PTCL Internship Report-2015

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    INTERNSHIP REPORT

    NGN, HCTE, SWITCHING, OFAN, TRANSMISSION,PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY LIMITED, ISLAMABAD.

    Submitted B! Abdul Samad

    R"## $umbe% ! i12-0479

    Submitted To: Khalid Sarwar (AM NGN Core Swithi!" North#$%lamabad&'

    De&'%tme$t "( E#e)t%i)'# E$*i$ee%i$*

    N'ti"$'# U$i+e%it "( C"m&ute% '$d Eme%*i$* S)ie$)e, I#'m'b'd

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    Table of contents

    Part 1: Introduction .. 3

    Part 2: Concepts learnt in dierent departments... 3

    2.1Transmission.. 4

    2.1.1$!te"rated Serie% )i"ital Networ*+++++++'''''' ,

    2.1.2 ZNOC.. 6

    2.2NGN... 9

    2.3!itc"in#.. 12

    2.3.1Mode% o Swithi!"++++++++++++++''' 12

    2.3.2N.C i! /TC+++++++++++++++++ 14

    2.4$%...... 1&

    2.4.1 Optical Fibre Basics.. 15

    2.4.2 Synchronos !i"ital #ierarchy. 1$

    Part 3: Interns"ip tas's............................................................. 21

    %nalysis .................................................................................21

    P'%t -! SWOT A$'#i. //

    Part &: %indin#s and (ecommendations ..... 24

    5.1 Fin&in"s. 24

    5.2 'eco((en&ations. 24

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    I$t%"du)ti"$er ear# ma! i!al ear u!der"raduate %tude!t% aro%% /a*i%ta! ta*e 3art i! %ummer

    i!ter!%hi3% or"a!ied a!d %u3eri%ed b ariou% or"a!iatio!% i! the ou!tr'

    Thi% doume!t 3re%e!t% a! i!ter!%hi3 re3ort at /TC (/a*i%ta! Teleommu!iatio!% limited&' A

    brie hi%tor a!d i!ormatio! o the or"a!iatio! i% al%o i!luded i! the re3ort'

    B')0*%"u$dThe om3a! trae% it% ori"i! rom the /o%t% a!d Tele"ra3h de3artme!t e%tabli%hed i! 1947' $t

    wa% later re!amed /a*i%ta! Tele"ra3h a!d Tele3ho!e de3artme!t i! 1952' $! the earl 906% it

    beame /a*i%ta! Teleom Cor3oratio!' /TC beame a 3ubli li%ted om3a! i! 1995' ti%alat

    auired 258 /TC %hare% i! 2005'

    /TC headuarter% i% loated i! Setor G-# $%lamabad# a!d ha% oer te! re"io!al headuarter%

    throu"hout the ou!tr' Mr' alid$r%haid i% the urre!t /re%ide!t a!d C. o the om3a!'

    Toda /TC i% the lar"e%t i;ed li!e teleommu!iatio!% %erie 3roider i! the ou!tr' /TC

    %erie% i!lude a!dli!e a!d irele%% Tele3ho!# # ?ome

    %eurit ($ Se!tr&'

    er ear /TC oer% 3aid a!d !o!-3aid i!ter!%hi3% to u!ier%it %tude!t%' !"i!eeri!" a!d

    om3uter %ie!e %tude!t% u%uall wor* i! the Networ*% a!d .3eratio! dii%io!' There are ma!

    de3artme!t% u!der thi% dii%io!'

    The duratio! o thi% i!ter!%hi3 wa% 5 wee*%# rom [email protected] 201, to 7 Se3tember 201,' The

    i!ter!%hi3 wa% i! the ollowi!" de3artme!t%:

    Tra!%mi%%io! (2 ee*%&

    NGN-?CT (1 wee*&

    .3tial iber S%tem% (2 ee*%&

    Swithi!" (1 ee*&

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    /.1 TRANSMISSIONTra!%mi%%io! (abbreiatio!: T;& i% the 3roe%% o %e!di!" a!d 3ro3a"ati!" a! a!alo"ue or di"ital

    i!ormatio! %i"!al oer a 3h%ial 3oi!t-to-3oi!t or 3oi!t-to-multi3oi!t tra!%mi%%io! medium#

    either wired# o3tial iber or wirele%%'

