Bus Reservation System
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ADVANCE DEPLOMA IN SOFTWERE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2004-2005
CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that project entitled Travel Reservation System has satisfactory completed in academic year 2004-2005 by towards partial fulfillment of ADSTM
Guide Anupama chaudhariHead Of Department Of Computer Software I.M.R.College, Jalgaon.
AcknowledgementI take this opportunity to express our sincere thank to the management of the TRAVEL RESERVATION SYSTEM for SANGITAM TRAVELS Jalgaon. for their kind permission for allowing me to under go project work and for giving me whole hearted co-operation for completing the project work. We are thankful to all members of the organization help us guide Prof. Anupama Chaudhari. for her valuable co-operation. very greatful Prof. Vilas Pawar. Finally we express our gratitude to all those who directly or indirectly helped me in completion of our project.
Miss. Madhuri V. Mahajan.
INDEXSr. No.1 2
NameIntroduction.a) Introduction To Project. b) Introduction To Organization.
Page No.5 6
System Requirement Analysis.a) Study Of Existing System. b) Drawbacks And Limitations. c) Need For Computerization.
Feasibility Study.a) b) c) d) Introduction. Technical Feasibility. Operational Feasibility. Behavioral Feasibility.
System Analysis.a) Introduction. b) Entity Relationship Diagram. c) Data Flow Diagram.
System Design.a) b) c) d) Introduction. Database Normalization. Table Structure. Menu And Forms Design. Introduction. White Box Testing. Black Box Testing. GUI Testing.
Testing.a) b) c) d)
7 8 9 10
Conclusion.a) Strengths And Limitations Of Software. b) Future Enhancement. Hardware And Software Requirements. References. Appendices.
35 37 38 39
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTIONIntroduction To Project: - Travel Reservation can be maintained.This application is helpful for keeping track of reservation & maintain availability of the seats.In case of reservation,everytime travel agent have to maintain the list how many seats are vacant for each city.When person will come for reservation,first check on require date the seats are free or not.Again check whether the seats are arranged in proper manner like the neighboure of the ladies should be ladies.This task is maintained in this project.By using this application just by seeing all list travel agent can book the ticket for customer.process Thus this application is useful to reserve the seats for particular city & on require date. Introduction To Organization: - Mr. Vinod Deshmukh is the owner of Travel agency named as Sangitam Travels. He is the progressive person in his field. This Travel agency was by him about 9-10 years ago in Jalgaon. Now a days computer are used for working it.And all data or information entered in accurate manner.This system is very fastly done work rather than manual working system.In this system all works are done in only in computer & also noted down in a notebook,like cashbook,reservation information book.But all data or information about it is automatically entered in this book which appears in computer. In this system they are issued tickets with printer &
Bus Reservation when this system is used,the working speed is increased.
Chapter 2 SYSTEM REQUIREMENT ANALYSISAbout The Existing System: - In this section we are going to study the existing system and analyze its manual working to find out the requirements of the system. Analysis includes the studying the manual working, listing and limitations, need of computerization and scope of project.1)
Study Of Existing System: - Manual working of the petrol pump comprises the following main modules that are handled completely manually. As per the analysis the detail working can be described as: a) Stock Remaining. b) Employee Details.
a) Stock Remaining: -There are the special persons who checks the stock and stores the record as stock remaining, and calculates the total sales by total stock minus remaining stock. This process is very lengthy and time consuming. There is also need of calculating daily sail of oil. For this there is also a lengthy method used by workers. b) Employee Details: - In this storage process there is record about employee. This is another important storage structure. In this structure the overall detail of employee are consider such as name, address, city, date of joining, monthly payment, their borrowing amount, employees remaining balance etc are the record about employee which is another remember able fact.
Need For Computerization: The need for computerized system in our 21st century. A computer is needed in every field in every where and it is the fact that the computerized system is much better than existing system. (Manual system) In this system less time required. There is no risk of lost of details. Also the data feeding and updating is easy. Previously it was the job of more people at different departments. But by using this system all above problems are overcome. Only few persons are required to operate computerized system. ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTERIZATION: The computerized system is very useful because of following points 1) Economy: These systems can analysis the data at the lower cost than the manual system. 2) Speed: Computers work at a very high speed. 3) Accuracy: Accurate result can achieve. Result of report generation is very accurate. 4) Security: As the data stores in magnetic device such as hard disc and floppy disc. 5) Reliability: As the data is saved one can add, modify and delete when required. Machine is always reliable the human. DRAWBACKS OF PREVIOUS SYSTEM: 1) In the travel employee has to handle large number of entries everyday.As the number of peoples journet from one place to another place,it increases the burdan of clerical work. 2) The recording of the particulars of resevation,its availability & the details of the members is a time consuming job.
