The Appendicular Skeleton

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The Appendicular Skeleton. Honors A&P. The Clavicle. The Pectoral Girdle. ID your view. Anterior Posterior. ID the Acromion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. ID the Infraspinous Fossa. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. ID the acromial end of the clavicle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular SkeletonHonors A&P

The Clavicle

The Pectoral Girdle

ID your view

AnteriorPosteriorID the Acromion

123456789ID the Infraspinous Fossa

123456789ID the acromial end of the clavicle

123456789Upper Limbs

Bones of Hand and Wrist

ID the psiform

1023456789ID the trapezoid

1023456789

ID the deltoid tuberosity

123456789

ID the greater tubercle

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ID the trochlea

123456789ID the radial tuberosity

123456789ID the ulnar styloid process

11123456789The Pelvic Girdle

Anatomical Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis

The Lower Limbs

Bones of Foot and Ankle

Is this a male or female pelvis?

MaleFemaleCannot be determined

ID the acetabulum.

123456789

ID the iliac crest.

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ID the ischial spine

123456789Id the cuboid tarsal.

ABCDEFGId the navicular tarsal.

ABCDEFG

ID the lateral malleolus

1234Do Now:How do a male and female pelvis compare?

List 3 joints and describe their movements.Articulations: site where 2+ bones meet (joint) providing mobility and stability

Classification of Articulations Structure (material binding bones)Fibrous (binding connective tissue)Cartilaginous (binding connective tissue)Synovial (joint capsule)

Function (amount of movement)Synarthrosis (Immovable) -axialAmphiarthrosis (slightly movable)-axialDiarthrosis (freely movable)-appendicular

Synathrosis (no movement)Sutures (seams) - fibrousBones of the skullGomphosisPeridontal ligament bonds tooth w/in alveolar margin

CartilaginousSynchondrosis hyaline cartilage unites bonesEx. Connection between 1st rib and manubrium of sternum, epiphyseal plates

Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable)SyndesmosisFibrous joint connected by ligamentEx. Distal articulation between tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna

SymphysisBones joined by disk of fibrocartilageEx. Vertebrae, between pubic bonesDiarthrosis (Synovial Movement)Bound by joint capsule and contains synovial fluid

StructureArticular Cartilage hyalineJoint Cavity space w/fluidArticular Capsule fibrous layer & synovial membraneSynovial Fluid slippery & viscous lubricantReinforcing ligaments strengthen jointsNerves and bv rich supplyBursae ball bearing or bag of lubricantTendon sheath elongated bursaeMenisci between interlocking bones of the knee and jawStability of JointStabilized to prevent dislocationArticular SurfaceShape ball and socket of hip is most stableLigamentsMore ligaments increase strength but limit motionCan only stretch 6% of lengthMuscle ToneTendons are most important stabilizing factorKept taut by muscle toneRange of MotionNon-axialSlipping movementsUniaxialOne planeBiaxial2 planesMultiaxial more than 2 planesAngular MovementsAngular MotionFlexion reduces angle between articulating elements

Extension - increases angle between articulating elements

Adduction moving towards midline

Abduction moving away from midline

Circumduction loop motion

Rotational MovementsRotational

Special MovementsInversion- turns sole of foot inward (opp-eversion)

Dorsiflexion- ankle flexion (plantar flexion pointed toe)

Opposition grasping (thumb/fingers toward hand)

Protraction - move anterior across horizontal plane (opp retraction)

Elevation move superior (opp depression)

Structural Classification of Synovial JointsGliding flat surfaces slide past one anotherEnds of claviclesBetween carpals & tarsalsBetween vertebraeHinge angular movement in a single directionOccipital bone and atlasElbow, knee, ankleInterphalangeal jointsPivot permit rotation onlyAtlas and axisProximal radius and ulnaEllipsodial angular motion occurs in 2 planesRadius w/proximal carpalsPhalanges w/metacarpals (and metatarsals)Saddle- permits angular motion but prevents rotationthumbBall and socket - round head rests within depressionShoulderhips

The Shoulder

The Elbow

The Hip http://www.edheads.org/activities/hip/

The Knee: Largest and most complex joint

OrganSystem Integration

Which of the following does NOT influence the stability of the joint?

Shape of articular surfacePresence of strong reinforcing ligamentsTone of surrounding musclesPresence of synovial fluidFreely movable joints are

SynarthrosisDiarthrosisAmphiarthrosisAbduction and Adduction always refer to movements of the

Axial skeletonAppendicular skeletonSkullVertebral columnStanding on tip toe is an example of

ElevationPlantar flexionDorsiflexionRetractionJoints that connect the fingers to metacarpals are

Ellipsoidal jointsPivot jointsSaddle jointsHinge JointsSubacromial, subcoracoid, and subscapular bursae reduce friction in

HipElbowKneeShoulder