ON HKI-10NC

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n tp HKI - Ha hc 10 nng caoGV: Dng Khnh Hong 1 Chng 1: NGUYN T I. THNH PHN NGUYN T II. CU TO LP V ELECTRON CA NGUYN T III. S PHN B E VO CC OBITANIV. NGUYN T HA HC V. C IM E NGOI CNG Electronmang in m me = 0,00055u qe = -1 (vt) Protonmang in dng mp = 1u qe = +1 (vt) Notronkhng mang in mn = 1u qn = 0 Ht nhnV Nguyn t S phn b electron trong lp v tun theo Nguyn l vng bn: cc e phn b theo mc nng lng thp cao Trt t cc mc nnglng:1s2s2p3s3p4s3d4p5s. Nguyn l Pauli: mi AO ch c ti a 2e c chiu t quay ngc nhau Quy tc Hun: cc e phn b sao cho s e c thn l ti a LP ELECTRON n =12 34 567 Tn lpKL M N OPQ Gm cc e c mc nng lnggn bng nhau PHN LP ELECTRON K hiu phn lp theo chiu mc nng lng tng dn: s pdf Gm cc e c mc nng lngbng nhau OBITAN NGUYN T Phn lp spdf S AO1357 S e ti a2610 14 Khong khng gian xung quanh ht nhn m xc sut c mt e l ln nht (khong 90%)ng vi lp n c n phn lp, n2 obitan v 2n2 e ti a Gm cc nguyn t c cng in tch ht nhn (Z+) ng v: cng Z, khc N Nguyn t khi trung bnh: Ax ByAx y+=+ 1, 2, 3 Kim loi 5, 6, 7 Phi kim 8 Kh him n tp HKI - Ha hc 10 nng caoGV: Dng Khnh Hong 2 CU HI TRC NGHIM CHNG ICu: 1 Nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, ntrn v electron l 34 trong s ntrn ln hn s proton l 1 ht. S khi ca ht nhn X l: A) 19B) 23 C) 21 D) 11 Cu: 2 Tm pht biu sai: A) Cc electron trong cng mt AO c cng mc nng lng B)Ccelectrontrongcngmtphnlpcsnh hng ging nhau trong khng gian C)C7lpelectronvlpKllpcmcnng lng thp nht D)Ccelectroncmcnnglnggnbngnhau thuc cng mt lp electronCu:3Nguynt 17X ccuhnhelectronlp ngoi cng l 2s22p4. Nguyn t X c:A) 8e, 9p, 9n B) 9e, 8p, 8n C) 8e, 8p, 9nD) 9e, 9p, 8n Cu:4PhntRccngthctngqutlXaYb. Tng s nguyn t v electron trong R ln lt l 5 v 90. Cng thc phn t ca R l: A) Fe2O3 B) Al2O3 C) Ca3P2 D) CCl4 Cu:5NguyntBc2ngvvcnguynt khi trung bnh l 10,812. Nu c 94 nguyn t 10B th c bao nhiu nguyn t 11B ? A) 85B) 406C) 22 D) 103 Cu: 6 Nguyn t Z c 2 ng vvi tng s khi l 128, ng v th 2 t hn ng v th nht 2 ntrn. S nguyn t ca ng v th nht bng 37% s nguyn t ng v th 2. Nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Z l: A) 64,26B) 64 C) 63,54 D) 64,46 Cu:7Trongthnhphncaminguyntnht thit phi c cc loi ht no sau y? A) Proton v ntrn B) Ntrn v electronC) Proton, ntrn v electron D) Proton v electron Cu: 8 Chn pht biu sai: A) Lp electron th n c n2 AO B)Sphnlptrongmtlpelectronbngstht ca lp C) Lp electron th n c 2n2 electronD) S AO trong cc phn lp s, p, d, f ln lt l 1, 3, 5, 7 Cu: 9 Trong t nhin, nguyn t brom c 2 ng v l 7935Br v 8135Br .Nunguyntkhitrungbnhca