New Five tips for engaging communities in coastal climate change 2017. 5. 8.¢ Five tips...
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Five tips for engaging communities in coastal climate
change adaptation planning
Assoc Prof Claudia Baldwin, University of the Sunshine Coast Dr Scott N. Lieske, Lecturer, University of Queensland Kate English, Adjunct Lecturer, University of the Sunshine Coast
• Why engage community about climate change adaptation? • Understanding community values • Innovative methods for engagement • Evaluating effectiveness of engagement • 5 tips for engagement on climate change adaptation
Adaptation planning is necessary because… • Climate change impacts are occurring now and are projected to intensify over time (IPCC 2014). • Even if greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are stabilised at current levels, climate change impacts will exacerbate due to the “lock-in effect” of GHG emissions (IPCC 2014) • Climate change impacts affect different communities in different ways: longer and more frequent heatwaves, incremental sea-level rise, changes in precipitation patterns. • Local communities must be proactive in planning for future consequences and budgeting for future costs. Planned adaptation is less expensive and more effective than spontaneous or reactive adaptation in the long term (Burton 2004).
• Complex decisions need to be made around planned adaptation (Burton 2004).
Climate change impacts can …
• Affect and disrupt Council infrastructure and assets: • $6B of public infrastructure damaged in 2011/12 Qld floods
• Cost Councils mega-bucks: • $9B by 2020; $40B by 2050 (TCI 2012)
• Affect private sector and individuals e.g. insurance, resilience: • Up to $63B residential building at risk of inundation by 2100 (DCC
• Place major responsibility on Local Governments for climate proofing their communities
Why engage community about adaptation?
• Effective and enduring responses to climate change require involvement from all sectors of society: government, the private sector and civil society (Moser 2014; Lorenzoni et al. 2007)
• Government actions can be enhanced through valuable local knowledge provided by residents and local organisations, improving the range and selection of adaptive actions (Burton 2004)
• Engagement broadens ownership of actions to adapt to local climatic impacts (Lorenzoni et al. 2007; Leiserowitz et al. 2006)
• Engagement can inform local residents by providing key climate change information relevant to the community’s adaptation efforts (Burton 2004)
Better decisions and shared responsibility = the best outcome
Understanding community values and interests • Assess current community values and interests and build on them to
leverage support for adaptive actions (Burton 2004, Moser 2014; Lorenzoni et al. 2007)
• This requires understanding of cognitive, affective and behavioural elements (Lorenzoni et al. 2007) • Knowledge: what do community members know about climate change and
adaptation • Emotions: what emotions are associated with climatic impacts • Actions: how do residents currently respond to climatic impacts from
flooding, storm surge, coastal erosion, heatwaves
Innovative methods are needed to …
• Assess community values: Evaluate community positioning on climate change by understanding its citizens’ unconscious thinking, emotions and relationships with climate change
• Enhance personal connectivity: Use interactive and experiential learning techniques
• Translate the intangibility of climate change into relatable, tangible components: Use visual techniques – 3D modelling and visualisation exercises enhance dialogue and make it real
Let’s look at some examples …
Interactive mapping of areas of risk (Grant et al. 2015)
Allows stakeholders to draw on local knowledge and experience
Photovoice on map overlay (Grant et al. 2015)
Community uses own photos to identify threats and impacts
Draws on local knowledge and experience.
Overlay on a map to show the context.
3D visualisation (Lieske et al. 2015)
Current Climate Year 2100 Storm Surge, Riverine Flooding and Sea level Rise
3D visualisation (Lieske et al. 2015)
Localized flood inundation:
• current (upper photo) and
• year 2100 climate (lower) scenarios.
Free association techniques (Hollway and Jefferson 2008) • Can be used to capture citizens’ initial perceptions of local climatic impacts, current preparedness, ideas for adaptive actions and who is responsible for enactment • Initial perceptions from “fast thinking” (Kahneman 2012) provide a snapshot of understanding and emotions re climate change
• Situates in a time and place • Can be an introduction to semi-structured interviews – i.e. ‘slow’ analytic
and reflective thinking • Application of technique: • Research with NBR Board participants in 2011-12 -nearly half associated climate change with ‘impacts’ (mainly re water such as flooding and SLR). When talked about ‘causes’ and ‘responses’, equal split between ‘environmental’ (e.g mitigation or adaptation); or ‘socio-political’ (incl political frustration and awareness-raising) (English 2017).
Evaluating effectiveness of engagement • We don’t always evaluate our engagement processes well.
• Just as ‘climate adaptation’ is a dynamic process that requires continual evaluation and periodic reassessment, so do the accompanying engagement processes (IPCC 2014)
• Goal setting and milestone measurements can assist in measuring achievements and analysing success. Some of those goals and achievements are related to community acceptance and commitment to adaptation planning.
• Successful adaptation includes a comprehensive strategy, encompassing a well- informed community that embraces personal responsibility and government and private sector support for adaptive actions focused on adaptation and mitigation (IPCC 2014). We need to assess how we’re going in that regard …
Our 5 tips for adaptation engagement
1. Understand your community and target information to the range of stakeholder groups and individuals. • While information needs to be user friendly, don’t be patronizing. Remember there are
experts in the community too and you should be able to justify your decisions based on good evidence.
2. Use visual methods to make the intangible, tangible. • Explore the increasing range of visual techniques available.
3. Use interactive, experiential learning techniques to assist individuals to personally identify with local climatic impacts. • These can be used with school children as well as adults.
Our 5 tips for adaptation engagement
4. Focus on what we can do, not whether we have a problem. That depletes everyone’s energy and delays a focus on solutions.
5. Use evaluation to improve processes and prove to community and Council that you’ve captured the benefits of engagement.
A well-designed consultation program that builds in evaluation at the start can be cost-effective.
References • Burton, I. 2004. Climate Change and the Adaptation Deficit. Adaptation and Impacts Research Group, Occasional Paper 1. Ottawa: Environment Canada
• Department of Climate Change. 2009. Climate change risks to Australia’s coasts: A first pass national assessment. Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/climate- change/adaptation/publications/climate-change-risks-australias-coasts.
• English K 2017. Understanding climate change and advancing adaptation in a third sector sustainability organisation. PhD thesis.USC.
• Grant B, Baldwin C, Lieske S, Martin K, 2015, 'Using participatory visual methods for information exchange about climate risk in canal estate communities', Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs, vol 7(1): 23-37
• Hollway, W., & Jefferson, T. (2008). Chapter 15. The free association narrative interview method. In L. Given (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (pp. 296-315). Sevenoaks, CA: Sage.
• IPCC. 2014. Climate change 2014: Synthesis
• Kahneman, D. 2012. Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
• Leiserowitz, A., Kates, R., & Parris, T. 2006. Sustainability values, attitudes and behaviors: A review of multi-national and global trends. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 413-444.
• Lieske S.N., Martin K, Grant B. and Baldwin C. 2015. 'Visualization methods for linking scientific and local knowledge of climate change impacts'. In Planning Support Systems for Smart Cities. Geertman S., Stillwell J., Ferreira J. and Goodspeed R. (eds), Springer, New York, pp.373-389.
• Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L. 2007. Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. Global Environmental Change, 17, 445-459. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.01.004
• Moscovici, S. 2011. An essay on social representations and ethnic minorities. Social Science Information, 50, 442-461. doi:10.1177/0539018411411027
• Moscovici, S. 1984. The phenomenon of social representations. In R. M. Farr & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 3-69). Cambridge: