Softwaretechnologie für Fortgeschrittene Teil Thaller Stunde VI: Information revisited

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Softwaretechnologie für Fortgeschrittene Teil Thaller Stunde VI: Information revisited Köln 4. Februar 2010

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Softwaretechnologie für Fortgeschrittene Teil Thaller Stunde VI: Information revisited. Köln 4. Februar 2010. Information. Claude Shannon: "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", Bell System Technical Journal, 1948. Enthält eine quantitative Definition von Information. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Softwaretechnologie fr FortgeschritteneTeil Thaller

    Stunde VI: Information revisited

    Kln 4. Februar 2010

  • Claude Shannon: "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", Bell System Technical Journal, 1948.

    Enthlt eine quantitative Definition von Information. Zweck: Wie kann ein Signal zwischen einem Sender und einem Empfnger mit dem geringstmglichen Aufwand "korrekt" bertragen werden.

    Information*

  • Shannon hat also eine technische Definition von "Information", die die Bedeutungsebene vllig ausklammert. Er betont, dass "die semantischen Aspekte der Kommunikation fr die ingenieurwissenschaftliche Seite irrelevant sind".

    Information*

  • Nahezu alle mir bekannten Lehrbcher der Informatik beginnen mit Shannons Definition der Information. Rumen aber ein, dass die ingenieurwissenschaftliche Definition von Information defizitr sei. Insbesondere: Information*

  • (1) Bildet sie nur einen Teil des intellektuellen Umfanges des Konzepts "Information (syntaktisch, semantisch, pragmatisch) ab. (2) Gibt es dagegen keine operable Definition die dieses Konzept in seiner vollen Breite abdeckt. Aber: Die vorhandenen Konzepte reichen aus, um Information auf einem Digitalrechner so darzustellen, dass man sie sinnvoll verarbeiten kann.* Information*

  • InformationsebenenSyntax: Beziehungen der Zeichen untereinander.

    Semantik: Beziehungen zwischen Zeichen und Gegenstnden.

    Pragmatik: Beziehungen zwischen Zeichen und ihren Benutzern.*

  • Bernard Favre-Bulle

    Information und Zusammenhang. Informationsflu in Prozessen der Wahrnehmung, des Denkens und der Kommunikation.

    Springer: 2001Information und Wissen*

  • Daten sind speicherbare Angaben - 22C.

    Information stellt Daten in einen Kontext:"In diesem Hrsaal herrscht eine Temperatur von 22C". Dieser Kontext ist jedoch noch fest (und fr alle Informationsempfnger identisch). Information und Wissen*

  • Wissen ist das Ergebnis von Erkenntnisprozessen. Es bezieht die praktische Anwendung der Daten und Informationen ein. Es muss nicht "absolut wahr" sein, sondern adquates Handeln zu ermglichen.

    Z.B. die Entscheidung einen Pulli (nicht) auszuziehen, um sich angenehm zu fhlen, ohne sich zu erklten.

    Information und Wissen*

  • *Ladder of Knowledge*WeisheitWissenInformationDaten

  • Testfile in Word 2007

    CCC-VR 5

  • Testfile in Word 2003 (2007)

    CCC-VR 5

  • Testfile in Open Office ODT

    CCC-VR 5

  • Testfile in PDF

    CCC-VR 5

  • Measuring the pages Cut out page from rendering surface.

    Scale to common dimensions: 371 +/- 1 x 521 +/- 1

    MeasureThe leftmost and lowest completely black pixel in the letter A starting the first line of the main text.The leftmost and highest completely black pixel in the letter E starting the first line of the text in the footnote.The geometrical centre of the period at the end of the main sentence.The geometrical centre of the period at the end of the footnote text.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Measuring Word 2003= 45 / 134;

    = 57 / 470;

    = 215 / 322 ;

    = 254 / 483

    CCC-VR 5

  • Measuring Word 2007 = 45 / 134;

    = 57 / 470;

    = 215 / 322 ;

    = 254 / 483

    CCC-VR 5

  • Open Office ODT= 44 / 132;

    = 52 / 469; = 214 / 320 ;

    = 247 / 482

    CCC-VR 5

  • PDF= 45 / 130;

    = 59 / 467;

    = 215 / 317 ;

    = 254 / 480

    CCC-VR 5

  • Summary I The comparison of the four renderings of the example pages described above seem to indicate clearly, that a migration from the Word family of formats to PDF is a better way to preserve the content of the document, than a migration to the Open Office format.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Measuring Word 2003Relationship tagged explicitly.

