Schaefer c9

download Schaefer c9

of 35

  • date post

    17-Jul-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    69
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Schaefer c9

  • Chapter 9Latinos:The Largest Minority

    2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Hispanic PopulationNearly 32 million, or two-thirds of Hispanics in the United States:Are Mexican Americans, or ChicanosThe majority of Hispanic adults in the United States worry that:They, a family member, or a close friend could be deported 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Latino IdentityPanethnicityThe development of solidarity between ethnic subgroupsHispanic or LatinoCollective term is subject to debateLatino more common in the West 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Latino IdentityHispanic more common to the East and the term used by federal governmentActions of the dominant group have an impact in defining cultural identity to some degreeAmong Hispanic youth age 1625:Only a minority, about 20 percent, prefers to use panethnic names 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Latino IdentityAbout 72 percent of immigrant youth are likely to prefer country of origin Compared to 32 percent of grandchildrenThe sharp WhiteBlack divide is absent in their home countriesWhere race, if socially constructed, tends to be along a color gradient 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Latino IdentityName issues/language battles distract groups attention from working togetherIncome and education does not appear to influence Hispanics perceptionsYounger generation think more in panethnic terms 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Latino IdentityColor gradientThe placement of people on a continuum from Light to dark skin color rather than in distinct racial groupings by skin color 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The BorderlandsBorderlandsRefers to the area of a common culture along the border between Mexico and USNotion of separate Mexican and US cultures obsolete because ofLegal and illegal immigration 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The BorderlandsDay laborers crossing the border to go to jobs in the USImplementation of (NAFTA) North American Free Trade AgreementExchange of media across the borderMaquiladoras 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The BorderlandsMultinational companies found even lower wages in China40%+ of the 700,000 new maquiladoras jobs created in 1990s were eliminated by 2003Immigrant workers have significant economic impact on home countriesRemittances estimated at $24 billion annually 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The BorderlandsHometown ClubsTypically are non-profit organizations that maintain close ties to immigrants hometowns: In Mexico and other Latin nationsCollect money for improvements in hospitals and schools 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The BorderlandsSome states in Mexico began matching-funds programsInland from the borders, hometown clubs have sprung up in northern cities:With large settlements of Mexicans 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureMedian income increased over past 25 yearsGap remains between Latinos and WhitesLatino household earns 70 cents for every dollar earned by WhitesLow wealth is characteristic of Hispanic households 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureLikely to earn less annually and have fewer financial resources to fall back onPoverty rate reflects pattern in incomeBeginning of 201025.3% of Latinos were below poverty level compared to 9.4% of Whites 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Economic PictureSituation difficult to predictAs a group, poor Latinos are more mobile geographicallyHalf send money abroad to help relativesPuts a strain on supporting themselves in the US 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Growing Political PresenceFederal law requires bilingual or multilingual ballots in voting districts Where 5% of voting-age population does not speak EnglishVoting turnout was poorMany were ineligible non-citizens 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Growing Political Presence201019% of Latinos voters have more confidence in the Republican agenda on immigration51% leaned toward the Democratic positionFactors that elicit support from politiciansGrowing population; higher proportions of voter registration; higher election participation 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Growing Political PresenceLess commitment to a single political partyResent the fact that existence is rediscovered during election yearsLittle interest in between except by Latino officials 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cuban AmericansCuban settlements in Florida date back to the early nineteenth centuryWhere small communities organized around single family enterprises1960 census 79,000 Cuban born in US2010 more than 1.7 million of Cuban descent in the United States 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cuban AmericansIncrease followed Fidel Castro assumption of power after 1959 Cuban revolutionThree significant influxes of immigrants through the 1980s1st - About 200,000 came during the first three years after Castro came into power 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cuban Americans2nd Freedom Flights; 340,000 refugees between 1965 and 19733rd 1980 Mariel boatlift is most controversial Freedom FlotillaCastro used Carters invitation to send prison inmates, patients from mental hospitals, & addictsMarielitos 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cuban AmericansWet Foot, Dry Foot PolicyRefers to government policy which generally allows Cuban nationals who manage to reach:The US (dry foot) to remain while those picked up at sea (wet foot) are sent back to Cuba 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Cuban AmericansCuban refugees have advantage over other refugees in terms of public opinionIssue of communism still overshadows attitudes about US relationship with Cuba 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Current Picture: Cuban AmericansThe influence of Cuban Americans Miami areaIn Urban centersGenerational relations among CubansGenerational clash between cultures (parent and child) 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Current Picture: Cuban AmericansLong-range perspective of Cubans in the US depends on several factorsMost important events in CubaRefugees proclaim desire to return if communist regime is overturned 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Current Picture: Cuban AmericansCuban Americans have selectively accepted Anglo cultureSplit between original exiles and their childrenChildren more concerned with Miami Dolphins than they are with Havana 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Central and South AmericansCentral and South Americans came from historically different experiences and timesculturally diverse backgroundsUnlike racial groupings in the United States they use a color gradientDescribing skin color along a continuum from light to dark 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Central and South AmericansAnother indicator of the social construction of raceLittle in common other than hemisphere of origin and Spanish languageOther languages are Portuguese, French, and Dutch 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Central and South AmericansOther distinctionsSocial class distinctionsReligious differencesUrban versus rural backgroundsDifferences in dialects among those speaking same language 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Central and South AmericansCentral and South Americans do not form a cohesive groupDo not naturally form coalitions withCuban AmericansMexican AmericansPuerto Ricans 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Central and South AmericansImmigration has been sporadic and influenced byU