    T%'$mii"$ Te)2$"#"*Tra!%mi%%io! teh!olo"ie% a!d %heme% t3iall reer to 3h%ial laer 3rotool dutie% %uh a%

    modulatio!# demodulatio!# li!e odi!"# eualiatio!# error o!trol# bit %!hro!iatio! a!dmulti3le;i!"# but the term ma al%o i!ole hi"her-laer 3rotool dutie%# or e;am3le# di"itii!"

    a! a!alo" me%%a"e %i"!al# a!d %oure odi!" (om3re%%io!&' Tra!%mi%%io! o a di"ital me%%a"e#or o a di"itied a!alo" %i"!al# i% *!ow! a% data tra!%mi%%io! or di"ital ommu!iatio!' .!etra!%mi%%io! i% the %e!di!" o a %i"!al with limited duratio!# or e;am3le a blo* or 3a*et o

    data# a 3ho!e all# or a! email'

    Di+ii"$ "( T%'$mii"$)BB-$$

    N.C

    .C-$

    D334II)i"ital Cro%% Co!!et ()BB& i% a %tate-o-the-art ommu!iatio! teh!olo" oer .3tial iber'

    a%t a!d reliable data ommu!iatio! a! be 3roided u%i!" thi% teh!olo" rom 5'4 *b3% to

    %eeral Mb3%' .3tial iber %tream% are termi!ated o! )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et !ode% a!d data

    o!!etiit i% 3roided to u%tomer6% 3remi%e% u%i!" li!e ard% (2'=, )CC# )$N$C# 27C=# 2 C et'& a!d )TE% ()ata Termi!ati!" E!it&' hole )BB !etwor* i% mo!itored a!d

    o!trolled b Su! ba%ed Networ* Ma!a"eme!t S%tem (NMS&'

    )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et ()BB& i% a %tate-o-the-art ommu!iatio! teh!olo" oer .3tial iber'a%t a!d reliable data ommu!iatio! a! be 3roided u%i!" thi% teh!olo" rom 5'4 *b3% to

    %eeral Mb3%' .3tial iber %tream% are termi!ated o! )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et !ode% a!d data

    o!!etiit i% 3roided to u%tomer6% 3remi%e% u%i!" li!e ard% (2'=, )CC# )$N$C# 27C=# 2 C et'& a!d )TE% ()ata Termi!ati!" E!it&' hole )BB !etwor* i% mo!itored a!d

    o!trolled b Su! ba%ed Networ* Ma!a"eme!t S%tem (NMS&'

    The )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et ()BB& %%tem i% de3loed i! the ull me%h o!i"uratio!' The

    tra!%mi%%io! medium i% iber .3ti' iber .3ti i% the mo%t reliable tra!%mi%%io! medium orlo!" haul ommu!iatio!%' Similarl it oer% low tra!%mi%%io! dela%' Thi% e!able% the

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    u%tomer% to %et u3 irtual 3riate !etwor* at er aordable 3rie%' The e!tral !ode% o the

    !etwor* are made u3 o the =5=0 )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et %withe% rom Alatel# whih are

    de3loed at the )i"ital Tra!%it ;ha!"e% i! all the itie%' The =5=0 )i"ital Cro%% Co!!et%withe% at eah )i"ital Tra!%it ;ha!"e are the! o!!eted with the =5=0 Multi3le;er%'

    A!other im3orta!t eature o the )BB i% that rame Fela a! be em3loed i! the e;i%ti!" )BB

    !etwor* u%i!" F a!d FS ard% i! Alatel =5=0 !ode%'

    Medi' "( D't' T%'$mii"$ )ial E3'

    $S)N (oie'

    >ideo'

    $ma"e'

    )ata'

    Mi;ed media at a !umber o %ta!dard

    )ata rate%

    )i"ital )i"ital termi!al eui3me!t'

    )i"ital loal loo3%'

    )i"ital tru!*%'

    )i"ital %withi!"'

