The Appendicular Skeleton
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The Appendicular Skeleton
The Appendicular SkeletonHonors A&P
The Pectoral Girdle
ID your view
AnteriorPosteriorID the Acromion
123456789ID the Infraspinous Fossa
123456789ID the acromial end of the clavicle
Bones of Hand and Wrist
ID the psiform
1023456789ID the trapezoid
ID the deltoid tuberosity
ID the greater tubercle
ID the trochlea
123456789ID the radial tuberosity
123456789ID the ulnar styloid process
11123456789The Pelvic Girdle
Anatomical Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis
The Lower Limbs
Bones of Foot and Ankle
Is this a male or female pelvis?
MaleFemaleCannot be determined
ID the acetabulum.
ID the iliac crest.
ID the ischial spine
123456789Id the cuboid tarsal.
ABCDEFGId the navicular tarsal.
ID the lateral malleolus
1234Do Now:How do a male and female pelvis compare?
List 3 joints and describe their movements.Articulations: site where 2+ bones meet (joint) providing mobility and stability
Classification of Articulations Structure (material binding bones)Fibrous (binding connective tissue)Cartilaginous (binding connective tissue)Synovial (joint capsule)
Function (amount of movement)Synarthrosis (Immovable) -axialAmphiarthrosis (slightly movable)-axialDiarthrosis (freely movable)-appendicular
Synathrosis (no movement)Sutures (seams) - fibrousBones of the skullGomphosisPeridontal ligament bonds tooth w/in alveolar margin
CartilaginousSynchondrosis hyaline cartilage unites bonesEx. Connection between 1st rib and manubrium of sternum, epiphyseal plates
Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable)SyndesmosisFibrous joint connected by ligamentEx. Distal articulation between tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna
SymphysisBones joined by disk of fibrocartilageEx. Vertebrae, between pubic bonesDiarthrosis (Synovial Movement)Bound by joint capsule and contains synovial fluid
StructureArticular Cartilage hyalineJoint Cavity space w/fluidArticular Capsule fibrous layer & synovial membraneSynovial Fluid slippery & viscous lubricantReinforcing ligaments strengthen jointsNerves and bv rich supplyBursae ball bearing or bag of lubricantTendon sheath elongated bursaeMenisci between interlocking bones of the knee and jawStability of JointStabilized to prevent dislocationArticular SurfaceShape ball and socket of hip is most stableLigamentsMore ligaments increase strength but limit motionCan only stretch 6% of lengthMuscle ToneTendons are most important stabilizing factorKept taut by muscle toneRange of MotionNon-axialSlipping movementsUniaxialOne planeBiaxial2 planesMultiaxial more than 2 planesAngular MovementsAngular MotionFlexion reduces angle between articulating elements
Extension - increases angle between articulating elements
Adduction moving towards midline
Abduction moving away from midline
Circumduction loop motion
Special MovementsInversion- turns sole of foot inward (opp-eversion)
Dorsiflexion- ankle flexion (plantar flexion pointed toe)
Opposition grasping (thumb/fingers toward hand)
Protraction - move anterior across horizontal plane (opp retraction)
Elevation move superior (opp depression)
Structural Classification of Synovial JointsGliding flat surfaces slide past one anotherEnds of claviclesBetween carpals & tarsalsBetween vertebraeHinge angular movement in a single directionOccipital bone and atlasElbow, knee, ankleInterphalangeal jointsPivot permit rotation onlyAtlas and axisProximal radius and ulnaEllipsodial angular motion occurs in 2 planesRadius w/proximal carpalsPhalanges w/metacarpals (and metatarsals)Saddle- permits angular motion but prevents rotationthumbBall and socket - round head rests within depressionShoulderhips
The Hip http://www.edheads.org/activities/hip/
The Knee: Largest and most complex joint
Which of the following does NOT influence the stability of the joint?
Shape of articular surfacePresence of strong reinforcing ligamentsTone of surrounding musclesPresence of synovial fluidFreely movable joints are
SynarthrosisDiarthrosisAmphiarthrosisAbduction and Adduction always refer to movements of the
Axial skeletonAppendicular skeletonSkullVertebral columnStanding on tip toe is an example of
ElevationPlantar flexionDorsiflexionRetractionJoints that connect the fingers to metacarpals are
Ellipsoidal jointsPivot jointsSaddle jointsHinge JointsSubacromial, subcoracoid, and subscapular bursae reduce friction in