The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular...
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The Appendicular Skeleton
The Appendicular SkeletonExercise 11An Introduction to the Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton126 bonesAllows us to move and manipulate objectsIncludes all bones besides axial skeletonThe limbs The supportive girdles
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Pectoral GirdleAlso called the shoulder girdleConnects the arms to the body Positions the shouldersProvides a base for arm movementConsists ofTwo clavicles Two scapulaeCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Upper LimbsThe upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and handsHumorousUlna and radiusCarpels, metacarpals, and phalanges
Pelvis GirdleMade up of two hip bones (coxal bones)Strong to bear body weight, stress of movementPart of the pelvisCoxal bonesMade up of three fused bonesIlium (articulates with sacrum)IschiumPubis
Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female PelvisFemale pelvisSmoother and lighterLess prominent muscle and ligament attachmentsPelvis modifications for Childbearingenlarged pelvic outletbroad pubic angle (>100)less curvature of sacrum and coccyxwide, circular pelvic inletbroad, low pelvisilia project laterally, not upwards
Bones of the lower limbFunctions of the lower limbsWeight bearingMotionBones of the Lower LimbsFemur (thigh)Patella (kneecap)Tibia and fibula (leg)Tarsals (ankle)Metatarsals (foot)Phalanges (toes)
The AnkleBones of the ankleNavicular:articulates with talus and three cuneiform bonesMedial cuneiformIntermediate cuneiformLateral cuneiform
Studying the SkeletonReveals characteristicsMuscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass)Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures)Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)Body size