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    Networ* AN - irele%% oal Area Networ*

    AN - ide Area Networ*

    MAN - Metro3olita! Area Networ*

    SAN - Stora"e Area Networ*# S%tem Area Networ*# Serer Area Networ*# or

    %ometime% Small Area Networ*

    CAN - Cam3u% Area Networ*# Co!troller Area Networ*# or %ometime% Clu%ter Area

    Networ*

    /AN - /er%o!al Area Networ*

    )AN - )e%* Area Networ*

    ISDN 5BRI6 The ba*u3 o )BB i% $S)NH

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    ha% bee! able to addre%% tho%e i%%ue% with a om3lete o!er"e!e o the e!tire !etwor* o! a

    %i!"le 3latorm'

    T2e%e '%e t2%ee t&e "( medi'9)'%%ie% '%e ued i$ P'0it'$ b PTCL. Co33er

    (irele%% oal oo3&

    .3tial iber

    E%i!" Co33er a% media o tra!%erri!" o data# there i% a loal e;ha!"e ( the %etu3 o i%

    i!%talled o! "rou!d loor a!d the data i% tra!%erred rom M) (Mai! )i%tributio! rame&L rom

    the ro!t %ide we ae%% ia able while ba* %ide i% %withi!" bo;'

    Be$e(it /roatie ide!tiiatio! a!d re%olutio! ault% o throu"h Feal-time Networ* Mo!itori!" %tatu% i%ibilit'

    $!rea%e !etwor* aailabilit throu"h !ha!ed Dualit o Serie a!d e!tralied 3erorma!e

    %tati%ti% a!d re3orti!" meha!i%m'

    $!rea%ed Aou!tabilit a!d Tra!%3are! throu"h e%alatio! 3oliie%# wor* order% a!dmai!te!a!e o %eure atiit lo"%'

    OFC4I 5O&ti)'# Fibe%6A! "&ti)'# (ibe% (or "&ti)'# (i#e%& i% a le;ible# tra!%3are!t iber made o e;truded "la%% (%ilia&

    or 3la%ti# %li"htl thi*er tha! a huma! hair' $t a! u!tio! a% a wae"uide# or li"ht 3i3eO# to

    tra!%mit li"ht betwee! the two e!d% o the iber' The ield o a33lied %ie!e a!d e!"i!eeri!"o!er!ed with the de%i"! a!d a33liatio! o o3tial iber% i% *!ow! a% (ibe% "&ti)..3tial

    iber% are widel u%ed i! iber-o3ti ommu!iatio!%# where the 3ermit tra!%mi%%io! oerlo!"er di%ta!e% a!d at hi"her ba!dwidth% (data rate%& tha! wire able%' ibre% are u%ed i!%tead o

    metal wire% beau%e %i"!al% trael alo!" them with le%% lo%% a!d are al%o immu!e to

    eletroma"!eti i!terere!e' iber% are al%o u%ed or illumi!atio!# a!d are wra33ed i! bu!dle%

    %o that the ma be u%ed to arr ima"e%# thu% allowi!" iewi!" i! o!i!ed %3ae%' S3eiallde%i"!ed iber% are u%ed or a ariet o other a33liatio!%# i!ludi!" %e!%or% a!d iber la%er%'

    T&e "( "&ti)'# (ibe% )'b#e.3tial iber able i% aailable i! three orm% whih are1' Slotted ore able

    2' oo%e tube able

    =' oo%e tube %lotted ore able

    M'i$ A&i)'ti"$ "( t2e "&ti)'# (ibe% )'b#e

    )

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    /ubli a!d 3riate teleommu!iatio! li!e%

    Com3uter !etwor* (AN# AN &

    Telei%io! di%tributio! !etwor* (CAT>&

    Militar !etwor*

    Co!trol# remote o!trol %i"!alii!" !etwor*

    >ideo %u3eri%io! li!e%

    Ad+'$t'*e "( t2e "&ti)'# (ibe% )'b#e.3tial iber able% are !ot aeted b a! i!terere!e ori"i!ated rom e!er" tra!%mi%%io!

    li!e%' Fadio wae% a!d ro%% tal* betwee! the iber% doe% !ot e;i%t' No %3eial 3rotetio! i%

    !ee%%ar'1' N"$ C"$du)ti+itNo "rou!di!" i% !ee%%ar beau%e o metal ree able'

    2' L'%*e Wide b'$d8idt2Suitable or hi"h %3eed' ide-ba!d# teleommu!iatio! li!e%'

    =. L"8 L"!

