Planning for the Industrial Internet of Things

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ARC STRATEGIES By Greg Gorbach, Chantal Polsonetti, and Andy Chatha Planning for the Industrial Internet of Things Executive Overview .................................................................... 3 The Value Proposition for a Connected Industrial World .................... 4 From Products to Products-as-Services .......................................... 7 Industrial IoT Architecture ........................................................... 8 The Connected Asset Value Chain ................................................12 Smart Product Design Considerations ...........................................16 Standardization Plays a Key Role .................................................16 Security Concerns Remain a Primary Impediment ..........................19 Recommendations .....................................................................21 VISION, EXPERIENCE, ANSWERS FOR INDUSTRY

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  • ARC STRATEGIES By Greg Gorbach, Chantal Polsonetti, and Andy Chatha

    Planning for the Industrial Internet of Things

    Executive Overview .................................................................... 3

    The Value Proposition for a Connected Industrial World .................... 4

    From Products to Products-as-Services .......................................... 7

    Industrial IoT Architecture ........................................................... 8

    The Connected Asset Value Chain ................................................ 12

    Smart Product Design Considerations ........................................... 16

    Standardization Plays a Key Role ................................................. 16

    Security Concerns Remain a Primary Impediment .......................... 19

    Recommendations ..................................................................... 21

    VISION, EXPERIENCE, ANSWERS FOR INDUSTRY

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    Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) Enables New Business Models

    IoT Component Description Functionality Examples

    Intelligent sensors, machines, devices, assets

    Embedded intelligence, storage, and processing power

    Data producers and consumers; Local intelligence and data storage

    Controllers, machines, pumps, transmitters, valves, etc.

    Communications Networks of all types Connectivity; Data delivery; Security

    Wired, Wireless, Cellular, Satellite, other Networks

    Big Data Data repositories Data aggregation Hadoop, Azure

    Analytics Data processing engines

    Data analysis; Insight

    Analytical engines for reliability, EAM and FSM applications

    Visualization Text/graphical input and output; Intuitive touch, text, voice; Universal, Mobile

    Data presentation; Search queries

    HMIs, OIs Smartphones Tablets

    Industrial Internet of Things Building Blocks

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    Enabling business improvements through secure remote access to

    connected machines, assets, and other devices is a primary value proposition

    driving manufacturer interest in the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT).

    Executive Overview

    The industrial Internet of Things (IoT) is at hand. The needed technologies are available and require no substantial technological breakthroughs. Well thought out reference architectures have been created, and compelling use cases are being developed. Techniques for adding IoTs digital umbilical cord capability to existing industrial systems - allowing companies to se-curely supply asset performance information to the asset manufacturers and others - are coming to market. Whats lacking is broad recognition of what has become possible, and the vision to utilize these new technologies to transform industry.

    Granted, there is plenty of hype surrounding the Internet of Things. Its not hard to find forecasts of trillions of dollars in economic growth driven by the use of ubiquitous intelligent sensors and devic-es, Big Data and analytics tools, and universal visualization capabilities.

    But this isnt just another futuristic fad. Leading companies are making ma-jor investments in the Internet of Things concept for their industrial solutions using catchy terms such as Smarter Planet (IBM), Internet of Everything (Cisco), and Industrial Internet (GE). In Europe, Industry 4.0 is taking hold. Many other software, hardware, and automation com-panies are also developing (or already offer) industrial IoT solutions. IoT-enabled improvements in industrial production as well as asset, mainte-nance, and service management processes promise to reduce unplanned machine downtime and dramatically reduce energy costs, among numer-ous other anticipated benefits.

    Industrial companies are in a unique position. Unlike in other IoT seg-ments, such as consumer applications or the Smart Home, industrial manufacturers are likely to both consume connected products for use in their own operations and produce connected products for use by their end customers. Automotive manufacturers, for example, are racing to add in-cremental value-add through in-car connectivity and associated applications, but will also need to plan for the use of a new breed of con-nected machinery in their production facilities. The unique demands of this dual use makes it vitally important that the entire organization (up to and

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    including the C suite), understands the value proposition inherent in intel-ligent management of connected products.