brom l 79,91 th % s nguyn t ca ng v th nht l: A) 61,8B) 45,5C) 54,5D) 35 Cu: 10 Nguyn t x c cu to bi 21 ht. S ht ntrn v proton cch nhau khng qu 2 n v.Tng s AO ca nguyn t X l: A) 5B) 7C) 6D) 3 Cu: 11 Pht biu no v nguyn t 199Fl sai?A) C 2 lp electronB) C 5 electron ngoi cng C) C 1 electron c thn D) Thuc loi nguyn t phi kim Cu: 12 Mt nguyn t X gm 2 ng v X1, X2. Gi s % s nguyn t ca 2 ng v l bng nhau v 3 loi ht trong X1 cng bng nhau. Tng s ht trong X1 v X2lnltl18v20thnguyntkhitrungbnh ca X l bao nhiu? A) 6,5B) 7C) 13D) 12,5 Cu:13NguyntRcelectroncuicngl electron c thn phn lp s v thuc lp N. Tng s electron ca R l: A) 24 B) 19C) 29D) Tt c ng Cu: 14 Trong anion AO23 c 30 proton v nguyn tAcsntrnchim1/3tngsht.Tngsht trong ion AO23 l: A) 92B) 32 C) 96 D) 42 Cu: 15 Chn pht biu ng A) ng v l tp hp cc nguyn t c cng s proton trong nguyn t B) Nguyn t khi l khi lng ngt tnh bng u C)Trongnguynt,skhibngtngkhilng proton v ntrnD) Trong nguyn t, s hiu nguyn t = in tch ht nhn = s proton = s electronCu:16NguyntYc12ntrnvcsht manginchim2/3tngsht.Shiunguynt ca Y l: A) 12B) 18 C) 24 D) 8 Cu:17Choccnguynt 1H ; 3Li ; 7N ; 8O;9F; 10Ne ; 11Na . S nguyn t c 1 electron c thn l: A) 5B) 4C) 3D) 2 Cu:18Nguyntnosauykhngphic18 ntrn? A) 3416S B) 4018ArC) 3517Cl D) 3618ArCu:19Cho4nguynt 136X ; 147Y ; 146Z ; 157T . Chn pht biu sai A) X v Z ng lin k nhau trong BTH B) Y v T l ng v ca nhau C) Y v Z c cng s khi D) X v Y c cng s ntrnCu:20Phtbiunosauyngchocanion 199F- v nguyn t 2010Ne ? A) Khc s ntrn B) Cng s khi C) Cng s electron D) Cng s protonCu:21NguyntMccuhnhelectronphn lp c mc nlng cao nht l 3d5. S proton ca M: n tp HKI - Ha hc 10 nng caoGV: Dng Khnh Hong 3 A) 27B) 23 C) 24 D) 26 Cu: 22 Cho cc nguyn t 2He; 6C; 14Si ; 18Ar ;20Ca; 25Mn. S nguyn t thuc khi nguyn t s v p ln lt l: A) 2 ; 4B) 2 ; 3C) 3 ; 3D) 3 ; 2 Cu: 23 ng c 2 ng v l 63Cuv 65Cu(chim 27% s nguyn t). Hi 0,5 mol ng c khi lng l bao nhiu? A) 31,5gB) 32gC) 31,77g D) 32,5g Cu: 24 Nit c 1 ng v v hidro c 3 ng v. C bao nhiu loi phn t NH3 c to thnh t cc ng v trn? A) 9B) 10 C) 3D) 6 Cu:25Nguyntca2nguyntX,Ycphn lpngoicnglnltl3pv4s.Ktlunnosau y v loi nguyn t ca X, Y l ng? A) X: kh him, Y:kim loi B) X:phi kim, Y:kim loi C) X:kim loi, Y:phi kimD) Cha kt lun c BI TP T LUN CHNG I Bi 1: Xc nh s hiu nguyn t ca cc nguyn t v vit cu hnh e nguyn t ca n khi bit: a.Nguyn t A c tng s ht ca cc nguyn t l 40 b.Nguyn t B c tng s ht l 92. S ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 24 ht Bi 2: Ion M+ v X2- u c cu hnh e nh sau: 1s22s22p63s23p6 a.Vit cu hnh e ca M v X b.Tnh tng s ht mang in ca hp cht to nn