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    Ri$* T"&"#"*

    A ri!" !etwor* i% a !etwor* to3olo" i! whih eah !ode o!!et% to e;atl two other !ode%#

    ormi!" a %i!"le o!ti!uou% 3athwa or %i"!al% throu"h eah !ode - a ri!"' )ata trael rom!ode to !ode# with eah !ode alo!" the wa ha!dli!" eer 3a*et'

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    NGN ; Ne

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    o!%um3tio! rom retiier%' $t ha% a red led to i!diate a ault or tem3erature ri%e' The

    board u%e% the FS2=2 i!terae'

    4 MRCA 5Medi' Re"u%)e C"$t%"# A))e (%"$t B"'%d6Q Thi% board i% a media %erer'

    $t a! %tore# 3la a!d a!ale audio ile%' $t al%o "e!erate% ri!" ba* to!e% a!d i% u%ed i!

    ideo o!ere!i!"' $t u%e% the FS2=2 i!terae'

    , MRIA 5Medi' Re"u%)e I$te%(')e B')0 B"'%d6Q Thi% i% the ba* board o MFCA'

    5 UPWR 5U$i+e%'# P"8e% B"'%d6Q Thi% board %u33lie% 3ower to all the other board%' $t

    ha% a! i!3ut o -=5> to -75>' $t% out3ut urre!t i% ,0# 40# # a!d 4 am3ere% a!d -,# R4# R

    =# R12# -12 olt%' The board o!%ume% 20 '

    7 UAC 5U$i+e%'# '))e )"$t%"# u$it (%"$t b"'%d6Q Fe%3o!%ible or all o!trol a!d

    3roe%%i!" o ?'24 a!d S$/ 3rotool%' $t ha% a memor o 119 Mbit%' $t re3ort% it%

    alarm% to SME$ a!d ha% a 3ower o!%um3tio! o 15 ' $t u%e% the FS2=2# MSG$ a!d

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    14 CBDI 5Ce$t%'# D't'b'e b"'%d I$te%(')e (%"$t B"'%d6Q Thi% board 3roide% all

    loatio!% i'e' rom where all i% ori"i!ati!" rom' Thi% board wor*% i! 3air% a!d it a!

    alloate 9000 %ub%riber% 3er %eo!d

    The SotB=000 %withe% are om3atible with the ?CT (?i"h Ca3ait Tra!%it ;ha!"e&' $ta! 3erorm /STN %i"!alli!" %uh a% SS7' .ther 3rotool% u%ed b the SotB=000 %%tem are:

    Si"Tra!# MGC/# ?'24# ?'2=2# S$/ a!d $SE/'

    Curre!tl there are our 3air% o NGN e!ter% i! /a*i%ta! wor*i!" i! atie a!d %ta!db mode%'

    The are "ie! below:

    1 K/K a!d $%lamabad Fe"io!:

    - Fawal3i!di Atie

    - /e%hawar Sta!db

    2 ahore Fe"io!:- ahore Atie

    - Sta!db al%o i! ahore

    = /u!ab Fe"io!:

    - ai%alabad Atie- Gura!wala Sta!db

    4 Si!dh a!d

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    /.=

    S8it)2i$*Te)2$i)'# > O&e%'ti"$'# Net8"%0/a*i%ta! teleommu!iatio! or3oratio! u!der the at o 1995# /a*i%ta! Teleommu!iatio!

    Authorit (/TA& i%%ued a lie!%e to /a*i%ta! Teleommu!iatio! Com3a! imited or the3roi%io! o teleom %erie% withi! /a*i%ta! to 3riate %etor a!d the "e!eral 3ubli a% the

    ederal Goer!me!t ma determi!e a!d duri!" the e;lu%iit 3eriod o the /a*i%ta!

    Teleommu!iatio! Com3a! imited (/TC& %3eiied i! aboe-me!tio!ed At' /TC ha%2, ear% lie!%e to 3roide teleom %erie% i! /a*i%ta! with Sta*e i! the Com3a! with about

    528 euit' /TC ha% lar"e%t !etwor* a!d hu"e i!ra%truture or it6% more tha! 4#40,#151 u%er%a% o! (Mar# 200&'

    S8it)2i$* Te)2$"#"*There are 7 diere!t *i!d% o %withi!" teh!olo"ie% urre!tl o3eratio!al i! /TC !etwor*'

    Alatel

    Sieme!%

    NC

    ri%o!

    ?uawei

    @'S teleom T

    ith the%e diere!t %withi!" teh!olo"ie% /TC i% ru!!i!" it% hu"e !etwor* a!d

    3roidi!" diere!t ommu!iatio! ailitie% to it% u%tomer%'

    /.=.1 M"de "( S8it)2i$*There are two mode% o %withi!"'

    Ciruit Swithi!"

    /a*et Swithi!"

    Ciruit %withi!" i!lude% mobile %erie%' $t i% !ot reliable a% om3ared to 3a*et %withi!"'