    ARC Advisory Group defines the industrial Internet of Things (IoT) as con-necting intelligent physical entities, such as sensors, devices, machines, assets, and products, to each other, to internet services, and to applications. The industrial IoT architecture builds upon current and emerging technolo-gies such as mobile and intelligent devices, wired and wireless networks, cloud computing, Big Data, analytics, and visualization tools. With most of the technological components already available, concerns over cyber securi-ty, technology standardization, and intellectual property ownership remain the most prominent potential obstacles.

    The Value Proposition for a Connected Industrial World

    Industrial companies have pursued horizontal and vertical connectivity within their operations for some time now in their ongoing efforts to im-prove performance and achieve operational excellence. Most existing sensor and actuator points in an industrial automation system are in place to support process/production control, safety, and regulatory compliance. Increasingly, sensor data is also being used to support operations manage-ment and maintenance activities. These points are typically connected to a particular real-time system or application that may share certain data with other plant or enterprise systems or applications. Industrial companies use information from these connected entities to lower costs, optimize process-es, and execute efficiently.

    So what does the industrial Internet of Things bring to the table? The in-dustrial IoT emphasizes remote access to connected machines and other devices to enable transformative business improvements. The ability to serve data from ubiquitous connected devices on the plant floor and pro-cess sophisticated output from enterprise systems for operational improvement become core enablers for driving the expected savings.

    Intelligent connected products and machines help improve performance and reduce downtime through remote diagnostics, troubleshooting, and condition monitoring capabilities. These support predictive maintenance approaches that minimize unplanned downtime, improve maintenance

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    The potential for further reductions in unplanned machine downtime through

    remote monitoring and access is a primary driver behind use of the

    Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) and connected devices in manufacturing.

    productivity and effectiveness, and enable assets to operate in an optimal manner. This, combined with the ability of authorized parties (both inter-nal and external to the organization), to remotely access data from appropriate internet-connected devices, machines, and other plant equip-ment can deliver incremental business benefits.

    Benefits Means Timeline Source

    1 to 1.5% productivity improvements

    Condition monitoring, improved performance, innovation enabled by remote access

    Annual GE

    $10 to $15 trillion growth in global GDP

    Condition monitoring, improved performance, innovation enabled by remote access

    20 years GE

    $20 billion Improved IoT-enabled service and maintenance

    Annual current cost

    GE

    $14.4 trillion Technology innovation; Incremental competitive advantage through connectivity and remote access

    10 years Cisco

    $326 million (One mature oil & gas field)

    Field data capture, informed & predictive operations

    10 Years IBM

    Selected Estimates of Quantifiable Benefits Associated with the Industrial Internet of Things

    Initial Target: Reduce Unplanned Downtime

    Machine downtime, particularly unplanned downtime, is highly detri-mental to production performance. Over 70 percent of respondents in an ARC survey on enterprise asset management (EAM), for example, cited

    improved machine uptime as a primary business driver behind purchasing EAM software.

    The potential to incrementally improve this metric through remote asset monitoring by internal or external service and operations personnel provides real business value that can help industrial organi-

    zations justify adoption of the IoT and connected devices. Connected de-vices can help reduce downtime through remote monitoring of sensor data like vibration and temperature for predictive maintenance purposes. For example, remote service personnel could identify specific problems and

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    potentially perform configuration fixes or update software or firmware without having to travel to the facility; saving time and travel expense, plus the need to involve typically time-strapped on-site technicians.

    The Manufacturer as Connected Product Producer

    Many industrial manufacturers have devoted significant resources over the years to internal operational improvements via performance monitoring, pursuit of best practices, overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), and similar pursuits. For todays high-performing manufacturing firms, the ability to improve the profitability and revenue potential of their service operations once the product is shipped to the customer frequently represents a new revenue opportunity.

