Pest& Diseases in Vegetables

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  • 7/29/2019 Pest& Diseases in Vegetables

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    Plant Protection

    Same as in Cabbage and Cauliflower.PESTS

    DIMOND BACK MOTH(plutella xylostella)

    Caterpillars feed on under surface of leaves and bite holes on leaves and causeserious damage. Affected leaves present a withered appearance. In severe cases theleaves are skeletoised.

    Control

    Spray malathion 0.1% (2ml/lit of water ) or 50WP carbarlyl 0.15% (3 g/lit of water ) or40EC monocrotophos 0.04%(1.0 ml/lit of water) or 35 EC endosulfan 0.05%(1.5 ml/litof water) or 50 EC fenetrothion 0.05% (1.0 ml/lit of water).

    CABBAGE BORER (Hellula undailis)

    Control The larva webs the leaves or bore into stem, stalk or leaf veins and cause damage by

    making the produce unfit for consumption. They also bore into the cabbage head.

    Spray Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water) or Carbaryl 0.16% ( 3 g/lit or water) orEndosulfan 0.05% (1.5 ml/lit of water).

    cabbage

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    MUSTARD SAWFLY(Athalia lugens proxima)

    Grubs alone are destructive . They bite holes into leaves and prefer younggrowth, leaves are skeletonised completely Heavy defoliation takes place insevere cases.

    Control Spray Dimethoate 0.06% (2 ml/lit of water) or Endosulfan 0.07% 2ml/lit of

    water.

    PAINTED BUG (Bagrada cruciferarum)

    Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, shoots, resulting intowilting and affect the vigor of the plant.

    Control

    Spray Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/lit of water) or 30 EC Dimethoate 0.06%( 2ml/litof water) or 35 EC Phosalone 0.05%(1.5 ml/lit of water).

    LEAF WEBBER(Crocidolomia binotalis)

    Leaves are skeletonized by the larvae which remain on the under surface of

    leaves in webs and feed on them. They also attach flower buds and pods.

    Control

    Spray Monocrotophos 0.04%(1.0 ml/lit of water) or Malathion 0.1% (2 ml/litof water)

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    CABBAGE GREEN SEMILOOPER(Trichopulsia ni)

    Larva bite holes and cause severe damage by skeletonising theleaves.Control

    Spray application of Endosulfan 0.07%(2 ml/lit) or Quinalphos0.05%(2ml/lit)

    APHIDS(Brevicclvne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi)

    They suck the sap from the under surface of leaves and causedamage.Control

    Spray malathion 0.1% @ 2ml/lit of water, or dimethoate 0.06%2ml/lit of water.TOBACCO CATERPILLER(Spodoptera litura)

    Caterpillars are active during night time and feed on leaves andfresh growth. Young caterpillars skeletonise the tender leaves. Laterbroad leaves are completely eaten.

    Control a) Before head formation spray 100 EC phosphamidon 0.05%(1.5

    ml/lit of water) or endosulfan 0.05%(1.5 ml/lit of water) or carbaryl0.15%( 3 g/lit or water)

    b) After head formation spray malathion 0.05% or carbaryl 0.15%(2ml/lit of water)

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    Diseases

    BACTERIAL BLOCKROT(Xanthomonas camperstris)

    Blighting of leaves from margin to midrib in 'V' shape and blackening

    of vascular bundles are the main symptoms of this disease.control

    Seed treatment with hot water 50-52degrees centigrade for 20minutes or soaking in streptocycline(100ppm) for 2 hours effectivelycontrol the disease under field conditions, rouge out infected plantsand drenching the soil with Formalin(1 part in 250 parts of water) is

    also effective.

    WHITE RUST(Albugo candida)

    Located white rust like pustules are seen on leaves and stems.When fully developed these pustules have a powdery consistencyand hypertrophy or stems and flowering parts takes place.

    Control

    Spray Dithane M-45 0.2% at 10-14 days intervals or 2 to 3 sprays of0.4% Blitox or any other copper oxychloride preparation at 10 daysinterval after disease appearance.

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    CULB ROT(Plasmodiphora brassical)

    Roots enlarge to form "Clubs"(Spindle shaped). This isfollowed by secondary invasion of soft rot bacteriaforming materials toxic to plant and finally wilting takesplace.

    Control

    Avoid infected fields. Treat the seedlings with Mercuricchloride solution (1: 1500) at the rate of 125ml per 100

    seedlings at the time of transplanting.

    DAMPING OFF( Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp.)