    /a*et %withi!" i!lude% mail ia i!ter!et# mobile me%%a"e% et' $t i% reliable mode o%withi!"'

    PTCL C"%&"%'te Se%+i)e )BB

    No! )BB

    $S)NH/F$

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    $S)NH

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    A om3lete o!er"e!e o e!tire Networ* o! a %i!"le 3latorm

    /roatie ide!tiiatio! a!d re%olutio! o ault% throu"h:

    Feal-time Networ* Mo!itori!" %tatu% i%ibilit' /TC hae bee! able to i!rea%e !etwor* aailabilit throu"h:

    !ha!ed Dualit o Serie a!d e!tralied 3erorma!e %tati%ti% a!d re3orti!" meha!i%m'

    $!rea%ed Aou!tabilit a!d Tra!%3are! Throu"h e%alatio! 3oliie%# wor* order% a!d mai!te!a!e o %eure

    atiit lo"%

    /.=./ NOC i$ PTCLThe mai! N.C i% loated i! the C))T

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    /.- OFS ; O&ti)'# Fibe% Stem

    Mo%t o33er wire% are !ow bei!" re3laed with o3tial iber wire%' There are ma! ada!ta"e%

    a%%oiated with o3tial iber# %uh a% a er hi"h ba!dwidth' Theoretiall a! o3tial iber

    ha!!el ha% i!i!ite ba!dwidth' .3tial iber %%tem% are more %eure tha! o33er wire%' .ther

    ada!ta"e% i!lude !oi%e immu!it# low o%t# ea% i!%tallatio!# li"ht wei"ht# a!d er "ood

    %i"!al tra!%mi%%io! ualit'

    )i%ada!ta"e% o o3tial iber are the wire% ra"ilit# a!d harmul eet% to the huma! ee'

    /.-.1

    O&ti)'# (ibe% B'i).3tial iber wor*% b o!erti!" eletrial %i"!al% i!to li"ht o %3eii waele!"th%' The li"ht

    i% the! tra!%3orted throu"h a %3eial able'

    The able o!%i%t% o a ore# laddi!"# a!d a buer oati!"' The ore i% the i!!ermo%t re"io!

    throu"h whih li"ht i% tra!%3orted' Claddi!" i% u%ed to 3ree!t the li"ht rom lea*i!"' $t

    i!ter!all relet% a! li"ht omi!" out o the able' The 3iture below %how% a ba%i %truture o

    a! o3tial iber able'

    The ore o the able ha% a low reratie i!de; om3ared to the laddi!"' i"ht i% releted i!

    the ore at a %3eii a!"le' )ue to the reratie i!de;# the li"ht will i!ter!all relet a!d trael

    throu"h the able a% %how! below'

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    A ba%i tra!%mi%%io! o3tial tra!%mi%%io! %%tem o!%i%t% o a tra!%mitter whih o!ert%

    eletrial %i"!al% i!to li"ht# a! o3tial iber ha!!el# a!d a reeier whih detet% li"ht a!d

    o!ert% it i!to eletrial %i"!al%' Thi% i% %how! below'

    The ollowi!" ba!d% are u%ed i! o3tial iber %%tem%:

    B'$d W'+e#e$*t2 i$ $m

    . 1#250 Q 1#=50 .ri"i!al

    1#=50 Q 1#450 ;te!ded

    S 1#450 Q 1#,=0 Short waele!"th

    C 1#,=0 Q 1#,5, Co!e!tio!al

    1#,5, Q 1#52, o!" waele!"th

    E 1#52, Q 1#57, Eltra lo!" waele!"th

    The ollowi!" t3e% o !etwor*% a! be e%tabli%hed u%i!" o3tial iber:

    1 /oi!t Q to Q 3oi!t Networ*

    1)

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    2 /oi!t-to-Multi3oi!t Networ*

    = Fi!" Networ*

    4 Me%h Networ*

    , Com3o%ite !etwor*

    1$

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    /.-./ S$)2%"$"u Di*it'# Hie%'%)2

    S)? are the mo%t ommo! multi3le;i!" 3rotool% u%ed to tra!%mit di"ital data oer a iber o3ti

    ha!!el'

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    O&ti)'# S8it)2 N"de 5OSN6

    The .SN=,00 board% are u%ed i! the .S de3artme!t o /TC' The eature% o the .SN=,00

    are:

    - Serie leel a"reeme!t (SA&- To3olo" automati di%oer u!tio!

