Qua Aquarius RRRRscreen
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INFORMATION FROM KRGER KALDNES
Business & NatureAll the tackle in the backpack and enjoying going fishing with my youngest. Life doesnt get much better! This is when you recharge your batteries in an otherwise pretty hectic working day. This opportunity to experience and use Norwegian nature is something that must be taken care of. That is why I really appreciate not just because of my job institutions like Nofima Marine in Sunndalsra. They carry out all-round research including looking into the conditions surrounding the Norwegian fish-farming industry, or aquaculture as it is now known. At the same time whatever is best for our society is always a factor in their deliberations. For a passionate angler thats always good to know.
The Norwegian salmon industry has grown steadily over the past 10 years and there is no reason to believe that growth will stop yet. The industry is in full swing to ensure ample supply of alevins (smolts) for the future by building new and larger hatcheries. The trend in recent years has been a decline in the number of plants; however, production has gone up significantly. The focus, in other words is larger plants with optimized production.
A disadvantage of the construction of larger plants may be the availability of freshwater resources required. Each fish needs the same amount of water growing up in a large or small system and in many cases the water supply is the limiting factor. One challenge will therefore be to exploit the freshwater resources effectively.
To meet this challenge, Krger Kaldnes developed Kaldnes RAS, a water treatment solution for recycling water from aquaculture production. Typically, with Kaldnes RAS water consumption can be reduced by up to 99% compared with production in traditional hatcheries. Our concept has been well received in the market and we have in recent years produced several turnkey facilities to our customers. Last out is Sundsfjord smolt in Gildeskl municipality where Krger Kaldnes in partnership with the pipe- and fish tank supplier, Plast-Sveis AS, has supplied a turnkey recycling plant. The plant, which has the capacity to produce ~ 3 million smolts per year, was constructed in record time over the winter and spring of 2012, and the first batch is now in production.
Special Edition: AQUACULTURE
Marius HghVice president/M.Sc. mob: +47 4804 9494 firstname.lastname@example.org
2page ... low maintenance of the bio filter, stable operations plus sufficient capacity for both our needs and requirements
3page ... a stable production temperature with minimal input of energy. It was an ingenious idea that Krger Kaldnes has refined to become a
4page ... previously we only had access to 6 m3 of pre-heated freshwater a minute. Now we have 6 times that amount
Fresh-water is becoming scarce
Bendik Fyhn Terjesen at Nofima Marine, Sunndalsra, Norway, has many years of experience tackling challenges in the aquaculture industry.
As the plane descends on Molde airport there is little to indicate that fresh-water for industrial purposes will become scarce. Further, as we continue our journey by car, dark, laden clouds hang over the mountains. The weather is chucking it down! In some parts of the country this is the wettest summer since the turn of the century. However, according to Senior Researcher Bendik Fyhn Terjesen, employed by Nofima at Sunndalsra Norway, nature, as a sole-supplier of water, will not be able to supply our needs if the development in the fish-farming industry continues to grow at its present rate.
Aquaculture is our second biggest export activity. A poor second we might add because the biggest is oil and gas! Nonetheless, Aquaculture represents an annual export value of a whopping 30 billion NOK. In 2006, NIVA, SINTEF and Nofima looked into the challenges posed by process-water that would be encountered in the future. According to Fyhn Terjesen, the resulting report was both informative and a bit alarming. Data had been gathered about rivers, water-tables and watershed districts. Consideration was given to EU water directives. The conclusions were clear: If the development continued at the present rate then water would become a scarcity! Especially so when we also need water for other important aspects of our society such as hydroelectric power, recreational activities etc.
Nofima has facilities at several different sites throughout Norway. It is a government research facility dealing with the complete value-adding process of aquaculture. This includes the breeding of salmon fry (smolt), feed ingredients, harvesting,
into fresh-water by reverse osmosis. However the present day costs of the technology to achieve this is prohibitive. The best solution is recycling of the process water since this has the added advantage of reducing the total demand for fresh water. This means that the process water must be thoroughly reconstituted before it can again be used in the breeding facilities.
We know a lot about free-flow water but a lot less about process water that must be cleaned and returned to its original condition before it is reused. However our new recycling centre will give us much more know-how about this challenging area says Fyhn Terjesen, before adding that ideally it would be best to carry out the complete fish-farming process on-shore.We are concentrating on finding the most sustainable solution. We need to see the process as a whole: using other fish for feed, using natural vegetable food such as rape and soya oil, considering the welfare of the fish themselves, etc. The optimal solution could easily be six of one and a half dozen of the other.
At present a suggestion is being considered as to whether the permitted weight of the fish in the initial stage should be increased to 1 kilo. If adopted and it probably will be it will create a need for larger on-shore facilities and more process water.
Fyhn Terjesen goes on to say, For
us as a research institution this will increase the scope of our involvement. In my opinion such a decision will bring several advantages. Although Nofima doesnt support the view that salmon-lice reduces the number of wild Atlantic salmon as a species, we do however agree that salmon die once the amount of lice gets above a certain level - whether they are wild salmon and farmed salmon. It is possible that an extension of the initial breeding stage on land (or in a closed tank off-shore) will reduce the lifetime of the parasites by a whole generation. The result would be a reduction in salmon mortality. May I also add that an increased smolt size would pose lots of exiting challenges to the industry itself.
A popular destinationBecause of its size the Nofima aquaculture recycling centre at Sunndalsra is unique in Europe. Inquisitive colleagues and potential clients - not only from Norway but worldwide, are frequent visitors. Today Spanish is being spoken in our conference room!The recycled water is reconstituted using the recognised Kaldnes TM MBBR process supplied by Kruger Kaldnes.
Finally Fyhn Terjesen concludes, As an independent research institution we wish to avoid recommending specific suppliers of technology. However, if asked about our experiences we have no problem in answering: so far we are well satisfied. Low maintenance of the bio filter, stable operations plus sufficient capacity for both our needs and requirements.
The expanding Aquaculture industry:
marketing and consumption. More than 50 % of their assignments come from the industry itself. The remainder is financed by research bureaus and local authorities. Last year a new recycling department was opened by our Minister for Fisheries and other VIPs at the Research Centre here in Sunndalsra. Among the assignments we were given were pilot projects and further research into improving conditions for the present and future aquaculture industry. Included in this was the acceptance of, and responsibility for, protecting the environment.
Both rivers and seasFarmed salmon is the biggest single export product from the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Salmon is a so-called anadromous fish that means it breeds in fresh-water, swims out to sea to mature and then returns to
its origins to spawn. The first stage in fish-farming is the breeding of fry or smolt. This is done under artificial conditions in on-shore fresh-water tanks. Here the young fish grow to a maximum of 250 grams after which they are transferred to special nets suspended off-shore. This initial stage in the production process demands that the quality of water used is equivalent to that found in nature. This is usually achieved by a constant through-flow of water that is subsequently discharged as waste.
An alternative would be the use of sea-water that has been desalinated
Yngve Ulgenes helped to prepare. Marine species such as halibut, turbot and cod are also bred in onshore plants but they live only in sea water - and we have lots of it! However, the production of say salmon demands so much water that we need to think differently - whether we like it or not. We have to limit water consumption per fry produced. Moreover recycling has many other benefits as well so the sums shouldnt be difficult to work out. According to one of the largest players in the market, the end product, i.e., fry, is of very good quality when bred in recycling plants. said Yngve Ulgenes. Predictable production and quality of recycling is currently possible because of the improvement in technology that has taken place in NorwayAs noted above, the first plants were relatively inefficient. The biggest reason was the accumulation of faces from the growing fish and other unwanted waste such as powder from the f