    Text / footnote separation clear.

    Rendering / layout not (totally) predicatble.

    Footnote indicator unpredictable.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Measuring Word 2007Relationship tagged explicitly.

    Text / footnote separation extremely clear.

    Rendering / layout pretty predictable.

    Footnote indicator not predictable.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Open Office ODTRelationship tagged explicitly.

    Text / footnote separation extremely clear.

    Rendering / layout a little bit predictable.

    Footnote indicator predictable.

    CCC-VR 5

  • PDFRelationship expressed by layout.

    Text / footnote separation missing.

    Rendering / layout very much predictable.

    Footnote indicator predictable.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Summary II The comparison of the four internal structures of the example pages described above seem to indicate clearly, that a migration from the Word family of formats to PDF is a worse way to preserve the content of the document, than a migration to the Open Office format.

    CCC-VR 5

  • Small technical note Do not forget, that the whole movement started by SGML, carried into the WWW by HTML, transferred to content by the TEI and started XML as a basic empowering technology ...... assumes that rendering is NOT particularly relevant.Separation of content and form.

    *

    CCC-VR 5

  • Cologne Information Model

  • Data which represent stored information do so in two forms:

    As a set of tokens, which describe atomic items of information.By a set of independent parameters, which describe, in a formalized way, the semantic interpretation of these items of information.Assumption I

  • Most algorithms today are based on data types, which are reflecting hardware characteristics (char, int, float ...).

    Objects, which are constructed from these data types, are transient concepts, which are meaningful only within a specific implementation / environment.

    What we would need are considerably higher order objects, which are persistent by themselves and independent of a specific implementation / environment.Assumption II

  • The need formulated as assumption II can be fulfilled using assumption I.Assumption III

  • I = i (D, S, t)

    I2 = i (I1, S2, t)

    Ix = i (Ix-1, Sx, t)

    Sx = s (Ix-1, t)

    Ix = i (Ix-, Sx-, t)

    Ix = i (Ix-, s(Ix-, t), t)Generalisation of Langefors Infological Equation

  • Biggin

    (2) Biggin

    (3) Biggin

    (4) Biggin

    Which of the chunks are more similar to each other: (1) and (2) or (1) and (3)?Four texts

  • Coordinates:

  • Coordinates:Liber exodi glosatus

  • Generalization 1*BigginVisualization {bold, italic}Interpretation {surname, topographic name}

  • Generalization 2*Series of atomic content tokensConceptual dimension 1Conceptual dimension 2

  • Generalization 3*{ T, C1, C2}

  • Generalization 4*{ T, { C1, C2, , Cn } }

  • Generalization 5*{ T, Cn }

    (1) Texts are sequences of content carrying atomic tokens.

    (2) Each of these tokens has a position in an n-dimensional conceptual universe.

  • Generalization 6*{ X, Y, Cn }

  • Generalization 7*{ T1, T2, Cn }

    (1) Images are planes of content carrying atomic tokens.

    (2) Each of these tokens has a position in an n-dimensional conceptual universe.

  • Generalization 8*I ::= { { T1, T2, Tm}, Cn }

    (1) Information objects are m-dimensional arrangements of content carrying atomic tokens.

    (2) Each of these tokens has a position in an n-dimensional conceptual universe.

  • Generalization 9*I ::= {Tm, Cn }

    (1) Information objects are m-dimensional arrangements of content carrying atomic tokens.

    (2) Each of these tokens has a position in an n-dimensional conceptual universe.

    (3) All of this, of course, is recursive

  • Danke fr heute;Schne Ferien!*

    Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*Digital Preservation for Digital Libraries5-10 June 2005DELOS Int Sum School 2005, INRIA (Sophia Antipolis ), [Insert Author Name and Affiliation]*