    - Automati e!d-to-e!d %erie o!i"uratio!

    - Su33ort me%h !etwor*i!" a!d 3rotetio!

    - Trai e!"i!eeri!"- Su33ort% F/F

    The board% hae the ollowi!" ) i!diator%:

    - G%ee$: $!diate% 3ower

    - Ye##"8: $!diate% a mi!or alarm' $t i% u%uall i"!ored

    - O%'$*e: $!diate% a maor alarm' $t i% ote! i"!ored- Red: $!diate% a ritial alarm' $mmediate atio! i% ta*e!

    T%'$mii"$ '$d RTR 5R'8'#&i$di Te)2$i)'# Re*i"$6

    The our mai! laer%# or tra!%mi%%io! 3ur3o%e%# o /TC are di%u%% below

    Sub%riber% are o!!eted to /TC throu"h a! ae%% laer%' or e;am3le )SAM

    ()i"ital %ub%riber li!e ae%% multi3le;er& o!!et% u%er% to a loal T)M e;ha!"e

    throu"h a )C ()i%tributio! abi!et& a!d )/ ()i%tributio! 3a!el&' The )SAM i% al%o

    o!!eted to the /$ (/a*i%ta! i!ter!et e;ha!"e&'

    ?oweer# )SAMS are !ow bei!" re3laed with MSAGS (Multi%erie ae%%

    "atewa%&' MSAGS are u%ed i! /a*et %withi!"# a!d are diretl o!!eted to a! $/

    loud' TT? (iber to the home& i% al%o a ommo! teh!olo"# u%ed to o!!et

    %ub%riber% to the %erie 3roider'

    Commu!iatio! betwee! e;ha!"e% i% do!e throu"h 16%' a %i!"le 1 a! tra!%er data at

    a rate o 2 Mbit%H%' A! 1 ha% =2 ha!!el%# howeer o!l =0 ha!!el% are u%ed or data

    ommu!iatio!' .!e ha!!el i% u%ed or %i"!ali!"# a!d o!e i% u%ed or %!hro!iatio!' A

    %i!"le 1 li!e ha% a data rate o 54 Kbit%H%'

    The i!ter!et !etwor* i! /a*i%ta! o!%i%t% o ore router% a!d border router%' The mai!

    ore router% are loated i! Karahi# ahore# $%lamabad# a!d Fawal3i!di' The Karahi ore

    router i% o!!eted to a! i!ter!atio!al %ubmari!e able SM4 (South a%t Middle

    a%t e%ter! uro3e 4&' E%er% are !ot diretl o!!eted to the ore router o %eurit

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    rea%o!%' ah ore router i% o!!eted to ma! ed"e router%# whih are o!!eted to

    e;ha!"e%' Thi% !etwor* o!i"uratio! orm% the /a*i%ta! $!ter!et ;ha!"e'

    The ollowi!" are u%ed at tra!%mi%%io! laer:

    - S)?: S!hro!ou% )i"ital ?ierarh

    - A)M

    - )M: aele!"th )ii%io! Multi3le;i!"

    - /TN: /a*et Tra!%3ort Networ*'

    OSI M"de#A !etwor* mabe er lar"e ma*i!" it diiult to %tud a% a whole# there or it i% u%uall diided

    i!to %ee! .S$ (.3e! S%tem $!tero!!etio!& laer%' er laer de3e!d% o! the laer u!der it'

    The %ee! laer% are:

    7 A33liatio!

    5 /re%e!tatio!

    , Se%%io!

    4 Tra!%3ort

    = Networ*

    2 )ata li!*

    1 /h%ial

    /h%ial laer% i!lude the 3h%ial deie% u%ed to orm the !etwor*# or e;am3le# o!!etor%#

    o33er wire%# iber o3ti%'

    $! the )ata li!* laer%# ma! !ode% are o!!eted to orm a %i!"le !etwor*' Not all !ode% are

    o!!eted at all the time# but %withe% are u%ed to o!!et two diere!t !ode% whe! reuired'

    )ata i% tra!%mitted betwee! !ode% a% 3a*et%' A 3a*et o!%i%t% o two 3art%: The header a!d

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    /aload' /aload i% the atual data that ha% to be tra!%3orted' ?eader i% the de%ti!atio! addre%%'

    ah !ode i! laer two ha% a u!iue MAC addre%%' ther!et i% a laer 2 deie'

    The Networ* laer% o!%i%t o router%' Fouter% "ie diretio! to 3a*et%' Ma! !etwor*% are

    o!!eted throu"h router%'

    Tra!%mi%%io! laer i% re%3o!%ible or the tra!%mi%%io! o /a*et%' E)/ a!d TC/ are 3rotool%

    belo!"i!" to thi% laer' /ort% are al%o a%%i"!ed at thi% laer# e'"' 3ort% or ideo data# oie data

    Se%%io! laer i% re%3o!%ible or %i"!ali!" a!d mai!tai! o!!etio!' There are ma! %e%%io!

