Optical fiber communications__principles_and_practice__3rd_edition_

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Optical fiber communications__principles_and_practice__3rd_edition_

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  • 1.Optical Fiber CommunicationsOptical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice Third Edition JOHN M. SENIOR This highly successful book, now in its third edition, has been extensively updated to include both new developments and improvements to technology and their utilization within the optical fiber global communications network. The third edition, which contains an additional chapter and many new sections, is now structured into 15 chapters to facilitate a logical progression of the material, to enable both straightforward access to topics and provide an appropriate background and theoretical support. Key features An entirely new chapter on optical networks, incorporating wavelength routing and optical switching networks A restructured chapter providing new material on optical amplifier technology, wavelength conversion and regeneration, and another focusing entirely on integrated optics and photonics Many areas have been updated, including: low water peak and high performance single-mode fibers, photonic crystal fibers, coherent and particularly phase-modulated systems, and optical networking techniques Inclusion of relevant up-to-date standardization developments Mathematical fundamentals where appropriate Increased number of worked examples, problems and new referencesThird EditionProfessor John Senior is Pro Vice-Chancellor for Research and Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. This third edition of the book draws on his extensive experience of both teaching and research in this area.CVR_SENI6812_03_SE_CVR.indd 1Cover image INMAGINEwww.pearson-books.comJOHN M. SENIORThis new edition remains an extremely comprehensive introductory text with a practical orientation for undergraduate and postgraduate engineers and scientists. It provides excellent coverage of all aspects of the technology and encompasses the new developments in the field. Hence it continues to be of substantial benefit and assistance for practising engineers, technologists and scientists who need access to a wide-ranging and up-to-date reference to this continually expanding field.Optical Fiber CommunicationsPrinciples and Practice Third EditionJOHN M. SENIOR 5/11/08 15:40:38

2. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page iOptical Fiber Communications 3. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page iiWe work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in engineering, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Prentice Hall, we craft high quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To nd out more about the complete range of our publishing, please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk 4. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page iiiOptical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice Third editionJohn M. Senior assisted byM. Yousif Jamro 5. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page ivPearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First published 1985 Second edition 1992 Third edition published 2009 Prentice Hall Europe 1985, 1992 Pearson Education Limited 2009 The right of John M. Senior to be identied as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 610 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any afliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. ISBN: 978-0-13-032681-2 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Senior, John M., 1951 Optical ber communications : principles and practice / John M. Senior, assisted by M. Yousif Jamro. 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-032681-2 (alk. paper) 1. Optical communications. 2. Fiber optics. I. Jamro, M. Yousif. II. Title. TK5103.59.S46 2008 621.38275dc22 2008018133 10 129 8 7 6 11 10 095 4 08321Typeset in 10/12 Times by 35 Printed and bound by Ashford Colour Press Ltd, Gosport The publishers policy is to use paper manufactured from sustainable forests. 6. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page vTo Judy and my mother Joan, and in memory of my father Ken 7. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page vi 8. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page viiContents Preface Acknowledgements List of symbols and abbreviationsChapter 1: Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3Historical development The general system Advantages of optical fiber communication ReferencesChapter 2: Optical fiber waveguides 2.1 2.22.32.42.5Introduction Ray theory transmission 2.2.1 Total internal reflection 2.2.2 Acceptance angle 2.2.3 Numerical aperture 2.2.4 Skew rays Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation 2.3.1 Electromagnetic waves 2.3.2 Modes in a planar guide 2.3.3 Phase and group velocity 2.3.4 Phase shift with total internal reflection and the evanescent field 2.3.5 GoosHaenchen shift Cylindrical fiber 2.4.1 Modes 2.4.2 Mode coupling 2.4.3 Step index fibers 2.4.4 Graded index fibers Single-mode fibers 2.5.1 Cutoff wavelength 2.5.2 Mode-field diameter and spot size 2.5.3 Effective refractive indexxix xxiii xxxii1 1 5 7 1012 12 14 14 16 17 20 24 24 26 28 30 35 35 35 42 43 46 54 59 60 61 9. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page viiiviii Contents2.62.5.4 Group delay and mode delay factor 2.5.5 The Gaussian approximation 2.5.6 Equivalent step index methods Photonic crystal fibers 2.6.1 Index-guided microstructures 2.6.2 Photonic bandgap fibers Problems ReferencesChapter 3: Transmission characteristics of optical fibers 3.1 3.2 3.3Introduction Attenuation Material absorption losses in silica glass fibers 3.3.1 Intrinsic absorption 3.3.2 Extrinsic absorption 3.4 Linear scattering losses 3.4.1 Rayleigh scattering 3.4.2 Mie scattering 3.5 Nonlinear scattering losses 3.5.1 Stimulated Brillouin scattering 3.5.2 Stimulated Raman scattering 3.6 Fiber bend loss 3.7 Mid-infrared and far-infrared transmission 3.8 Dispersion 3.9 Chromatic dispersion 3.9.1 Material dispersion 3.9.2 Waveguide dispersion 3.10 Intermodal dispersion 3.10.1 Multimode step index fiber 3.10.2 Multimode graded index fiber 3.10.3 Modal noise 3.11 Overall fiber dispersion 3.11.1 Multimode fibers 3.11.2 Single-mode fibers 3.12 Dispersion-modified single-mode fibers 3.12.1 Dispersion-shifted fibers 3.12.2 Dispersion-flattened fibers 3.12.3 Nonzero-dispersion-shifted fibers64 65 71 75 75 77 78 8286 87 88 90 90 91 95 95 97 98 98 99 100 102 105 109 110 113 113 114 119 122 124 124 125 132 133 137 137 10. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page ixContents ix3.13 Polarization 3.13.1 Fiber birefringence 3.13.2 Polarization mode dispersion 3.13.3 Polarization-maintaining fibers 3.14 Nonlinear effects 3.14.1 Scattering effects 3.14.2 Kerr effects 3.15 Soliton propagation Problems ReferencesChapter 4: Optical fibers and cables 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.44.54.6 4.74.8Introduction Preparation of optical fibers Liquid-phase (melting) techniques 4.3.1 Fiber drawing Vapor-phase deposition techniques 4.4.1 Outside vapor-phase oxidation process 4.4.2 Vapor axial deposition (VAD) 4.4.3 Modified chemical vapor deposition 4.4.4 Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) 4.4.5 Summary of vapor-phase deposition techniques Optical fibers 4.5.1 Multimode step index fibers 4.5.2 Multimode graded index fibers 4.5.3 Single-mode fibers 4.5.4 Plastic-clad fibers 4.5.5 Plastic optical fibers Optical fiber cables 4.6.1 Fiber strength and durability Stability of the fiber transmission characteristics 4.7.1 Microbending 4.7.2 Hydrogen absorption 4.7.3 Nuclear radiation exposure Cable design 4.8.1 Fiber buffering 4.8.2 Cable structural and strength members140 141 144 147 151 151 154 155 158 163169 169 170 171 172 175 176 178 180 181 182 183 184 185 187 190 191 194 195 199 199 200 201 203 203 204 11. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page xxContents4.8.3 Cable sheath, water barrier and cable core 4.8.4 Examples of fiber cables Problems ReferencesChapter 5: Optical fiber connections: joints, couplers and isolators 5.1 5.25.35.45.5 5.65.7Introduction Fiber alignment and joint loss 5.2.1 Multimode fiber joints 5.2.2 Single-mode fiber joints Fiber splices 5.3.1 Fusion splices 5.3.2 Mechanical splices 5.3.3 Multiple splices Fiber connectors 5.4.1 Cylindrical ferrule connectors 5.4.2 Duplex and multiple-fiber connectors 5.4.3 Fiber connector-type summary Expanded beam connectors 5.5.1 GRIN-rod lenses Fiber couplers 5.6.1 Three- and four-port couplers 5.6.2 Star couplers 5.6.3 Wavelength division multiplexing couplers Optical isolators and circulators Problems ReferencesChapter 6: Optical sources 1: the laser 6.1 6.2Introduction Basic concepts 6.2.1 Absorption and emission of radiation 6.2.2 The Einstein relations 6.2.3 Population inversion 6.2.4 Optical feedback and laser oscillation 6.2.5 Threshold condition for laser oscillation206 207 212 213217 217 219 222 230 233 234 236 241 243 244 247 249 251 254 256 259 264 269 280 283 287294 294 297 297 299 302 303 307 12. OPTF_A01.qxd 11/6/08 10:52 Page xiContents xi6.3Optical emission from semiconductors 6.3.1 The pn junction 6.3.2 Spontaneous emission 6.3.3 Carrier recombination 6.3.4