    GE, for example, has been very public about reporting the benefits of con-nected products, including the companys ability to remotely resolve 53 percent of service issues in its power and water business. Manufacturers in general can use the IoT to proactively monitor products in the field and use that information to reduce mean time to repair (MTTR) and the number and frequency of technician dispatches.

    The industrial Internet of Things promises improved performance of manu-facturers service operations through remote connectivity, as well as incremental connectivity-based revenue streams that represent entirely new opportunities. Clearly, the value proposition for the IoT extends beyond simple connectivity into the ability to build new products and services us-ing that connectivity as a base.

    Service capabilities increasingly provide a means for manufacturers to achieve competitive differentiation. Adoption of IoT-based device connectivity ena-bles predictive maintenance capabilities, continuous uptime, rapid service response, and the opportunity to offer incremental, revenue-producing products and services.

    Providers of IoT-connected devices will also be able to gain competitive ad-vantage by delivering incremental value, differentiating products from competitors, and fostering new revenue streams. Manufacturers that offer connected products will be able to remotely access the installed base and provide a direct path to maintaining customer satisfaction, reducing service costs, improving profitability of service and warranty management, and delivering products as a service.

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    The industrial Internet of Things will allow even industrial products to be sold

    on a subscription-based service basis.

    Category End User Product Supplier

    Productivity Reduced downtime, better asset utilization and ROA

    Ability to solve customer issues remotely

    Lower lifecycle costs Reduced need for onsite service

    Easier to serve internal data customers

    Improved productivity of service organization

    Service Remote diagnostics, predictive maintenance, remote fixes and updates

    Improved profitability through reduced service and warranty management costs

    Supplier collaboration on business problems

    From fix & repair to helping customers with business problems

    Faster, more focused service, repair, and optimization

    Improved customer satisfaction

    Innovation Pay for product value, not just product

    Product as a Service

    Incremental functionality and process insight

    New revenue streams

    Select List of Benefits Realized by End User and Device Supplier through Use of Connected Products

    From Products to Products-as-Services

    Use of IoT-type connections can enable industrial organizations to not only reduce costs through monitoring of remote devices, but also to generate entirely new revenue streams. One of the most compelling iterations of this concept is the migration from selling products; to selling the value of the product, or product-as-a-service. Examples include an aircraft engine builder billing airlines on the amount of thrust provided, instead of just an aircraft

    engine and a maintenance contract. Or an HVAC supplier that bills its customer based on the amount of comfort its system provides, rather than just a climate control system.

    These applications require more than just smart devices and digital umbil-ical cord connectivity. With product-as-a-service, the manufacturer or OEM retains ownership of the asset itself, providing all required mainte-nance, service, and repair. This represents a whole new business model.

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    Manufacturers and OEMs that are not yet at the point of providing a prod-uct as a service can still benefit from using the IoT and connected products to reduce warranty and service costs and improve the service levels and profitability of these activities. Remote device connectivity coupled with device-level service apps can help manufacturers more rapidly diagnose and troubleshoot issues in the field, address them in a more timely fashion, and market new subscription-based products and services.

    Industrial IoT Architecture

    Today, the Internet of Things is in a chaotic emerging state, with no agreed upon standard systems, standard networks, or standard interfaces. Multi-ple communications technologies are used and a variety of embedded intelligence technologies and sensor and actuator solutions are available. Numerous IoT research and development activities are currently under way. These target opportunities across a variety of separate domains such as health care, smart manufacturing, smart cities, logistics, smart houses, smart energy, retail, and smart transport. Each segment has unique re-quirements, but some commonalities do exist.

    Four Main Parts of Industrial IoT

    Any industrial IoT system contains four main parts: intelligent assets; a data communications infrastructure; analytics and applications to interpret and act on the data, and people.