    3rotool%# %uh a% the S$/ (%e%%io! i!itiatio! 3rotool&'

    $! the 3re%e!tatio! laer# e!oded data i% deoded' )ata i% u%uall e!oded or %eurit rea%o!%'

    $! the%e laer%# data i% al%o he*ed or error%'

    / INTERNSHIP TASKS$ wa% a%%i"!ed a ta%* i! the NGN de3artme!t duri!" the ir%t wee* o the i!ter!%hi3' The ta%*

    wa% to u3date the e;i%ti!" reord o wire olour% o A)M%# whih are u%ed or 16%' 16% are a

    wa to tra!%er data a!d %i"!ali!" betwee! two diere!t e;ha!"e%' er 1 ha% =2 ha!!el%'

    =0 ha!!el% are or oie data# o!e i% or %!hro!iatio! a!d o!e i% or timi!"' ah oie

    ha!!el a! arr data at a ma;imum rate o 54*bit%H%' >oie o!!etio!% are made diretl

    betwee! e;ha!"e%# howeer %i"!alli!" i% routed throu"h ST/6% (%erie tra!%er 3oi!t%& or

    better eiie! a!d to %ae 16%' ah 1 a! 3roide %erie% u3 to 4095 u%er throu"h time

    dii%io! multi3le;i!"' There were ma! wire olour% i'e' Fed# "ree!# blue# ellow# "re# white#

    bla*# 3i!*# ora!"e' Some wire% were al%o multiolour' There were three "rou3%# with eah "rou3o!%i%ti!" o two i!ter!%# to om3lete the ta%*' Normall o!e "rou3 member wa% re%3o!%ible or

    he*i!" the wire olor a!d the other wa% re%3o!%ible or writi!" the olor dow! o! a !oteboo*'

    riti!" dow! the olor% o the wire% i! the !oteboo* o all the 16% too* about our da%' Ater

    thi%# all the data wa% e!tered i!to a Miro%ot e;el %3read%heet' The !ew data wa% om3ared

    with the 3reiou% data a!d a! diere!e% betwee! the olor% were !oted'

    $ wa% al%o a%*ed to i!trodue !ew i!ter!% to ba%i o!e3t% %uh a% diere!e betwee! iruit

    a!d 3a*et %withi!"# a!d the %ee! .S$ laer% i! the NGN-?CT de3artme!t'

    A$'#i

    )uri!" the i!ter!%hi3 3eriod# $ ob%ered that there were !ot e!ou"h e!"i!eer% to trai! i!ter!ee%'

    .erall there %eemed to be a %horta"e o %ta i! the NGN a!d .S de3artme!t' The e!"i!eer%

    did !ot hae e!ou"h time to teah i!ter!ee%' Al%o# i!ter!% were !ot e!oura"ed to lear! the

    hardware a!d %otware u%ed b the diere!t de3artme!t%' There wa% !o teleom eui3me!t o!l

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    or trai!i!" 3ur3o%e%' .!l leture% were "ie!# with er little 3ratie wor*' Not eer i!ter!ee

    wa% a%%i"!ed a ta%*'

    -. SWOT A$'#i "( PTCL!

    St%e$*t2! Attribute% o the or"a!iatio! that are hel3ul i! ahiei!" the obetie%'

    /TC Stre!"th% .lde%t Teleommu!iatio! Com3a! o /a*i%ta! ou!ded

    i! 1947'

    The lar"e%t la!dli!e !etwor* o /a*i%ta!'

    Stro!" i!ter!atio!al bra!d !ame%'

    Stro!" i!a!ial 3o%itio!