Bus Reservation 3) For handling all the transactions such as booking,changing & canceling is a need of more clerical staff. 4) The past data has to be kept carefully for the future reference,if unfortunately accidents are there,then this information is used. 5) The major problem of existing system is, there is no security, an anyone is able to see, change or delete existing data. 6) Finally the conclusion for existing system is it is completely manual.
INTRODUCTION:This is always essential to evaluate the various aspects before we develop the system. Evaluation should always. Justify the cost and benefit ratio. It is found that benefits are less as compared to the cost of avoided going in for computerization.
Feasibility project is justify by: 1. Economical feasibility. 2. Technical Feasibility. 3. Social and Operational feasibility. 4. Behavioral feasibility.
ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY: This also called as COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Cost and benefit analysis gives us for computerization, the cost will reduce in some aspects and respective increase in not as much as compared to reduction computerization will reduce the requirement staff. It will also reduce the cost of non-reusable stationary; the computer stationary will replace the various types of bills and registers.
Bus Reservation TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: In this type of feasibility we have to see that whatever existing
system in the organization supports the computerized systems or not. In other words, is the computerized system working same as that of the existing system? The computerized system may not create any problem, if any problem regarding to the system occurs, then the manner can contact to the software consultancy firm, so that they can remove the problems or bugs. The system can also be expanded it the need arises. There are technical guaranties of accuracy reliability and easy to access of data and data security.
SOCIAL AND OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY: As the new system involve less persons the confusion arising in the process, the time lagged, the labor and other cost are reduced. Operating with records in both situations in quite different. Manual system was also disliked, because of completion and other hassles involve maintaining records. After computerization it becomes the job of single operator with no risk involved on posting and report generation. Speed of the operator is also increased substantial. BEHAVIORAL FEASIBILITY: As computer do the job of many people, less number of peoples required. Replacing the existing system with the computerized system will not affect the job employment of the existing employee as the employee can be shifted to other departments. For this reason the current staff does not oppose the computerized system. Users should be trained through courses, so they will become familiar to the system and operate the system easily.
SYSTEM ANALYSISData Objects: - A data object of almost any composite informationthat can be understood by software. Composite information means something that has a different number of different properties or attributes. A data object can be external entity defines in terms of set of attributes. The data object description incorporates the data object and all its attributes. Data objects are related to one another and encapsulate data only; there is no reference to operation that act on the data
E-R Diagrams: - E-R diagrams can express the overall logicalstructure of a database graphically. The E-R model is one of the several semantic data model. The semantic aspect of data model lies in attempt to mapping the meaning and interaction of real world enterprises into conceptual scheme.
Data Flow Diagrams: - A DFD is a graphical technique thatdepicts information flow and transforms the data that moves from input to output. The DFD is also known as Data Flow Graf or Bubble Chart. Shows the process in DFD1)
Represents the source or sink
Represents Changes in file Flow of bi-directional data Entity Relationship Diagram: Address City Phone_No . Cell_No. Type Quantit y
Entity Relationship Diagram Of Order
Branch_Nam e Bank_Nam e Accout_N o
Entity Relationship Diagram Of Bank A/C
Address CName City
Customer Entity Relationship
Sales Diagram Of Sales
Salary_Amoun t City For_Mont h
Entity Relationship Diagram Of Employee Salary
Bus Reservation Data Flow Diagram: Context Flow Diagram: -
Order Oil Sale Employee Account No. Supplier Customer
Bill Stock Refill
Petrol Pump Management System
Salary A/C Update Oil Supplied Balance
1st Level DFD: Custome 1.7 Checkin g Cheque No Record Saved Cash Sales Print
Record Saved 1.1 Custome r Info Collectio n New Cust Customer Permanent Cust 1.0 Checkin g Custome r Info.
