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  • Chapter 4Immigration

    2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Immigration: A Global PhenomenonCan be a result of Push and Pull factorsChain MigrationAn immigrant who sponsors other immigrants who upon their arrival may sponsor still morePotent factor contributing to immigration globally 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Patterns of Immigration to the United StatesThree unmistakable patternsImmigrantion has fluctuated dramatically over time due to government policy changesSettlement has not been uniform across the country; centered in certain regions and citiesThe source of immigrants has changed over time 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Todays Foreign-Born PopulationAbout 12-13% are foreign bornSix states account for two-thirds of total foreign born populationApproximately 38.5 million foreign born people are from Latin AmericaEuropeans account for less than 1 in 7 of the foreign born today 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Early Immigration35% of all immigrants to US eventually emigrated back to their home countryNot all new arrivals were welcomeXenophobiaNativismBeliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Anti-Chinese MovementLured by discovery of gold and opening of job opportunities in the WestRailroad provided the greatest demandSinophobesPeople with a fear of anything associated with ChinaThreat they posed as laborers 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Anti-Chinese MovementConflict TheoryChinese were welcomed only when their labor was necessaryRestrictions were not applied evenlyChinese Exclusion Act of 1882Denied naturalization rights to Chinese in USDecline in legal immigration 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Restrictionist Sentiment IncreasesThe extension of restrictions from the anti-Asian movement to European nationalities1908 The Gentlemans Agreement was signedProdded by anti-Japanese feelingsJapan halted further immigration to US & US agreed end discrimination of Japanese in US 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Restrictionist Sentiment IncreasesTwo types of immigrants: old and newNew immigrants were seen as a threat to democracy and the American way of life1917 Congressional Bill on immigrationIncluded controversial literacy testProhibited immigration from South Sea Islands & other parts of Asia not excluded 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The National Origin SystemEstablished quotas based on percent of each ethnic group from the 1910 censusDrawn to block growing immigration from Southern Europe, such as Greece and ItalyThe National Origin SystemQuotas went unfilled and immigration droppedBacklog in other countries 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965Primary goals were to reunite families and protect American labor marketAlso initiated restrictions on immigration from Latin AmericaNaturalizationThe conferring of citizenship on a person after birth 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965Rules for naturalization18 years of age; Continuous resident for 5 years (3 years for spouses of citizens)Good moral character (absence of criminal offenses)Ability to read and write ordinary EnglishPass a test in U.S. government and history 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965Legally admitted for the following reasons:Citizen Family unificationSpouses of legal residents Employment basedRefugees/political asylum seekersDiversity Other 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Contemporary Social ConcernsBrain DrainSkilled workers, professionals, & technicians desperately needed by their home countriesH-1B VisasPermanent work permits to highly skilled immigrants resulting in an:Economic & social cost to the developing nations 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Contemporary Social ConcernsConflict TheoryViews brain drain as another symptom of the unequal distribution of world resourcesUS does not need to take the steps necessary To encourage native members of subordinate groups to enter desirable fields of employment 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Contemporary Social ConcernsPopulation GrowthUS is continues to accept large numbers of permanent immigrantsNations birth rate has decreased so consequently, contribution of immigration is more significantImmigration accounts for about 50% of nations growth 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Contemporary Social ConcernsTo some, US is overpopulatedSierra Club took position restricting immigrationRecognizing more people puts greater strain on nations natural resourcesPatterns of uneven settlement in US expected to increaseMixed-Status Families 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Language BarriersBilingualism: Use of 2+ languages in work or education and the treatment of each language as legitimateBilingual education: Program designed to allow students to learn academic concepts in their native language While they learn a second language 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Illegal ImmigrationControl of illegal or undocumented immigrants bitterly debated Exact number of undocumented or unauthorized workers subject to estimates Illegal and legal immigrants tied by public to almost every social problem in a nationUnemployment, drug runners & terrorists 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Illegal ImmigrationCost of policing borders and locating illegal immigrants is sizableImmigration and Reform Act of 1986 (IRCA)Historic change in immigration policyAmnesty granted to 1.7 million illegal immigrants; document long term residency 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Illegal ImmigrationConflict TheoryImmigrants, primarily poor and Hispanic or AsianAre being lodged at the bottom of the nations social and economic hierarchies 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Illegal ImmigrationFunctionalist TheoryEmployers, by paying low wages, are able to produce goods and services That are profitable for industry and affordable to consumersDespite poor working conditions often experienced by illegal immigrants: 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Illegal ImmigrationThey continue to come because it is in their best economic interestIllegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996Emphasized more effort to keep immigrants from entering the country illegallyNo access to social security and welfare 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Path to CitizenshipNaturalization: Citizenship is conferred on a person after birthThis is a process outlined by Congress and extends to foreigners the same benefits:Given to native-born United States citizens 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Economic Impact of ImmigrationMuch public and scholarly debateMost significant factor is whether a study examines national impact of immigration Or only its effect on a local areaMany hold stereotypical belief that immigrants end up on welfare And cause increase in taxes 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Economic Impact of ImmigrationRemittances (Migradollars)Money that immigrants return to their country Widely recognized as critical to the survival to millions of households worldwideStates have sought legal redress because federal government has not seriously Considered granting aid to heavily burdened states 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Economic Impact of ImmigrationParadoxical situationStrong economy and concerns about immigrationSuggests other concernsEthnic & racial tension more important in explaining current attitudes toward immigration 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

    2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Women and ImmigrationMen dominate much of labor migration worldwideDiversified labor force in US and policie