OBJECTIVE ïƒ INTRODUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER ïƒ CONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER...
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LOCALIZATION & RECTIFICATION
Under the Guidance of
INTRODUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBERCONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBERPRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBERTYPES OF OPTICAL FIBEROPTICAL FIBER FAULTSRECTIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBERINSTRUMENT USED IN RECTIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBERADVANTAGE OF OPTICAL FIBERDISADVANTAGE OF OPTICAL FIBER
OPTICAL FIBERAn optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of very pure glass(silica).
It acts as a wave guide or light pipe to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.
Optical fibers are widely used in fiber optics communication.
CONSTRUCTION OF OPTICAL FIBER The main purpose of a fiber optic cable is to protect the fiber core inside the cable that carries the light signal transmission.
CORE:- The fiber core is made of silica glass and is the central part of the optical cable that carries the light signal. Diameter 8 micro meter for single mode fibre - 50 micro meter or 62.5 micro meter for multi mode fiber CLADDING:- The cladding is also made of glass, and is the layer that surrounds the fiber core. Together, they form a single solid fiber of gless that is used for the light transmission. The diameter of the cladding is typically 125micro meter.
BUFFER This is third layer, buffer coating are UV-curved urethane composite materials applied to the outside of the fiber during the drawing process.JACKET The last layer is the cable jacket, which are comprised of different materials depending on the choice of the end user and the application in use. Like the primary coating, they serve only a mechnical protection ti the fiber core and cladding inside.
PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBER An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (non conducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core,the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding.
TYPES OF OPTICAL FIEBER Single Mode Optical FiberUsed to transmit one signal per fiber.It has higher bandwidth than multimode fiberEquipment used for single mode fiber are much expensiveSingle Mode generally are used for in telephones and cable TV applications)
Multimode Optical Fiber
Used to transmit many signals per fiber Equipment used for multimode fiber are less expensiveMulti Mode generally are used for in computer networks, LAN applications
OPTICAL FIBER FAULTSThe physical cable or connector damageThe cable physical damagePartial failure of the connectorLine graph errorThe local cable damage.
Reason for faultMostly due to improper constrution methods or accidental damage to network cables and other causes.Mainly due to the tight binding between the short circuit caused the cable,because cable nails embedded in gold scrap, stripping header damaged insulation and cable multi-conductor lead wire insulation faults exposed.Mainly as a result of the cable twisted , bending radious is too small the drag force exceeds the mechanical strength of the cable cause by cable damage, and many more appear in the new wiring project.
RECTIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBERAs mention above, optical fiber has different types of fault, and techniques which are for recovering the dameges of optical fiber are known as Rectification of optical fiber.Some specific instrument are used for rectification of optical fiber fault are as follows:-Optical time domain reflectometer(OTDR)Fusion splicingOptical power meter.
INSTRUMENT USED FOR RECTIFICTION OF OPTICAL FIBEROptical time domain reflectometer(OTDR) An OTDR is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterise an optical fiber.
FUSION SPLICINGFution splicing is the act of joining two optical fiber end to end using heat. The goal is to fuse the two fiber together in such a way that light passing though the fibers is not scattered or reflected back by the splice.
OPTICAL POWER METER (OPM)An optical power meter (opm) is a device used to measure the power in an optical signal. The term usually refers to a device for testing average power in fiber optic systems. A typical OPM consists of a calibrated sensor, measuring amplifier and display. The sensor primerily consists of a photodiode selected for the appropriate range of wavelenths and power levels.
PEN TYPE VISUAL FAULT LOCATOR
Pen type visual fault locator FLP-3312 is simple, easy to use instrument with stable output designed to locate faults on fiber optical cables.
When a break or sharp bend exists in a fiber ,the red light from the visible fault locator will indicate the trouble spot .Application of pen type visual fault locator:-Locating troubles in splice traysPatch panelsCable splice pointsTracing fiber runs
ADVANTAGE OF OPTICAL FIBERThe advantage of optical fiber is:-Enormous BandwidthsLow transmission lossImmunity to cross talkElectric isolationSmall size and weightSignal securityRuggedness and flexibilityLow cost and availability
DISADVANTAGE OF OPTICAL FIBERThe disadvantage of optical fiber are:-High cost of installationFragility- optical fiber are more fragile than electrical wires.Requires special skill- Optical fibers can not be joined together as a easily as copper cableAffected by chemicals.