t 2 ion trn Bi 3: Nguyn t X c tng cc ht c bn l 82. S ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 22 ht a.Xc nh A, Z ca nguyn t nguyn t X b.Xc nh s lng cc ht c bn trong ion X2+ v vit cu hnh electron ca ion . Bi 4: Nguyn t A c 10 electron p. Nguyn t B c eletron cui cng l electron ghp i AO 4s a)Vit cu hnh electron v xc nh loi nguyn t ca nguyn t A, B. b)Phn b electron vo cc lng t v xc nh s electron c thn ca nguyn t A, B. Bi 5: Nguyn tX c s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 10 ht v c s ntron chim 35,294% tng s ht. a)Vit k hiu nguyn t X. b)Hp cht M c cng thc XaYb , trong tng s proton v tng s nguyn t trong phn t M ln lt l 30 v 3. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca M. (S: Na2O) Bi 6: ng v X1 ca nguyn tX c cu to bi 54 ht. Trong ht nhn ng v X1, s ht khng mang in nhiu hn s ht mang in l 3 ht. a) Vit k hiu nguyn t X1 b) ng v cn li X2 ca nguyn t X c t l s khng ht mang in v tng s ht mang in l 917. Tnh % s nguyn t v % khi lng ca tng ng v bit NTKTB ca X = 35,5. (S: 75%; 25% v 73,94%; 26,06) Bi 7: Phn t R c cng thc MX3. Tng s ht trong R l 196 trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 60. S khi ca X ln hn ca M l 8. Tng s ht trong ion X nhiu hn trong ion M3+ l 16 ht. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca R. (S: AlCl3) Bi 8: Hp cht M c to thnh t cation X+ v anion Y2. Mi ion u do 5 nguyn t ca 2 nguyn t to nn. Tng s proton trong X+l 11, cn tng s electron trong Y2l 50. Bit 2 nguyn t trong thuc cng mt nhm A v thuc hai chu k lin tip trong bng tun hon. Xc nh CT phn t ca M.(S: (NH4)2SO4 ) Bi9:NguyntXchatrcaonhtvioxi cao 3 ln ha tr trong hp cht kh vi hidro. t A l cng thc hp cht oxit cao nht, B l cng thc hp cht kh vi hidro ca X. Khi t khi hi ca A i vi B l 2,353. Xc nh X, A, B. (S: S, SO3, H2S) n tp HKI - Ha hc 10 nng caoGV: Dng Khnh Hong 4 Chng 2: BNG TUN HON CC NGUYN T HA HC V NH LUT TUN HON I. CU TO BNG TUN HON II. S BIN I TUN HON MT S I LNG V TNH CHT: NGUYN T: mi ngt trong BTH chim 1 . ngt cho bit S hiu nguyn t CHU K: tp hp cc nguyn t c cng s lp e (STT CK = s lp) Chu k ln: cc chu k 4, 5, 6, 7 gm cc nguyn t s, p, d, f (CK 4, 5 c 18 ngt, CK 6 c 32 ngt, CK 7 cha hon thnh) Chu k nh: cc chu k 1, 2, 3 gm cc nguyn t s v p (chu k 1 c 2 ngt, chu k 2, 3 c 8 ngt) NHM: gm cc ngt c cu hnh e nguyn t tng t nhau Nhm B: (gm 10 ct: IB VIIIB, VIIIB c 3 ct) -STT nhm = s e ha tr -Gm cc nguyn t d v f Nhm A: (gm 8 ct: IA VIIIA) - STT nhm = s e lp ngoi cng - Gm cc nguyn t s v p K hiu nguyn t Nguyn t khi Tn nguyn t CHU K Z R I1 _ Tnh kim loi Tnh phi kim Tnh baz Tnh axit