Optical Fiber

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Transcript of Optical Fiber

To study the characteristics of the Reflex klystron tube and to determine its electronic tuning range

Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Professional Management & Technology

Laboratory ManualOptical Fiber Communications

For

Final Year Students

Manual made by

Asst. Prof. Piyush MishraAuthor SSIPMT, RaipurTechnical Document

This technical document is a series of Laboratory manuals of Electronics and Telecommunication Department and is a certified of Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Professional Management & Technology. The care has been taken to make the document error free. But still if any error is found, kindly bring it to the notice of subject teacher and HOD.

Recommended by

HOD

Approved by,

PrincipalCopies:

1. Departmental Library

2. Laboratory

3. HOD

4. PrincipalFOREWARD

It is my great pleasure to present this laboratory manual for final year students for the subject of Microwave Communications keeping in view the vast coverage required for visualization of concept of Microwave Communications. As a student, many of you may be wondering with some of the questions in your mind regarding the subject and exactly what has been tried to answer through this manual. Faculty members are also advised that covering these aspects in initial stage itself will greatly relieve them in future as much of the load will be taken care by the enthusiasm energies of the students once they are conceptually clear.

H.O.DLABORATORY MANUAL CONTENTS

This manual is intended for the Final Year students of Engineering in the subject of Microwave Communication. This manual typically contains practical/Lab sessions related Microwave Communication covering various aspects of the subject to enhance understanding.

Students are advised to go thoroughly through this manual rather than only topics mentioned in the syllabus as practical aspects are the key to understand and conceptual visualization of theoretical aspects covered in the books

Good Luck for your enjoyable Laboratory sessions.

Asst. Prof. Piyush MishraDOs and Donts in Laboratory:

1. Do not handle the equipment without reading the instructions/Instruction manuals.

2. Read carefully the power ratings of the equipment before it is switched on. For

3. Indian equipments, the power ratings are normally230V/50Hz.If you have equipment with115V/60Hz ratings do not insert power plug, as our normal power supply is 230V/50Hz,Which will damage the equipment.

4. Observe the type of sockets to avoid mechanical damage.

5. Do not forcefully place the connectors.

6. Strictly observe the instructions given by the teacher/lab instructor.Instruction for Laboratory Teachers:1. Lab work completed during prior session should be corrected during the next lab session.2. Students should be guided and helped whenever they face difficulties.3. The promptness of submission should be encouraged by way of marking and evaluation patterns that will benefit the sincere students.Subject IndexLab Experiment

1. To setting up a fiber optic analog link.

2. To setting up a fiber optic digital link.

3. To study of pulse width modulation and demodulation.

4. To study of Pulse Position modulation and demodulation.

5. To study of numerical aperture of optical fiber.

6. To study of losses in optical fiber.

7. To study of pulse amplitude modulation & demodulation.

8. To study of frequency division multiplexing & demultiplexing.

9. To study of characteristics of fiber optic LED.

10. To study Amplitude modulation & demodulation.

11. To connect the RS 232 of two computers using Optical Fiber

Digital Link.

Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Professional

Management & Technology, Raipur

DEPARMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION

Subject Name & Code : Optical Fiber Communication Lab 328821(28)

Branch: ET&T Semester: 8th

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

AIM: - Setting up a fiber optic analog link.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: -

Fiber optic Trainer kit, function generator, fiber cable, C.R.O., patch cords.

THEORY:- Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Basically, a fiber optic link contains three main elements, a transmitter, an optical fiber& a receiver. The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form& then transforms it into optical (light) energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is the medium, which carries this energy to the receiver. At the receiver, light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter.

PROCEDURE: -

1. Keep all the switch faults in off position.

2. Make connections as shown in fig. While connecting this ensures that the power supply is off.

3. Connect function generator to trainer kit.

4. Keep the jumpers JP2 &JP3 on FCL-03 as shown in fig. Switch on the power supply.

5. Connect the 2 KHz, 2Vpp Signal from FG. As a constant signal to the IN post of the Analog Buffer on FCL-03.

6. Connect the output of Analog Buffer post OUT to post TX IN.

7. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH756V. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert the fiber into the cap. Now tighten the cap by screwing it back.

8. Slightly unscrew the cap of RX2 Photo DiodeSFH250V. Do not remove the cap from the connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert the fiber into the cap. Now tighten the cap by screwing it back.

9. Observe the output signal from the detector at ANALOG OUT post on Oscilloscope by adjusting Optical power control Pot 3 in clockwise direction and you should get the reproduction of the original transmitted signal.

10. To measure the analog band width of the link, keep the same

connection and vary the frequency of the input signal from 100 Hz

onwards. Measure the amplitude of the received signal for each

frequency reading.

11. Plot a graph of Gain/Frequency. Measure the frequency range for which the response is flat.

PRECAUTIONS: -

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED. Do not remove the cap from the

connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert the fiber into the cap. Now

tighten the cap by screwing it back.

2. You have to prepare each end of the fiber cable very carefully so it

transmits light effectively.

3. Cut of the ends of the cable with a single-edge razor blade or sharp knife.

Try to obtain a precise 90 degree angle.

4. Permissible ambient temperature range for CRO during operation is 0-

40(c the Ventilation holes should not be covered.

EXPERIMENTAL SET UP: -

RESULT:-CONCLUSION:-EXPERIMENT RELATED QUESTION:- 1. Give the name of fabrication method of optical fiber?

2. What are the applications of optical fiber?

3. What are step index fiber & Graded index fiber?

4. What are single mode fiber &Multimode fiber?

Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Professional

Management & Technology, Raipur

DEPARMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION

Subject Name & Code : Optical Fiber Communication Lab 328821(28)

Branch: ET&T Semester: 8th

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

AIM: -

Setting up a fiber optic Digital link

APPARATUS REQUIRED : -

Fiber optic trainer kit, CRO, Function generator, Patch cords .

THEORY:- Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Basically, a fiber optic link contains three main elements, a transmitter, an optical fiber& a receiver. The transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form& then transforms it into optical (light) energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is the medium, which carries this energy to the receiver. At the receiver, light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern as originally fed to the transmitter.

PROCEDURE: -

1. Keep all the switch faults in off position

2. Make connections as shown in fig. While connecting this ensure that

the power supply is Off.

3 .Connect function generator to trainer kit.

4. Keep the jumpers JP2 &JP3 on FCL-03 as shown in fig. Switch on the

power supply.

5. Connect the 2 KHz, 2Vpp Signal from FG. As a constant signal to the

IN post of the Digital Buffer on FCL-03.

6 .Connect the output of Analog Buffer post OUT to post TX IN.

7. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH756V. Do not remove the cap

from the connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert the fiber into

the cap. Now tighten the cap by screwing it back.

8. Slightly unscrew the cap of RX2 Photo DiodeSFH250V. Do not

remove the cap from the connector. Once the cap is loosened, insert

the fiber into the cap. Now tighten the cap by screwing it back.

9. Observe the output signal from the detector at DIGITAL OUT post on