    Stem of seedlings softened at the ground level, due toinfection, the infected plants collapse and finally die.

    Control

    Treating seeds with thiram 2-3 g/kg sees. Drenchseedlings in nursery beds with caption (1:1500) in water.

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    garlicCROP PROTECTION

    Garlic bulb canker, a new disease identified by NHRDF from stored

    garlic in India , is under study for its control measures. New diseases of garlic in Maharashtra , viz. powdery mildew and

    Cercospera leaf blight identified and their control measures havebeen recommended.

    Mancozeb @ 0.25% or Chlorothalonil @ 0.2% along withMalathion @ 0.1 % or Prophenophos 50% EC @ 0.2% + sticker @

    0.06% have been recommended to control diseases and insectpests attack.

    The 15 September planting of G 41 and 15 October of G 1, G 50and G 282 under Nashik conditions in Maharashtra are suitable

    with low diseases and thrips infestation. However, 15 Septemberplanting is suitable for G1, G 50 and G 282 under Karnal

    conditions in Haryana and 15 October for G 41 with less diseased

    and thrips attack. Spraying of Decis @ 0.04 % and Malathion @ 0.13 %, (twice)alternatively are better control measures for thrips, giving highest

    net return in garlic G-282 under Karnal conditions in Haryana. Three sprays of Cypermethrin @ 0.05 % are most effective incontrolling thrips population, giving highest net return in garlic G

    282 under Karnal conditions in Haryana

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    DISEASES OF ONION

    Stemphylium leaf blight

    Casual organism: Stemphylium vesicarium

    lesions appear to contain a darker, more olive

    brown to black color than do purple blotch

    lesions.

    Four to five sprays of mancozeb 0. 3% +Metasystox 0 .05 % recommended.

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    Purple BlotchCasual organism : Alterneria porri

    one of the most common diseases of onion and isdistributed worldwide

    small, elliptical, tan lesions that often turn purplish-brown

    Concentric rings can be seen in lesions as they enlarge.

    A yellow halo surrounds lesions and extends above and

    below the actual lesion itself for some distance.

    Good soil drainageSpray schedules including mancozeb,

    chlorothalonil,

    and iprodione will suppress purple blotch.

    In addition, boscolid and pyraclostrobin are

    effective against this disease. Intensify these

    schedules later in the season during periodsof prolonged leaf wetness and high relative

    humidity.

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    Pink root :

    Casual organism: Phoma terrestrisdamaging root disease

    Infected roots eventually turn brown and

    deteriorate

    Fumigation with metam sodium,chloropicrin and 1,3-D dichloropropene

    (Telone) is shown to increase yields when

    onions have been planted to fields heavily

    infested with pink root.

    Use of resistant varieties

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    Basal rot

    Casual organism: Fusarium oxysporum

    f. sp.cepaeIn the field as yellowing leaf tips that later

    become necrotic.

    This yellowing and/or necrosis may

    progress towards the base of infected

    plants.

    Sometimes leaves of infected plants

    exhibit curling or curving.

    Infected bulbs, when cut vertically, will

    show a brown discoloration in the basalplate.

    In advanced infections, pitting and decay

    of the basal plate.

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    Anthracnose (Colletotrichumgloeosporioides) favors hot (24 to 29C) and wet

    conditions.

    The disease overwinters in sets and soil, and spores are spread by wind,splashing water, and tools.

    The leaves become twisted due to infection.

    Downy mildew (Peronosporadestructor) also attacks young plants, appearing as

    white specks, usually confined to the oldest leaves of young plants.

    A white mold develops rapidly in cool damp weather and progresses down the

    sheath, and plants eventually fall over and dry up.

    The fungus overwinters in bulbs and sets and on plant debris.

    Spores are carried long distances by air currents.

    For control, young plants can be treated with mancozeb at weekly intervals

    until bulbing begins.

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    Botrytis leaf blight, commonly termed blast, is caused by several

    Botrytis species.

    The disease first appears as white specks on leaves, expanding to cause a

    dieback fromthe leaf tips.

    Tops may be killed completely within a week, and entire fields may be affected.

    Frequently, blight follows previous damage from insects, disease, mechanical

    damage, or air pollution.

    Control is achieved through mancozeb sprays at approximately 7-day intervals.

    Several bulb rots may occur either in the field or in storage.

    Botrytis neck rot (shown) is an extension of the leaf blight disease and

    can become

    serious in storage.

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    Onion thrips : Thrips tabaci

    Infested plant develop spotted

    appearance on the