NHM n R I1 _ Tnh kim loi Tnh phi kim Tnh baz Tnh axit Ha tr cao nht vi oxi (n = STT nhm) tng dn t 1 7; Ha tr vi hidro ca nguyn t phi kim (m = 8 STT nhm) gim dn t 4 1 n tp HKI - Ha hc 10 nng caoGV: Dng Khnh Hong 5 CU HI TRC NGHIM CHNG II Cu: 26 X l kim loi ha tr II, Y l kim loi ha tr III.TngshttrongmtnguyntX,Ylnltl 36, 40. X, Y l: A) Ca, AlB) Ca, CrC) Mg, CrD) Mg, Al Cu: 27 Cho cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau: X(1s22s22p63s2), Y(1s22s22p63s23p5), Z (1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2), T (1s22s22p6). Nguyn t kim loi gm: A) X, Y, TB) Y, Z, TC) X, ZD) Y, T Cu: 28 Khng nh no sau y l ng? A)Tnhchthahccaccnguynttrongcng nhm A bin i tun hon B)NhmAgmccnguyntsvp,nhmBgm cc nguyn t d v f C) STT ca nhm bng s electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t nguyn t trong nhm D) C 16 ct tng ng vi 16 nhm, gm 8 nhm A v 8 nhm B Cu: 29 Khng nh no sau y sai? A) C 7 chu k gm 3 chu k nh v 4 chu k ln B) Trong chu k, cc nguyn t c xp theo chiu s electron tng dn C)Nguyntccnguyntcungchukcslp electron bng nhau D) Chu k thng bt u bng kim loi kim, kt thc bng halogen Cu:30Trongmtchuk,ilngnosauy khng bin i tun hon? A) S khi B) Thnh phn cc oxit, hidroxit C) Ha tr vi hidroD) S electron ha tr Cu:31AnionX-vcationY2+uccuhnh electronlpngoicngl3s23p6.Chnphngn ng v v tr ca X, Y trong bng tun hon: A) X: chu k 3, nhm VIIA; Y: chu k 4, nhm IIA B) X: chu k 4, nhm IA; Y: chu k 3, nhm VIA C) X: chu k 3, nhm VIIB; Y: chu k 4, nhm IIB D) X: chu k 4, nhm VIIA; Y: chu k 3, nhm IIA Cu:32NguyntnguyntRccuhnhelp ngoicng2s22p2.Cngthchpchtkhvihidro v cng thc oxit cao nht ca X l: A) RH2 ; ROB) RH4 ; RO2 C) RH5 ; R2O3D) RH3 ; R2O5 Cu: 33 Tm pht biu ng nht khi ni v quy lut binitunhontrongmtchukittrisang phi: A) Ha tr i vi oxi tng dn t 1 n 7 B) Ha tr i vi hidro gim dn t 7 n 1 C) Tnh kim loi tng dn, tnh phi kim gim dn D) Hidroxit tng ng c tnh baz gim dn Cu:34NguyntXthucCKnhtoccc hchtsau:XH3,XCl5,X2O5,Na3XO4.TrongBTH nguyntXthuccngnhmvinguyntnosau y?A) FB) NC) Al D) P Cu: 35 Nguyn t nguyn t Y c cu hnh electron lpngoicng(n-1)do ns1.VtrcaYtrongbng tun hon l: A) Chu k n, nhm VIBB) Chu k n, nhm IA C) Chu k n, nhm IBD) C A, B, C c Cu:36NguyntZthucchuk4,nhmIB.S proton ca Z l: A) 21B) 19 C) 29 D) 23 Cu:37NguyntXcphnlpelectronngoi cng l 3p4. Ch ra cu sai khi ni v nguyn t X. A) Ht nhn nguyn t X c 16 proton B) Hidroxit tng ng ca X: H2XO4 C) X c 6 electron lp ngoi cng D) X nm chu k 3, nhm IVA Cu: 38 X, Y, Z l cc nguyn t thuc cng chu k trongbngtunhon.OxitcaXtantrongncto thnhmtddlmqutmha.Ytdvincto thnh dd lm phenolphtal