MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY KEBUNTINGAN Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 4 Hormon selama kebuntingan PLACENTA...

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Transcript of MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY KEBUNTINGAN Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 4 Hormon selama kebuntingan PLACENTA...

MATERI 9 ENDOCRYNOLOGY

KEBUNTINGAN DAN KELAHIRAN

MK. ILMU REPRODUKSI

1LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

SUB POKOK BAHASAN

Hormon yang berperan dalam kebuntingan (Progesteron, estrogen, PGF2 alfa, Prolaktin )

Perubahan hormonal selama kebuntingan

Perubahan hormonal menjelang dan selama kelahiran (meliputi progesteron, estrogen, pgf2 alfa dan oxitocin)

Proses kelahiran

2LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 3

Proses Implantasi

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 4

Hormon selama kebuntingan

PLACENTA CORPUS LUTEUM

Mare Ewe Cow, Sow,Goat

Progesteron

UTERUS

PREGNANCYPLASENTA

Progesteron

Estrogen

ProlactinUntuk produksi susu

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 5

Beberapa teori yang menginduksiPartus

Volume uterus meningkat

Hormon PGF2 Meningkat

Hormon Progesteron Turun

Hormon Estrogen Naik

Miometrium semakin sensitif kontraksi

Oxytosin diproduksi

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 6

Aktivasi fetus

Fetus menghasilkan Corticosteroid menyebabkan turunnya progesteron peningkatan estrogen dan keluarnya PGF2 menyebabkan myometrium kontraksi

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 7

Perubahan saat bunting menyebabkan kelahiran

Relaxed

MyometrialExcitement

Contractile

Closed

CervicalRipening

Dilatation

PREGNANCY

PRE LABOR

LABOR

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 8

Tahapan Melahirkan :1. Dilatation of Cervix

Uterus mengalami kontraksi

Periode : Dimulai dari kontraks uterus sampaiuterus mengalami dilatasi, juga vagina.

Induk ingin merebah, nafas frekuensimeningkat.

Perubahan posisi fetus

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 9

2. Keluarnya fetus

Uterus dan perut kontraksi keras.

Periode : Servik membuka luas dan fetus bisakeluar.

Induk merejan, Plasenta pecah, cairan keluar.

Endocrinologi Reproduksi,Trinil susilawati 10

3. Keluarnya Plasenta

Kontraksi uterus mulai menurun

Keluarnya fetus diikuti plasenta

Plasenta terlepas dari endometrium

Keluar plasenta

Hormonal Control of Gestation

Progesterone - Main Hormone -Causes uterine quiescence and histotroph production

Sources of Progesterone During Gestation

Gestation

Sheep - CL to day 50 then placenta 148 days

Cow - CL throughout. However, after 280 days~ day 215 placenta and adrenalproduce enough progesterone tomaintain pregnancy

Sow - All from CL 114 days

Can remove CL after day 50 and not cause abortion

Remove CL at any time causes abortion 11LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

1st CL produces progesterone up to ~ 180 days, FSH stimulates follicles growth and eCG (PMSG) causes CL's to form from follicles. They secrete progesteroneand are active from day 40-180. Progesterone is low until 270 days - rises in last 5 months due probably to placental progesterone production.

Mare -

Gestation

337 days

PMSG - Pregnant Mare Serum GonadotropinNow call eCGOrigin is Endometrial cups

Endometrial cups form from invasion of the chorionicgirdle cells surround the spherical placenta of mare.These invade into the uterine endometrium on Days30 to 35 of gestation to form the ulcer-like cups.

12LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

Hormonal Changes that Control Parturition

Time of parturition iscontrolled by maturationof the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

CRFFetal anteriorpituitary gland

Stimulates oxytocin receptorin myometrium

Steps Fetal ACTH causes -

Fetal Corticosteroidscauses -

Progesterone levels placental productionor CL regression) -

Production of Estrogens by placenta -

PGF2 production by

uterus -

Pine-needle abortion incattle - cause by a corticosteroid-like product

Corticotropic ReleasingHormone

Infusion inducesparturition Fetal

Adrenal

AdrenalcorticotropicHormone (ACTH)

Removal Blocks Parturition

Corticosteroid

Glucocorticoid

Estrogen(Increase)

Progesterone(Decrease)

ProstaglandinF2(Increase)

Hypothalamus

Redrawn from Liggins, G.C.1969. In Foetal Autonomy

13LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

Hormonal changes cause:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Final maturation of fetus

Expansion of birth canal

Maternal behavior

Synthesis and ejection of milk

Initiation of uterinecontractions

Termination of pregnancy

Initiates parturitionand lung development

Cortisol - stimulates lung surfactant

Prolactin completes finalmammary development and milk secretion

Fescue toxicity problems:Ergot causes inhibition ofprolactin release and thusmilk production

14LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

Significance of initial hormonal changes

Progesterone - removes block on uterine contractions.

Estrogen - makes uterus more responsive to induction of contractions i.e., more irritable and smooth muscle tissue stimulation.

Events just Prior to Parturition:

1. Pelvic ligaments soften - Tail head sinks due to estrogens and relaxin.

2. Cervix softens and begins secreting stringy mucus - estrogens and relaxin.

.

Allows myometrial muscle fibers to work together in bundles

Induction of oxytocin receptors

Increased water content in cervical tissue andcervical plug is removed

15LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK

FAPET UB

LABORATORIUM REPRODUKSI TERNAK FAPET UB

16