    Intelligent assets include machines or other assets enabled with sensors, processors, memory, and communications capability. In certain cases, these assets may have an associated virtual entity or support software-defined configuration and performance. Intelligent assets will generate more data and share information across the value chain. Some intelligent assets will eventually be self-aware or operate autonomously. In addition to the Inter-net, data communications between these assets and other entities will often leverage network technologies such as LTE, ZigBee, Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.15-4, and cloud-based computing infrastructure with storage to accommodate Big Data requirements.

    Powerful analytics and related software will enhance asset optimization as well as system optimization. Predictive analytics will be deployed to re-

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    duce unplanned downtime. Newly available information generated by these tools will lead to new, transformative business models supported by new applications. Instead of offering physical products for sale, companies will increasingly offer products as a service as noted earlier.

    People will participate by having access to much more data, better analytics tools, and better information, and will increasingly make decisions based on the analysis generated by these resources. Quantified decision-making will become much more common and intelligent information will appear when and where people need it. But people will also continue to become better connected to others and to machines and systems through social and mobile tools and applications.

    IoT Functional Components

    Diving down a level, lets explore the functional components required to realize the industrial IoT. Thought-leading work by the IoT-A (Internet of Things Architecture) project in Europe to establish and evolve an architec-

    tural reference model for the IoT, is very helpful. IoT-A devised an architectural reference model and defined an initial set of key building blocks. Together they are envisioned as crucial founda-tions for fostering a future, interoperable Internet of Things.

    The IoT Reference Model provides the highest level of abstraction for defining the IoT Architec-tural Reference Model. It includes:

    An IoT Domain Model An IoT Information Model that explains how

    IoT knowledge is going to be modeled An IoT Functional Model that encompasses an IoT Communication

    Model; and a Trust, Security, and Privacy Model

    The IoT Reference Architecture provides a reference for building compliant IoT architectures. As such, it provides views and perspectives on different architectural aspects of concern to IoT stakeholders. Within the IoT Refer-ence Architecture, a Functional View has been developed. It includes seven main areas of functionality:

    Facts about the IoT-A Project

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    IoT Functional Model from IoT-A

    Communication: an abstraction, modeling the variety of interaction schemes derived from the many technologies belonging to IoT systems and providing a common interface to the IoT Service. This component provides a reference stack for communicating with the intelligent de-vices.

    IoT Service: includes functionalities for discovery, look-up, and name resolution of IoT Services. This component provides for exposing de-vice and sensor data as a service.

    Virtual Entity: functions for interacting with the IoT system on the ba-sis of virtual entities. This component provides for asset-based information exchange. For example, you can inquire about the outside temperature at your car, instead of looking up the value of sensor T123.

    IoT Process Management: process modeling, process execution. This component provides an environment for modeling IoT-aware processes and the tools necessary to model business processes. It also executes these processes by utilizing IoT services orchestrated in the Service Or-ganization layer.

    Service Organization: service composition, orchestration, and chore-ography. This function resolves the appropriate services that can handle the IoT User's request, and provides an asynchronous way to request service orchestration.

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    Security: functions for ensuring the security and privacy of IoT-A-compliant systems. This component provides for authorization, au-thentication, identity management, key exchange and management for secure communications, and the like.

    Management: This component provides functionalities for dealing with configuration, fault identification and isolation, performance, membership management, reporting, and state monitoring, prediction, and enforcement.

    Are Industrial Companies Ready for Software-Defined Machines and

    Virtual Assets?

    Connected Device Management Platforms

    The IoT can be viewed as a multi-layer infrastructure that allows infor-mation from remote products, sensors, devices, machines, assets, and other entities to be used anywhere by any authorized party. Connected device management (CDM) platforms provide not only the glue that links devices to higher layers of the architecture, but also value-added functionality and the opportunity for competitive differentiation at the device level.

    CDM platforms are critical solution components, with functionality that goes beyond simple device connectivity and SIM card management to in-clude device configuration, device management, and creating and

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    executing value-added, and often revenue-producing, device-level applica-tions.

