7.2 Cell Structure - Woodbridge Township School ... 7.2 Cell Structure Cell StructureLesson Overview

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Transcript of 7.2 Cell Structure - Woodbridge Township School ... 7.2 Cell Structure Cell StructureLesson Overview

  • Lesson Overview 7.2 Cell Structure

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Cell Organization

    – The eukaryotic cell

    can be divided into

    two major parts: the

    nucleus and the

    cytoplasm.

    – The cytoplasm is

    the fluid portion of

    the cell outside the

    nucleus.

    – Prokaryotes do not

    have a nucleus

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Cell Organization

    – Organelles “little

    organs.”

    – Example:

    mitochondria, golgi

    apparatus,

    endoplasmic reticulum

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – the nucleus is the control center of the cell.

    – It contains nearly all the cell’s DNA.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – The nucleus is

    surrounded by a

    nuclear envelope

    composed of two

    membranes.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – The nuclear

    envelope is dotted

    with thousands of

    nuclear pores,

    which allow

    material to move

    into and out of the

    nucleus.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – Proteins and RNA,

    move through the

    nuclear pores to and

    from the rest of the

    cell.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – Chromosomes

    contain the genetic

    information that is

    passed from one

    generation of cells to

    the next.

    – They are found in

    the nucleus.

    – chromatin—DNA

    bound to proteins.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Nucleus

    – a small, dense region in the

    nucleus is called the

    nucleolus.

    – The nucleolus is where the

    assembly of ribosomes

    begins.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Vacuoles

    – Vacuoles large, saclike, membrane-

    enclosed structures

    – They store water, salts, proteins, and

    carbohydrates.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Vacuoles

    In plant cells the pressure of the vacuole increases their

    rigidity, making it possible for plants to support heavy

    structures such as leaves and flowers.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Vacuoles

    – The paramecium

    contains an organelle

    called a contractile

    vacuole which pumps

    excess water out of

    the cell.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Vesicles

    – Vesicles are used to store and move materials between

    cell organelles, as well as to and from the cell surface.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Lysosomes

    – Lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes that

    function as the cell’s cleanup crew.

    – Lysosomes remove “junk” that might accumulate and

    clutter up the cell.

    istockphoto.com

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Lysosomes

    – breakdown of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into

    small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Lysosomes

    – Break down organelles that have outlived their

    usefulness.

    Helps break down endometrial

    lining of the uterus to cause

    menstrual flow

    Helps digest tissue to form

    fingers in the fetus

    http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-images-8-weeks

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    The Cytoskeleton

    – Gives eukaryotic

    cells their shape

    and internal

    organization.

    – Microfilaments

    and microtubules

    are two of the

    principal protein

    filaments that make

    up the

    cytoskeleton.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Microfilaments

    – Threadlike

    structures made up

    of a protein called

    actin.

    – Helps support the

    cell.

    – Help cells move.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Microtubules

    – Hollow structures

    made up of proteins

    known as tubulins.

    – Maintain cell shape.

    – Important in cell

    division.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Ribosomes

    – small particles of RNA and protein found in the

    cytoplasm; they produce proteins.

    – The instructions to make proteins come from DNA.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Endoplasmic Reticulum

    – internal membrane system of

    the cell is known as the

    endoplasmic reticulum, or

    ER.

    – This is where lipid components

    of the cell membrane are

    assembled, along with

    proteins and other materials

    that are exported from the cell.

    – The ER is divided into smooth

    ER & rough ER.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or Rough

    ER

    – involved in the

    synthesis &

    modification of

    proteins

    – It is called rough

    because of the

    ribosomes found on

    its surface.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum or

    Smooth ER

    – Is called smooth ER

    because ribosomes

    are not found on its

    surface.

    – It contains enzymes

    that make

    membrane lipids and

    the detoxify drugs.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Golgi Apparatus

    – Proteins produced in the rough ER move to the Golgi

    apparatus

    – It appears as a stack of flattened membranes.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    – It modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and

    other materials from the ER for storage in the cell

    or release outside the cell.

    Golgi Apparatus

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    – From the Golgi apparatus, proteins are

    “shipped” to their final destination inside or

    outside the cell.

    Golgi Apparatus

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Organelles That Capture and Release

    Energy

    – The primary source of energy for plants is the SUN

    – Your body cells get energy from food (plants and

    animals).

    – Chloroplasts and mitochondria are both involved in

    energy conversion processes within the cell.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Chloroplasts

    Plants and some other

    organisms contain

    chloroplasts.

    Chloroplasts capture

    energy from sunlight

    and convert it into

    food that contains

    chemical energy.

    CHLOROPLASTS are the biological equivalents

    of solar power plants

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis

    process where plants

    make carbohydrates

    and oxygen using

    sunlight energy,

    carbon dioxide, and water.

    http://www.phschool.com/scienc

    e/biology_place/biocoach/image

    s/photosynth/photo1.gif

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Chloroplasts

    – Two membranes surround chloroplasts.

    – Inside the organelle are large stacks of other

    membranes, which contain the green pigment

    chlorophyll.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Mitochondria

    – Nearly all eukaryotic cells, including plants, contain

    mitochondria.

    – Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell.

    – They convert the chemical energy stored in food into

    compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Mitochondria

    – Two membranes— an outer membrane and an inner

    membrane —enclose mitochondria. The inner

    membrane is folded up inside the organelle.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Mitochondria

    – In humans, all or

    nearly all of our

    mitochondria come

    from the cytoplasm of

    the ovum, or egg cell.

    You get your

    mitochondria from

    Mom!

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Mitochondria

    – Chloroplasts and

    mitochondria contain

    their own genetic

    information in the form

    of small DNA

    molecules.

    – The endosymbiotic

    theory suggests that

    chloroplasts and

    mitochondria may

    have descended from

    independent

    microorganisms.

  • Lesson Overview Cell Structure

    Cellular Boundaries

    – The barrier surrounding the cell is the cell membrane

    – It (1) regulates wh