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Outline. Diversity of Skeletons Hydrostatic Skeleton Exoskeletons Endoskeletons Human Skeletal System Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Human Muscular System The Muscles Muscle Contraction. Hydrostatic Skeleton. Functions Supports body form - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Locomotion and Support Systems

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    OutlineDiversity of SkeletonsHydrostatic SkeletonExoskeletonsEndoskeletonsHuman Skeletal SystemAxial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonHuman Muscular SystemThe MusclesMuscle Contraction

    Locomotion and Support Systems

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    Hydrostatic SkeletonFunctionsSupports body formProvides resistance for the contraction of muscles to act againstSourceSome organisms use their fluid-filled gastrovascular cavityOthers use their fluid-filled coelom

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Locomotion in an Earthworm

    Locomotion and Support Systems

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    Exoskeletons and EndoskeletonsExoskeleton - External SkeletonMolluscs - composed of calcium carbonateArthropods - composed of chitinEndoskeleton - Internal SkeletonEchinoderms and vertebratesMineralized bone and cartilageGrows as the animal growsDoes not limit space for internal organsSupports greater weight

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Exoskeleton

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • The Vertebrate Endoskeleton

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    Human Skeletal SystemFunctionsSupports and protects the bodyPermits movementProvides resistive foundation for muscles to act againstBones store calcium and phosphate ionsCertain bones produce red blood cells

    Locomotion and Support Systems

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    Bone Growth and RenewalCartilage structures in early development act as models for future bonesCalcium salts deposited in matrix by cartilage cells and later by osteoblastsEndochondral ossificationOsteoclastsBreak down boneRemove worn cellsDeposit calcium in the bloodWork with osteoblasts to heal broken bones

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    Anatomy of a Long BoneGrossMain shankThick outer cylinder of compact boneMedullary cavity in centerSpongy bone at endsDetailsCompact boneUnit of structure called osteonConcentric lamellae arranged around central canalOsteocytes lie in lacunae at lamellar boundariesSpongy boneNumerous bars and plates separated by irregular spacesSpaces filled with red bone marrow

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Anatomy of a Long Bone

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • The Human Skeleton

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    The Axial SkeletonLies in the midline of the bodyConsists ofThe skullThe vertebral columnThe sternum, andThe ribs

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    The SkullFormed by cranium and facial bonesMajor bones are named afterThe lobes of the brain, andThe facial bonesForamen magnumOpening at base of skullWhere spinal cord connects to brainBones of cranium surround sinuses

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • The Skull

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    Vertebral ColumnVertebral columnSupports the head and trunkProtects the spinal cord and roots of spinal nerves Segments (from superior to inferior)Cervical - NeckThoracic - ThoraxLumbar - Small of backSacral - SacrumCoccyx - TailboneIntervertebral disks of fibrocartilage act as padding

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    Rib CageProtects the heart and lungs, and assists breathingSupport by the thoracic vertebrae Twelve pairs of ribsTrue ribsConnect directly to sternumSeven pairsFalse ribsDo not connect directly to sternumFive pairs

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • The Rib Cage

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    The Appendicular SkeletonConsists ofThe bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdlesThe attached limbsPectoral girdle Bones of the shoulderAnteriorSupports the arms and handsPelvic girdle - Bones of the pelvisPosteriorSupports the legs and feet

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Bones of the Pectoral Girdle,the Arm, and the Hand

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Bones of the Pelvic Girdle,the leg, and the Foot

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    Classification of JointsFibrous JointsImmovableBetween cranial bonesCartilaginous Joints Slightly MovableBetween vertebraeSynovial Joints Freely MovableBones separated by a cavityLigaments bind bones together at joint

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • The Knee Joint

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    Human Muscular SystemSkeletal musclesAttached to the skeleton by cable-like fibrous connective tissue called tendonsArranged in antagonistic pairsCan only contract, cannot pushWhen one muscle contracts, it stretches its antagonistic partnerA muscle at rest exhibits tone (minimal contraction)A muscle in tetany is at maximum sustained contraction

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Human Musculature

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Antagonistic Muscles

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    Microscopic Anatomy and PhysiologySarcolemmaPlasma membraneSarcoplasmic ReticulumModified endoplasmic reticulumMyofibrilsContractile structures in sarcoplasmSarcomeresUnits of contractionConsist primarily of proteinsMyosin Actin

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  • Skeletal Muscle FiberStructure and Function

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    Sliding Filament ModelActin filaments at both ends of sarcomereOne end of each filament attached to a Z-plate at one end of the sarcomereOther end suspended in sarcoplasmMyosin filaments suspended in between Z-platesMyosin filaments contain cross-bridges which pull the actin filaments inwardCauses Z-plates to move toward each otherShortens sarcomereSarcomeres stacked together in series and cause myofiber to shortenWorking muscles require ATP Myosin breaks down ATPSustained exerciseRequires cellular respirationRegenerates ATP

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    Muscle InnervationNeuromuscular junctionThe synaptic contact between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiberNerve impulses bring about the release of a neurotransmitter that cross the synaptic cleftSignals the muscle fiber to contract

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  • Neuromuscular Junction

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  • The Role of Calcium and Myosin inMuscle Contraction

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    ReviewDiversity of SkeletonsHydrostatic SkeletonExoskeletonsEndoskeletonsHuman Skeletal SystemAxial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonHuman Muscular SystemThe MusclesMuscle Contraction

    Locomotion and Support Systems

  • Locomotion and Support Systems

    Biology, 9th ed, Sylvia MaderLocomotion and Support SystemsBiology, 9th ed, Sylvia MaderLocomotion and Support Systems