    CDM platforms extend device connectivity solutions from simple open-loop monitoring, alarming, and SIM card management to closed-loop solu-tions that allow field service and other local issues to be resolved remotely. The incremental value-add brought by CDM platforms allows suppliers to charge a higher price and subsequently realize higher margin per device, user, amount of data traffic, or other subscription parameter.

    Connected Device Management Platforms Function as IoT Middleware

    The Connected Asset Value Chain

    Certain types of industrial equipment, machinery, or other assets used in operations are already connected and remotely monitored or operated examples of the industrial IoT. Heavy mobile machines used in agriculture or mining is a leading example. Many large mining and earthmoving ma-chines, as well as autonomous or semi-autonomous harvesters and other machines, are already actors in the IoT. A second type is large rotating ma-chines used to generate electric power, lift, or thrust. This type includes jet engines, hydraulic pumps, and power generation turbines. General Elec-tric and other suppliers are targeting this class of assets. A third type is machines and equipment used to produce commercial products. This cate-

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    gory includes a great variety of equipment such as pumps in refineries or other continuous processing plants; robots in automotive plants; retorts in thermal processing of low-acid foods in cans, pouches, jars or bowls; and mixers, tanks, compressors, and countless other industrial machines. Op-portunity exists to improve operations by adding intelligence, sensors, and communications to these machines, and connecting them to new applica-tions and analytics as part of the Internet of Things.

    What can industrial companies do to help their operations equipment ven-dors do a better job for them? One possibility is to share in-service performance data in real time. Makers of heavy mobile machines for min-ing and agriculture already incorporate sensors, intelligence, and communications technology in their machines to monitor performance in the field. Makers of pumps, compressors, robots, turbines, and other indus-trial equipment used in factories and industrial plants also want in-service information from the products they manufacture for use as industrial as-sets.

    Establishing a Digital Umbilical Cord for ABCs Pump in XYZs Plant

    A real-time feed of select machine sensor data would enable the vendor to monitor and analyze machine performance, suggest alternative operating parameters, improve its product designs, predict failures in advance, re-duce warranty support costs, provide better maintenance and support services, and more. By monitoring a large set of its deployed products, an asset vendor may discover new patterns and failure modes that individual users would not be able to identify.

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    Multi-Cloud Connected Asset Value Network Node Model

    How can industrial companies share in-service performance data safely and securely with trusted vendors? In certain applications, it is possible to add low-cost sensors that collect performance data and communicate this through plant Wi-Fi networks. In the not-too-distant future, equipment will come outfitted with the necessary sensors, intelligence, and communi-cations capability built in. Until then, a sensible approach to deploying this connected asset value chain is to leverage the existing data infrastructure and add a secure cloud-based system to share selected performance data with vendors and service providers.

    How Will the Industrial IoT Change Plant Software and Automation?

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    Leverage Existing Systems and Cloud-based Solutions

    To better serve their customers, asset vendors want access to in-service op-erating data from their products. Today, operating assets often have at least some associated sensors and operating information (cycle count, etc.) But typically, this information is read only by a PLC, DCS, or plant floor application such as EMI, asset-based historian, HMI, or MES. These appli-cations may also provide a basic hierarchical plant model that names, classifies, and locates the asset (i.e., Pump P-004). If other applications or systems need the information, it is shared via the applications API and possibly some intermediate software.

    By adding cloud-based solutions, this existing information infrastructure could become the basis for securely sharing certain information with the asset vendors. Companies can take advantage of public cloud services such as Microsoft Windows Azure. These can serve as a secure private compu-ting platform for SaaS applications that could help ensure that only certain information is shared with specific trusted vendors who can subscribe, sub-ject to constraints and conditions and possibly payment of service fees. This approach eliminates having to wait for possible standard ways of do-ing things to emerge, which in any case, wouldnt likely easily accommodate legacy assets.

