

    phalanges

    bones of the toes

    hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges

    (distal, proximal)

    Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges(distal, medial, proximal)

    Feet

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    Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot

    to another

    Figure 814b

    Longitudinal Arch Calcanear portion: lateral

    Talar portion: medial Transverse Arch

    Formed by a difference in curvature betweenmedial and lateral borders of the foot