Comes For Oil Purchasing
New Custome r
1.6 Paymen t
1.2 Oil Selling 1.3 Checkin g Balance Bill Pay 1.4 Bill Receivin g
1.8 Bill Printing Print Cash Sales Record Saved
Comes For Oil Purchasing Updating Record
1.5 Checkin g Cheque No.
Bus Reservation c) 2nd Level DFD: 2.1 Add Employe e Employe e Record
Employee Details Salary Payment
New Employee Employe e Salary Employee Old Employee Info 2.2 Checking Employe e Info. 2.4 Paying Salary Record Stored Salary
2.3 Remainin g Salary Payment
3rd Level DFD: -
3.1 Finding Supplier Info Order Gives To Supplier Supplier Info For Order Stock Order Order Stored In Stock Info Order Stock 3.2 Supplier Sends Oil Stock
3.3 Stock Filling
Bus Reservation 4th Level DFD: -
4.1 Add New Supplier
Information Stored 4.3 Updatin gSuppli er Info
4.2 Checkin g Supplier Info
If Supplier Info Changed
SYSTEM DESIGNDatabase Normalization: The Normalization is the most essential part as per the database management system is concerning that it is nothing but the simplest form between the relation data and entity. The main considerable function of the Normalization is the data redundancy. The process known, as Normalization is the technique used to group that attributes in several ways that eliminates these types of problems. More specifically the goals of Normalization are to minimize redundancy and functional dependency occurs when the value of one attribute can be determined from the value of another attribute. By definition all non-key attribute will b e functional dependent on the primary key in every relation. If we denormalise the tables we will face the problem of data redundancy which will result in data inconsistency. So to overcome these problems Normalization process is must for future convenience. Thus we have tried our level best to normalize the data to overcome these problems. Normalization can thus be defined as the process of restricting a relation (table) for reducing it to a form where each domain would consist of single non-composite values. Normalization consists of four Normal Forms: 1. First Normal Form. 2. Second Normal Form. 3. Third Normal Form. 4. Boyce_Codd Normal Form.
Table Design: - This module is consisting the different tables that are being utilized by the system. All the tables are normalized up to third normal form. Their requirements of all the users sure taken into consider deciding the actual data that needs to be stored in the system. While designing the database records for the system proper care has been taken for not allowing the duplicate records and unnecessary redundancy of data.
1) Table Name:- Busdetails FIELDS BusNo Description Timing Noofseats bustype TYPE Text Text Text Number Text SIZE 50 50 50 8 50 Constraint -
This table is used for storing information about the Bus Details.
Bus Reservation 2) Table Name:- Employee FIELDS EmployeeNo Employee_Name Address Phone Salary DateofJoing DateofBirth Qualification Designation Balance TYPE Text Text Text Text Currency Date/Time Date/Time Text Text Currency SIZE 50 50 50 50 8 10 10 50 50 8 Constraint Primary Key -
This table is used for storing information about the Employee.
3) Table Name:- Expenses FIELDS Date Amount Description TYPE Date/Time Currency Text SIZE 10 8 50 Constraint -
This table is used for storing information about the Expenses.
4) Table Name:- FareDetails FIELDS Fare Destination BusType TYPE Currency Text Text SIZE 8 50 50 Constraint Primary Key -
Bus Reservation This table is used for storing information about the FareDetails
5) Table Name:- Login11 FIELDS username password TYPE Text Text SIZE 50 50 Constraint Primary Key -
This table is used for storing information about the Login11.
6) Table Name:- salary FIELDS EmployeeNo EmployeeName Date Salary PaidAmount ForMonth PhoneNo Balance TYPE Text Text Date/Time Number Currency Text Number Currency SIZE 50 50 10 50 8 50 8 8 Constraint -
This table is used for storing information about the Salary.
Table Name:- TicketBooking
FIELDS Ticketno Date DateOBooking Fare NOOfPassenger Destination Busno Timing PassengerName
TYPE Text Text Date/Time Currency Number Text Text Date/Time Text
SIZE 50 50 10 8 8 50 50 10 50
Constraint Primary Key Foreign Key -
This table is used for storing information about the Ticket booking.
Menu And Forms Design: -
Login Form: -
Expences Details Form: -
Bus Details Form: -
Employee Details: -
Employee Salary Form: -
Fare Details Form: -
Ticket Booking Details: -
TESTINGWHITE BOX TESTING: a) A complementary approach to Black - Box testing is sometimes called structural or glass box testing. b) c) As the name implies, the tester can analyses the code and The advantage of structural testing is that an analysis of the use knowledge about structure of a component to driven test data. code can be used to find how many test cases are needed to guarantee a given level of test coverage.