    Add Cloud-Based Solutions to Existing Systems to Share Asset Information

    The cloud-based solution enables immediate participation in a companys connected asset value chain. It enables asset vendors to monitor their products real-time performance in-service, and to act upon the infor-mation gathered from these assets to better serve their customers.

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    Smart Product Design Considerations

    We are rapidly approaching the point where manufacturers of industrial products/assets (pumps, compressors, robots, machine tools, turbines, and a host of other industrial equipment) should be working to understand how

    to design for industrial IoT. This will involve adding em-bedded processing, storage, and communications technol-ogy, plus the right complement of sensors, to the product. The intelligent onboard system will need to support the digital umbilical cord function, as well as other appropriate functionality for a given product.

    Design tools are available that enable concurrent design and simulation of software, mechanical systems, and electrical systems. The difficulty lies in determining requirements such as what connection technologies the prod-

    uct should support; what sen-sors/data the product should expose; what intelligence the prod-uct requires; and what performance, data selection, buffer-ing, communication frequency, security, etc. should be supported. A product-centric model of the connected asset ecosystem can help accomplishing this.

    Standardization Plays a Key Role

    Standardization of core components of the IoT architecture is a primary en-abler to realizing its potential benefits. Widely adopted standards, particularly in key areas such as data exchange, architecture, security, and many others, will make industrial IoT solutions easier and simpler to im-

    A Product-centric Model of Connected Systems Can Help Identify Requirements

    Designing IoT-enabled Products Requires Concurrent Design and Simulation of Software, Electrical, and Hardware Systems

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    Standardization of the Industrial IoT architecture is one of the most

    important, and most challenging, issues affecting adoption.

    plement and manage. Standards are important for future-proofing installa-tions and protecting users from becoming locked into a specific vendor or technology. In the fast-moving IoT universe, however, it will be difficult for standardization efforts to keep up with the rapid pace of new technolo-gy developments.

    Industrial device-level connectivity remains one of the most fragmented interface areas, with many pro-prietary and/or defacto standard protocols in use. Industrial manufacturers are well aware that proprie-tary supplier protocols continue to enable suppliers to

    retain customers and deflect third-party involvement in their installations. In the industrial IoT world, this trend is not just limited to manufacturing applications, as even the Smart Grid and smart electrical meters are being implemented as closed systems.

    Proprietary implementations are also widely employed in the middleware platform connectivity layer of the IoT in spite of the increasing availability of standards. For example, some platform suppliers currently support standard Java and REST APIs, while others employ proprietary protocols and homegrown APIs.

    Standards and Organizations

    Numerous efforts to standardize IoT components and develop standard-ized IoT architectures and implementation approaches are under way around the world. Developments with the most near-term potential impact for manufacturers are likely to come from the IT world. This is particularly due to the emphasis placed on IP-based devices, interfacing to higher level architectural components, and the overall faster pace and more widespread adoption of technology in this space. This scenario is not new to manufac-turers, since most have adopted Ethernet and wireless networks, commercial operating systems, and other carryovers from the COTS tech-nology world.

    Beyond the IoT-related standardization activities, numerous organizations have formed or focused resources on IoT architecture and implementation. The European Union, for example, has formed the European Research Clus-ter on the Internet of Things, or the IERC, to help coordinate activities in this area. Projects under the IERC umbrella range from OpenIoT, which is pursuing open source IoT in the Cloud, to the IoT-A or Internet of Things

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    Architecture previously referred to in this report. NIST in the US also formed a consortium dedicated to IoT issues, but has yet to issue any deliv-erables.

    Standard Organization Summary

    LTE ETSI Telecomm standard for modern connected cars and cellular devices

    MQTT IBM, OASIS (proposed) Publish/subscribe message transport for remote devices

    Numerous IEEE Network physical and data link layers: Ethernet, WiFi, 6LowPan, Bluetooth, etc.

