Wireless Robot Using Cellphone
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WIRELESS ROBOT USING CELLPHONEPROJECT REPORTBY RAVIRAJSINH S.SOLANKI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI feel greatly indebted to Mr. Kanaiya G. Bhatt who is lecturer in EC department and Mr. Parth R. Mistry who is HOD of EC department. His ability and knowledge has been great help to us. I would also thank to all my teachers for their valuable support and providing some help full information about project. I would like to express my special thanks to Mr. Bharatbhai Suthar who is father of Mr. Jay Suthar. Without their help my project would not have been completed. He taught PCB design & provided important information about project.
PREFACEThis project is one type of robot which is controlled by a mobile phone. These reports cover all the information of this project. This report covers related information of project and their component with necessary block diagram and illustration. This report has been organized in eleven different chapters. Ch-1 introduction of project: It gives overview of project means that it provides some information of project. Ch-2 basic block diagram: In this section we shows basic block diagram of wireless robot using cellphone. Using of block diagram we understood project in simply form i.e. Block diagram; And also described this block in brief. Ch-3 analysis and design: Here we understood working of project and how to design it. It also gives PCB layout and component layout of project. Ch-4 circuit description: In this section we shows circuit diagram of wireless robot using cellphone. Using of circuit diagram we understood where is component connected to the circuit and it also consist deeply description of circuit. Ch-5 software description: Here we discus about software. The software is written in C language and compiled using Code Vision AVR C compiler. The source program is converted into hex code by the compiler. Ch-6 coding & simulated result: Here show coding for this project and also see its hex form.
Ch-7 implementation of hardware: 3
In this section we discus important component of this project and its working. Important component means ATmega16, decoder & motor driver IC. Ch-8 testing & trouble shooting: Here we discus of problems for making project Ch-9 advantages, disadvantages & application: Here we give some advantages, disadvantages & application of project.
Conventionally, wireless-controlled robots use RF circuits, which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and limited control. Use of a mobile phone for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distinct phases: reception, processing and action. Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the onboard microcontroller or processor, and the task (action) is performed using motors or with some other actuators. This project has three subsystems: Hardware, Software & Mechanical.
INDEX CHAPTER CONTENT5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Introduction of the project Basic block diagram with description Analysis & design of hardware Circuit diagram & circuit description Software description Coding & simulated result Implementation of hardware Testing & trouble shooting Advantage and disadvantage Application
06 07 09 17 21 22 50 51 52 54
INTRODUCTION OF PROJECTThe primary objective of this project was to build a cell phone link between a transmitter and a dumb robot and provide the capability to operate the robot from a remote location. Here two mobile is used one mobile is work as a remote control & another mobile is work as a receiver which is attached to the robot through the hands free.
When we makes call to a mobile at receiver end from the mobile which is used as the remote control, then the circuit will connected. When mobile connected to the circuit at that time we pressed any button, a corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) tone. Dual tone multiple frequency means when we pressed any button at that time two frequency is generated one is low frequency and other is high frequency. In this project, we used DTMF decoder, microcontroller and motor driver IC (integrating circuit). The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-frequency band to the call switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known as Touch-Tone.
BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM
Fig.1 BASIC BLOCK DAIGRAM
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION Fig. shows the block diagram of the microcontroller-based mobile phone operated land rover. The important components of this rover are a DTMF decoder, microcontroller and motor driver. Block diagram of wireless robot using cellphone is shown in previous page. 8
In this block diagram three main blocks is DTMF decoder, microcontroller and motor driver IC. One mobile is attached to the circuit which is used to receive DTMF tone generated by remote mobile. DTMF tone decodes by DTMF decoder and converted into binary form than its output is send to the microcontroller to perform next action. The microcontroller is preprogrammed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or backward motion or a turn.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN HARDWAREWORKING:-
In order to control the robot, you need to make a call to the cell phone attached to the robot (through head phone) from any phone, which sends DTMF tunes on pressing the numeric buttons.
The cell phone in the robot is kept in auto answer mode. (If the mobile does not have the auto answering facility, receive the call by OK key on the rover connected mobile and then made it in hands-free mode.) So after a ring, the cellphone accepts the call.
Now you may press any button on your mobile to perform actions as listed in Table 1. TABEL-1 ACTION PERFORMED CRRESPONDING TO THE KEYS PRESSED
Number pressed by user 2 4 6 8 5
Output of HT9170 DTMF decoder 002 00000010 004 00000100 006 00000110 008 00001000 005 00000101
Input of the microcontroller 0FD 11111101 0FB 11111011 0F9 11111001 0F7 11110111 0FA 11111010
Output from microcontroller 089 10001001 085 10001010 08A 10001010 086 10000110 000 00000000
Action performed Forward motion Left turn Right turn Backward motion Stop
The DTMF tones thus produced are received by the cellphone in the robot.
These tones are fed to the circuit by the headset of the cellphone. The MT8870 decodes the received tone and sends the equivalent binary number to Microcontroller (ATmega16). The tones and assignments in a DTMF system are shown in Table 2. According to the program in the microcontroller, the robot starts moving. When you press key 2 (binary equivalent 00000010) on your mobile phone, the microcontroller outputs 10001001 binary equivalent. 10
Port pins PD0, PD3 and PD7 are high. The high output at PD7 of the microcontroller drives the motor driver (L293D). Port pins PD0 and PD3 drive motors M1 and M2 in forward direction (as per Table 1). Similarly, motors M1 and M2 move for left turn, right turn, backward motion and stop condition as per Table 1.
DTMF SIGNAL: DTMF refers to the system of representation, coding and decoding of audio signals generated by the superposition of two pure sinusoidal tones. This system is very commonly used for telephone signaling over the line in voice frequency band to the call switching center. Mark and Space are the significant parameters, affiliated with DTMF tones. 11
A time span, for which DTMF digit tone is actually producing sound, is called Mark" time and the silence duration between each one of the digits is termed as "Space". TABLE 2 Frequency assignments in a DTMF system
Frequencies 697Hz 770Hz 852Hz 941Hz
1209Hz 1 4 7 *
1336Hz 2 5 8 0
1477Hz 3 6 9 #
1633Hz A B C D
DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each key so that it can easily be identified by an electronic circuit. Any signal generated by the DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation, in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine or cosine waves of different frequencies, i.e., pressing 5 will send a tone made by augmentation of sinusoidal waves of frequencies 1336Hz and 770Hz to the other end of the line.
Various possible tones and frequency assignments in a DTMF system are shown in Table 1.
ALGORITHM: An algorithm is designed to rotate motors in different directions viz. forward, backward, left turn, right turn and stop corresponding to the thrust applied on the mobile keys assigned to them. The algorithm for the same is mentioned below and the flowchart is shown in Fig. 7
1. Make port 1 as input port 2. Make port 3 as output port
3. Check if input at port 1 is EA Hex then move robot in forward direction else goes to step 4. 4. Check if input at port 1 is E5 Hex then move robot in backward direction else goes to step 5. 5. Check if input at port 1 is E8 Hex then robot takes right turn else go to step 6. 6. Check if input at port 1 is E7 Hex then robot takes left turn else