The Story on the Top-Gold Producers Globally | FocusEconomics
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Transcript of The Story on the Top-Gold Producers Globally | FocusEconomics
Gold: The Most Precious of Metals
Fluctuations in the gold price since the turn of the year 2016 and the history on gold production in top-12 gold producing nations.
Contents1. Gold Price Fluctuations
2. Why gold price has risen in 2016
3. Rising gold price to trigger rise in production?
4. Top Gold Producing Countries 2015 - History of gold productioni. Australia
x. South Africa
xi. United States
5. The Future of Gold2
Why gold price fluctuates Gold's history as a standard of value in monetary systems has left a lasting legacy in today's
international monetary system.
Historically speaking, those that have held gold have been able to survive crises.
During times of economic or financial turbulence, gold is acquired for risk aversion
Gold, unlike most other commodities and asset classes, tends to preserve its value.
As uncertainty builds, confidence in currencies is lost and investment in hard assets increases.
As demand increases, so does the price, and vice versa
Why the gold price trended up in 2016 Volatility in stock markets and uncertainty over the health of the world economy since the beginning of 2016
has seen prices creep up.
Weaknesses that plagued emerging markets in 2015 carried over into 2016 while dynamics among developed countries remained weak.
The global economy expanded 2.5% annually in Q1, which was below the 2.6% expansion tallied in Q4.
Low interest rates tend to support gold prices.
Shifts in the value of the US dollar also tend to influence the price of gold and the values are inversely related.
The Fed has kept interest rates low for years and the US dollar began to fall after rates were held in April.
Macquarie Group analyst Matthew Turner: increase in the gold price is down to, the shift in Fed stance, the weaker dollar and the prospect of inflation."
Fears over the impact of the Brexit on the global economy have sparkedsafe haven buying and the price keeps rising. 4
Rising gold price to trigger rise in production? In the years following the recovery from the global financial crisis from 2014 through 2015, the
price of gold began to fall.
The price fell to multi-year lows in December 2015.
During this time, global production of gold fell substantially, as mining was becoming less economically viable
Production fell, mining operations shut down or downsized, leaving many jobless
Could the rise in gold prices seen since the turn of 2016 result in a rise in production?
Lets look at some of the history and current news on gold production in the worlds top-gold-producing countries. 5
Australia The discovery of gold played a large role in Australias history starting with the Bathhurst Gold
Rush in 1851.
Gold finds in other parts of Australia brought millions of migrants to Australia.
1890s - gold was found in Western Australia in Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie.
60% of gold mined in Australia comes from that region.
Gold is also mined in all of the other Australian states as well as the Northern Territory.
Australia pt. 2 Mining is a significant primary industry in Australia and a major contributor to the countrys
Since the commodity bubble burst, the Australian economy and specifically the mining sector has suffered considerably.
25,000 mining positions have been axed since 2013
Australia is the worlds second highest producer of gold, mining an 300 metric tons in 2015.
Brazil Gold mining in Brazil stretches as far back as the 1690s & the Brazilian Gold Rush.
The Brazilian Gold Rush lasted over 200 hundred years until the 1900s.
Brazils gold mining activities played a large part in the development of the country and its economy.
Years of exploitation has exhausted many of Brazils gold mines.
Brazil is the 11th highest gold producer in the world with an estimated 80 metric tons in 2015.
Canada Gold in Canada is found all across the Laurentian Plateau, in British Columbia, Nunavut, and
Gold was first discovered in Canada in 1823 along the Chaudiere River in Quebec.
The Klondike Gold Rush in 1896 sparked a massive migration of prospectors to the Yukon River basin in search of gold.
It has been called the last great gold rush.
In 2014 Canadian gold output was 152 metric tons
The estimated output for 2015 by the USGS is expected to be slightly lower at 150 metric tons. 10
China China is the number one producer of gold in the world, 450 metric tons produced in 2015.
Since the 1970s, gold production in China has rapidly increased.
China overtook South Africa in 2007 as the worlds top gold producer.
Major gold producing regions are generally located in the eastern provinces of the country.
In 2014, China was the top gold consumer in the world at 27.9% of global consumption, just ahead of India at 26.5%.
China is to start a new price fix in Shanghai in an attempt to start a regional benchmark tied to the Yuan to increase its influence on the global gold market.
Ghana Ghana has produced gold dating back to precolonial times.
Gold was exported from present-day Ghana to Europe via trans-Saharan trade routes.
Gold mining was alluvial till 1860s when modern mining techniques were implemented.
Ghana is now Africas second largest producer of gold behind South Africa.
Southern Ghana is considered to be one of the worlds best regions for gold mining.
Gold output has dropped significantly in recent years, increasing layoffs in mining operations.
Ghana is the 10th largest producer of gold globally producing 85 metric tons in 2015.
Indonesia Home to one of the largest gold mines in the world, the Grasberg Mine.
Thought to hold largest gold reserves in world, contributes the majority of Indonesias gold production.
Apart from the Grasberg mine, Indonesia is in the midst of a modern gold rush.
Illegal gold mining is estimated to produce more within the borders of the country per year than the estimations of Grasbergs yearly output.
Corruption and pollution are at the heart of the illegal gold mining in Indonesia.
The crucial ingredient in the purification process of the gold by illegal mining operations is mercury.
Small-scale illegal gold mining operations are funded by businesses located in Jakarta - local authorities are paid off to allow them to continue the practice.
Indonesia mined 75 metric tons in 2015, the 12th highest producer globally by yearly volume.13
Mexico Gold has been mined in Mexico for over 500 years.
There are still large deposits of precious metals that have gone untouched.
New mining technologies now make it possible to mine some of those untapped deposits.
Mexicos political environment is largely considered to be favorable to mining activities.
Many mining corporations are often robbed and looted in Mexico.
Kidnappings are also an issue, with workers disappearing and turning up dead days later.
The security issues may present downside risks to the mining sector in Mexico in the future.
Mexico gold production was 120 metric tons in 2015.14
Peru Perus mineral deposits having been mined going back over 1000 years.
Mineral deposits are located in the areas that are fairly inaccessible in areas of high elevation in the Andes.
Peruvian government is pro-mining and open to foreign investment, playing a limited role in the oversight of the countrys mining industry.
Pollution is a big concern in Peru, especially from illegal mining, which is rampant, because of the use of mercury.
Peru produced an estimated 150 metric tons in 2015.
Russia Gold production actually hit an all-time low as recently as 1998.
Vladimir Putin is largely responsible for the resurgence in Russias mining sector, which reached a booming period between 2008 and 2009.
The Russian mining sector is currently at a loss for foreign investment.
Low commodities prices have made the mining industry, less attractive to investors.
Geopolitical issues with the west and Ukraine as well as macroeconomic uncertainties have also significantly hurt investment.
Gold mining is geographically diversified, investors can turn to less risky countries for investment.
Russias 2015 gold output was 242 metric tons, making it the third top-gold-producer in the world. 16
South Africa Gold discovered in 1886, which changed the country forever
South Africas biggest cities sprung up out of the gold rush, including Johannesburg.
The gold discovery led to the widespread construction of infrastructure like roads, railroads, buildings, towns and made it the richest country on the continent of Africa.
The country was the king of gold production until China overtook it as the number one gold producing economy just a few years ago.
Mining for gold has become less profitable because of low-commodity-price environment. Investment in mining activities has been an issue, as macroeconomic issues have left the country in a precarious position.
Power outages and drought have hurt