    IPv6 IETF Internet network/transport layers

    ISA 100 ISA Wireless industrial network architectures

    TR50 TIA M2M Smart Device Communications Framework

    Selected Examples of IoT-Related Standardization Efforts

    IPv6

    Every device on the Internet must utilize TCP/IP (more accurately, the In-ternet Protocol Suite) to communicate with other internet-connected devices. TCP/IP provides the identification, location, and routing that are core components of the IoT architecture. TCP/IP is also important because it can support virtually any media type, which is important for industrial implementations. Most applications already support TCP/IP.

    IPv6, the latest revision of the Internet Protocol, was developed by the IETF to replace IPv4, which still carries over 90 percent of Internet traffic. IPv6 simplifies network management and addresses the larger problem with IPv4, which ran out of available new addresses. IPv6 further promises the ability to support differing network types and offers improved security provisions. Cisco, Rockwell Automation, and Panduit have founded an industrial-specific consortium, Industrial IP Advantage, dedicated to the use of IP in industrial applications.

    The 6LoWPAN extension of IPv6 allows it to be used on low-power wire-less devices and limited bandwidth networks, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. This significantly expands the number of low-end devices that can be ad-dressed in the Industrial Internet of Things. Use of 6LoWPAN is also being pursued in non-industrial implementations of the IoT, such as its promo-tion by the IPSO Alliance in the energy, consumer, and healthcare sectors.

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    Identification and management of potential security vulnerabilities must be paramount in order to protect sensitive

    data and intellectual property. Manufacturers will need to implement a

    layered approach to IoT security that extends throughout the enterprise;

    encompasses customers, partners, and other users of connected devices; and

    strictly manages use of file transfer mechanisms, such as USB drives.

    Security Concerns Remain a Primary Impediment

    Concerns about the security integrity of the industrial IoT, connected devic-es, and unauthorized access to proprietary information are the most oft-cited obstacles to widespread adoption. Widely publicized commercial and industrial data breaches, ranging from Target Stores to Stuxnet, raise manu-facturers awareness as to their potential exposure to theft, process disruptions, personnel injuries, and liability. Security issues pose the fur-ther threat of undermining the primary industrial IoT value proposition of reduced unplanned downtime, particularly when process disruption is the hackers objective.

    Manufacturer concerns about IoT security frequently stem from the univer-sal connectivity inherent in the IoT, reliance on internet technology (including cloud platforms and commercial networks), concerns about pub-licized breaches of internet-based solutions, and data export restrictions.

    The need for robust cyber security to protect sensi-tive data and proprietary information is therefore paramount, and is logically cited in the IoT visions of GE and other proponents.

    Current approaches to industrial cybersecurity emphasize stringent account management and a layered approach by architecture tier. Embedded device suppliers looking to serve IoT applications are focused on addressing the issue of device secu-rity through a variety of means, including account management and use of commercially available

    anti-virus packages from suppliers such as McAfee and Semantic. Conven-tional network protection products such as basic or advanced firewalls are widely used to guard network connectivity.

    Suppliers of connected device management middleware platforms current-ly employ standard schemes such as https over SSL and 256-bit encryption. Frequent use of mechanisms such as USB drives to introduce malicious software means that industrial cyber security strategies must address this form of ingress.

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    Industrial cyber security issues are being pursued individually and collec-tively by organizations such as the IEC, NIST, NERC, and industry organizations such as ISA. NIST recently issued a preliminary cybersecuri-ty framework proposal for review that is focused on securing critical US infrastructure. This framework was developed in response to the US Presi-dents Executive Order: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.

    Industrial control system suppliers are also seriously pursuing a variety of cyber security strategies. The Industrial IP Advantage group mentioned earlier includes the issue of IoT security in its advocacy of industrial IP. This group also advocates a layered security model composed of device hardening, application security, computer hardening, network security, physical security, and policies.

    When using cloud-based solutions, data export restrictions can be ad-dressed by:

    Contractually agreeing with other parties involved in data exchange as to policies for managing in-country data restrictions, and

    Selecting a cloud provider that can ensure that the cloud components are deployed only in a particular region to ensure that all traffic and da-ta exchange is routed through this region.

