Reform & Terror A New Republic Is Born In Blood The French Revolution

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Transcript of Reform & Terror A New Republic Is Born In Blood The French Revolution

Revolution Brings Reform & Terror

Reform & TerrorA New Republic Is Born In BloodThe French RevolutionThe Assembly Reforms France

August 1789: National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Revolutionary leaders use the slogan, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

The Assembly Reforms France - 1790

National Assembly comes up with a short term fix for the financial crisis: seize Church lands and sell them!

Placed the church under the control of the StatePriests required to swear an oath to the new government; many refused and were arrestedArresting priests worried many peasants and European nations

Cartoon representation of the confiscation of Church lands Civil Constitution of the Clergy

3The Assembly Reforms France

September 1791: Assembly finishes new constitutionLimited monarchyMost power transferred to the Legislative Assembly

The Legislative Assembly was slowed down by the political spectrum that still exists today

Flight to VarennesTo get back to power, Louis XVI needed the help of a foreign armyJune 20, 1791: King and his family, disguised as servants, try to flee!At the village of Varennes, recognized and arrestedBrought back to Paris and imprisoned at the Tuileries Palace

Louis XVI reluctantly accepted the new constitution, but he could not accept all the reforms (such as The Civil Constitution of the Clergy)

5Factions Split France

Debt and food shortages were still major problems

migrs (nobles who fled country) want Old Regime back in power

Sans-culottes without knee breeches (lower class) want more change from the Revolution

Parisian sans-culotte. Drawing, 18th century. The End of Louis Independence

August 10, 1792: mob attacked the Tuileries Palace Royal family barely escaped with their livesFled to the protection of the Assembly

The Constitutional Monarchy is essentially over

April 1792: France declared war against Austria hoping for an early win Remember Marie Antoinette is Austrian! Prussia joins war as an Austrian allyPrussian forces soon threaten to attack Paris!

European monarchs feared revolution would spread they were contemplating war! France at War!September Massacres

September 1792: Parisian mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000 prisonersMany killed were supporters of King

National Assembly gave up idea of limited monarchyDeposes the king (removed him from power)Called for new legislature to replace itselfNational Convention took office in September, forming the French Republic

The Execution of Louis XVIThe National Convention decided to put Louis on trial for his crimesIt was known he would be found guilty, but there was still debate over what the Kings punishment should beAfter a close vote, they decided on execution (regicide)On January 23, 1793 Louis Capet went to the guillotine at the Place de la Concorde and was beheaded

I forgive my enemies; I trust that my death will be for the happiness of my people, but I grieve for France and I fear that she may suffer the anger of the Lord.

Two Radical Groups

During the constitutional monarchy there had been two radical groups competing for power - the Girondins and the JacobinsThe Girondins were slightly less radical than the Jacobins

The Rise of the Jacobins

When the constitutional monarchy fell Girondins argued against his executionJacobins felt that he needed to die When the Jacobins won, public opinion turned again the GirondinsThe Jacobins had 22 Girondin leaders arrested and executed! The Reign of TerrorJuly 1793 July 1794

Maximilien RobespierreJacobin leader gains power and rules France as a dictator

Tries to build a republic of virtue.

Tries to erase remnants of Frances past monarchy and nobility:Playing cards changed to remove kings and queensChurches closed all over France Calendar changed- no Sundays (so that people could no longer worship)A New Dictatorship

The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror. If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror: virtue without which terror is murderous, terror without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice; it flows, then, from virtue.

Maximilien Robespierre (1758 1794)The Reign of TerrorAfter the death of Louis XVI, the Reign of Terror beganPublic executions were considered educational - women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions!

The Revolutionary Tribunal ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July 1794

Throughout France 30,000 people lost their lives during The Terror

Thousands were killed for being enemies of the republic and committing crimes against liberty

Most of the people rounded up were not part of the aristocracy, but ordinary peopleWatch Committees and secret police throughout France were encouraged to arrest suspicious persons (Law of Suspects, 1793)

Suspension of Civil LibertiesCivil liberties were suspendedThe promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Man were forgotten and tyranny returned The Committee of Public Safety, twelve men led by Robespierre, was created to speed up the process of trial and conviction

1819 English caricature titled The Radical's Arms. It depicts the infamous guillotine. "No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!" is written in the republican banner. The Last Victim of the Reign of TerrorRobespierre called for an increased round of executions in 1794By now even the radical Jacobins had come to feel that the Terror must be stoppedThe Jacobins decided they had had enough - Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine He was the last victim of The Terror

The French Revolution was a gate through which the Western world passed into modernity. It was not the only passageway; neither did it represent a clean break with the past and a jump-start on modernity. But the Revolution took pre-existing conditions and ideas which had been developing, particularly since the mid-1700s, passed them through a cataclysm, and changed forever the way humanity saw society, religion, the state, and the nation.

Kendall W. Brown, The French Revolution and Modernity