    Com3ete!t a!d S*illul ?uma! Fe%oure% i! ew %3eialied ield%'

    /TC i% oeri!" multi3le %erie% whih i!lude% Tele3ho!e# $!ter!et a!d

    T'>' /TC a! be u%ed a% a ba*u3 !etwor* i the mobile !etwor*% are dow!

    due to a! rea%o!' /TC mai!tai! the reord% o u%tomer% i! a! or"a!ie wa with the

    3ri!i3le o 3ria' All the teleommu!iatio! om3a!ie% o3erati!" i! /a*i%ta! diretl or

    i!diretl de3e!de!t u3o! /TC !etwor*' $t ha% bee! oeri!" $!ter!et )S o!!etio! to the u%tomer% with

    %tude!t%6 3a*a"e oer' $t oer% low rate% or the !atio!al all% et'# a% om3ared to mobile

    !etwor*%

    )ea'nesses:

    Dualit o SerieL oered to the Cu%tomer i% er 3oor a!d i!-eiie!t#

    %3eiall the $!ter!et %erie' a* o teh!ial %ta i! )S teh!ial %u33ort'

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    /oor or"a!iatio!al %truture'

    No lear %trate"i diretio!'

    No re%earh a!d deelo3me!t 3ro"ram%'

    u!tio!al u!it% are !ot well or"a!ied'

    ea* mar*eti!" o !ew %erie%'

    -wirele%% oera"e a!d %erie i% eeble'

    $pportunities:

    ?u"e mar*et %ie to $!rea%e mar*et %hare' )eelo3me!t o !ew# i!!oatie a!d u%tomied 3rodut% ($!rea%e i!

    om3a! 3rodut li!e%& Fe-%truturi!" o or"a!iatio!al hierarh (/ro3er 3la!!i!" a!d

    im3leme!tatio! i% reuired# to $m3roe oerall %erie%&' Ado3t late%t teh!olo"ie%'

    Ma*i!" teh!olo" ae%%ible to all (e'"' broadba!d&'

    ?ire om3ete!t mar*eter% a!d ado3t a""re%%ie mar*eti!" that i% reuired

    to 3romote oered %erie% a!d "ie tou"h time to om3etitor%'

    $m3roeme!t i! u%tomer %erie%'

    @oi!t e!ture% with other teleommu!iatio! om3a!ie% or i!trodui!"!ew %erie%'

    ?ire teh!ial %ta i! %3eii area% e'"' or )S i%%ue% i! order to

    i!rea%e u%tomer %ati%atio!

    T"reats:

    Stro!" om3etitio! rom teleommu!iatio! om3a!ie%'

    New 3laer% i! the i!du%tr'

    $!o!%i%te!t a!d Adho dei%io!% b Com3a! ma!a"eme!t'Seurit a!d raud i%%ue%'

    Cberrime% 3ere!ta"e i% i!rea%i!"'

    /olitial i!%tabilit'

    $!latio! i! the ou!tr# ma i!rea%e the o%t o %erie% whih will

    i!all tra!%erred to u%tomer%'

    Fa3id rai%e i! Goer!me!t ta;e%'

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    Fee%%io! i! eo!om'

    . FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    $! thi% ha3ter# we are "oi!" to di%u%% the i!di!"% a!d m iew o reomme!datio!% whih we

    aed a!d thou"ht duri!" the i!ter!%hi3' The%e i!di!"% a!d reomme!datio!% will hel3 the

    or"a!iatio! to %ere the u%tomer% i! a better wa a!d will e!ha!e their a3abilitie% o

    3erormi!" ear!i!" a!d the will "et the hi"h alue tha! tho%e u3omi!" om3etitor% o it'

    .1 Fi$di$*

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    hardware a!d %otware u%ed b the de3artme!t%' Al%o ta%*%# %uh a% ma*i!" databa%e%# %hould be

    a%%i"!ed to eer i!ter!ee# !ot u%t a ew' A!d other reomme!datio!% are di%u%% below

    No doubt /'T'C' hai!" the mo!o3ol i! 3roidi!" the a!d-i!e Tele3ho!e o!!etio!

    i! /a*i%ta! a!d it% 3lai!" it% role ma"!iie!tl' $! urre!t %e!ario /'T'C' ha%

    i!rea%e% it% Fee!ue uite dramatiall a!d 3robabl that a% %oo! a% thi% or"a!iatio!ha% beome 3riatied it will louri%h it% ree!ue i! better ma!!er'

    /TC %hould immediatel ha!"e it% i!a!e u33er leel o hierarh a!d %hould %tream

    li!e i! the "ood ma!!er'

    /TC %hould al%o e!oura"e the