    ARC provides extensive coverage of the industrial cyber security threat, including current and potential strategies for technology suppliers and us-ers alike. Readers interested in pursuing more in-depth information on cybersecurity strategies are encouraged to contact ARC.

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    Recommendations

    Based on ARC research and analysis, we recommend these actions for companies regarding industrial IoT adoption:

    Prepare to leverage the industrial Internet of Things and connected de-vices throughout your production and service operations. The pervasiveness of this technology will require policy making at a high level to ensure continuity and maximum benefits.

    Asset vendors want real-time, in-service information about their prod-ucts. Help asset vendors serve you better by securely sharing select information across the connected asset value chain. This can often be accomplished by using existing plant automation and software systems as a starting point.

    The emphasis on connected devices means that the IoT can be rolled out incrementally. This allows you to refine your necessary policies and procedures using the low-hanging fruit of justified point solutions (perhaps by machine type, application, or single product or production line), before rolling it out to your entire facility or product line.

    Much of the technology inherent in the industrial Internet of Things and connected devices is or will soon be available. Standardization of device connectivity and security of remotely accessible devices are two of the major issues impeding adoption, and ARC will continue to report on developments in these areas.

    Legacy systems can and should be included in your IoT vision. Many of these systems already feature either Ethernet or wireless connections designed to enable horizontal and/or vertical connectivity. The combi-nation of installed intelligent devices and IP network connectivity is a significant step toward realization of potential IoT benefits.

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    Acronym Reference: For a complete list of industry acronyms, please refer to www.arcweb.com/research/pages/industry-terms-and-abbreviations.aspx.

    API Application Program Interface App Application (software) CDM Connected Device Management

    Platform COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPM Collaborative Production

    Management CRM Customer Relationship

    Management DCS Distributed Control System EAM Enterprise Asset Management EC European Community EMI Enterprise Manufacturing

    Intelligence ERP Enterprise Resource Planning ETSI European Telecommunications

    Standards Institute EUR Euro (currency) FP7 Seventh Framework Programme FSM Field Service Management HMI Human Machine Interface IEC International Electrotechnical

    Commission IEEE Institute of Electrical &

    Electronics Engineers IERC European Research Cluster on

    the Internet of Things IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IoT Internet of Things IoT-A Internet of Things Architecture IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 ISA International Society of

    Automation IT Information Technology

    LTE Long Term Evolution M2M Machine-to-Machine MES Manufacturing Execution System MQTT Message Queue Telemetry

    Transport MTTR Mean Time to Repair NERC North American Electric

    Reliability Corporation NIST National Institute of Standards

    and Technology (US) OASIS Organization for the

    Advancement of Structured Information Standards

    OEE Overall Equipment Effectiveness OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OI Operator Interface PLC Programmable Logic Controller PLM Product Lifecycle Management REST Representational State Transfer ROA Return on Assets SaaS Software as a Service SCM Supply Chain Management SIM Subscriber Identity Module SQL Structured Query Language SSL Secure Sockets Layer TIA Telecommunications Industry

    Association TR50 M2M Smart Device

    Communications Standard USB Universal Serial Bus VDE Association for Electrical,

    Electronic and Information Technologies

    VDI Association of German Engineers

  • ARC Strategies January 2014

    Copyright ARC Advisory Group ARCweb.com 23

    Analysts: Greg Gorbach, Chantal Polsonetti, Andy Chatha

    Editor: Paul Miller

    Distribution: MAS and EAS Clients

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    Executive OverviewThe Value Proposition for a Connected Industrial WorldFrom Products to Products-as-ServicesIndustrial IoT ArchitectureThe Connected Asset Value ChainSmart Product Design ConsiderationsStandardization Plays a Key RoleSecurity Concerns Remain a Primary ImpedimentRecommendations