Bus Reservation d)
A dynamic analyzer can then be used to measure the extent
of this coverage and help with test case design. Techniques of white-box testing are: 1) Basic path of Testing. 2) Condition Testing. 3) Data Flow Testing. BLACK BOX TESTING: a) Black box testing relies on the specification of the system or component, which is being tested to drive test cases. b) The system in a Black-Box whose behavior can only be determined by studying its inputs and the related outputs. c) Another name for this is Functional Testing because mathematical functions can be specified using only there inputs and outputs. d) This model is same as that used for reliability testing. e) The key problem for the defect tester is to select inputs that have a high probability of being members of the set. In many cases, the selection of these test cases is based on the previous experience of test engineers. They use domain knowledge to identify test cases, which are likely to reveal defects. f) Objectives of Black-Box testing are to find out: 1) Incorrect or missing functions. 2) Interface errors. 3) Errors in data structure and external database access. 4) Performance errors. 5) Initialization and termination errors. g) Techniques used for Black-Box are: 1) Equivalent partitioning and boundary value analysis. TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION: 1) Testing. 2) Integration Testing. TESTING: -
Even through many tests are conducted at different levels there remains some errors or weakness, which may not detected. System testing is necessary to detect such type of errors when encountered at time of program testing. In this stage each and every minute point is considered. One can refer this stage as final touch to system. This test takes in to account the actual involvement in which the user operates. The system test is considered to check weather any changes have to be made in the program that is in whole system. After the system testing, working has been made the full satisfaction of the user and known the system is full ready to be implemented at the user place. TEST RUN: After completion of designing stage of the system development, next important stage is testing can be classified asa) Program Testing. b) System Testing.
Bus Reservation PROGRAM TESTING: -
When each module is completed. It has been tested in order to the at time of execution of that module. For this purpose test data is prepared and document to ensure that aspects of the program are working properly. A program represents logical elements of the system so that an error free program must be achieved programming testing tests two types of errors. a) Syntax Error. b) Logical Error. SYNTAX ERROR: Syntax error is one, which violate one or more rules of the language in which module or program are written. This error shown through error message generated by the computer at the time of execution of program. Such error is to correct. LOGICAL ERROR: A logical error with the incorrect data fields, out of range items, invalid combinations and the error violating the logic of the program. As the computer not detect such type of errors, it is better to take maximum care to avoid such types of errors at the time of programming. Flowchart of the program is good media to such types of errors. Considering all the above aspect each module is tested. When the error free programming is executes, and then the actual output is compared with the executed output. SYSTEM TESTING: After having completed the design and coding phase, it is essential to test the package to ensure that it perform in accordance with the requirement. Also the software has to be test run before it can be adopted.
CONCLUSIONStrength And Limitation Of Software: Now the time come when my project Travel Reservation Sangitam Travel System is ready to work on the system of the
Agancy The software contains all the new and advance facility given by the Visual Basic. The project has given to us for the ability to solve the problems related to databases and by form designing we got much more theoretical as well as practical knowledge. Now we have realize the importance of the Software Development Life Cycle and the various stages in it namely problem definition, analysis, design implementation, testing ad debugging, maintenance. Since, we have developed the software for organization, we have to adapt their standard. Although the software is not build by the single person. That are build by a team or several by teams together. But I have tried by best to make this software all purpose user-friendly. It is very rarely when there are no bugs in software. When you run this first time every software has some error during there first execution. I also have to face some errors in which some are removed in fraction of minute and some of them take about whole day. But I never felt frustrate. As we know Where There Is Will There Is Way and it is so. I have never handle this type of software before. My guide liner told me that it is not important that what is your software it is most be error free. Well all is well when end is well; the entire project is my lifetime achievement and full of knowledge experience.
Bus Reservation Future Enhancement: -
As I have already mentioned that the system consist of all the new and advanced facilities given by Visual Basic 6.0. But as the time never stops and the man should change with time. As the man will change their requirement will also be changed time by time. The most important thing of this software is that it is further improved with having change in its current setting. We can also change the security of the software over the time, because by the time software will have more and more secure as the data also secure.
Chapter 8 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
HARDWARE: a) Pentium Processor III or Higher. b) Minimum 32 MB RAM. c) 1.2 GB HDD. d) 1.44 FDD. e) EGA/VGA Graphics Adapter.
SOFTWARE: 1. Win9X, XP, NT, 2000, SERVER etc Operating Systems (Any Of These.) 2. As Backend of MS-Access.
1. VISUAL BASIC 6 PROGRAMMING BLACK BOOK. - STEVEN HOLZNER. 2. MASTERING VISUAL BASIC 6. 3. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. - SHASHANK D. JOSHI. 4. DATABASE SYSTEM CONCEPT. - HENRY F. KORTH. 5. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. - SHASHANK D. JOSHI. 6. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. - ROGER PRESSMAN.
Bus Reservation Chapter 10
APPENDICESEnd User Comment: In this system we know there are various forms o maintain records such as 1) Login Form. 2) Customer Master. 3) Quotation Master. 4) BO Master. 5) Delivery Master. 6) Category Master. 7) Product Master. 8) Company Master. 9) Rate Master. In the above forms there are two types of forms one for Login Form for master and second for registration of customer in Customer Master Form. User Manual: a) First check whether required package (MS-Access) is available or not. b) If not install it on your system. c) Start database by using appropriate connection. d) Connect Database. e) After that Login screen appears.