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Transcript of Mainstreaming DRR into Environment Sector - UN   Mainstreaming DRR into Environment Sector

  • Anil k. Gupta NIDM

    Mainstreaming DRR into Environment Sector

    UNESCAP NIDM Regional Workshop on Mainstreaming DRR into Sustainable Development

    13-16 September 2016 New Delhi

  • Sectors?

    Environment

    Environment Sector(s)?

  • Environment Settings

    Mountain areas

    Coastal areas

    Arid and desert areas

    Agro-ecosystems

    Forest ecosystems

    Urban systems

    Industrial systems

  • Environment Sector

    Environmental decisions

    Environmental planning

    Environmental services

    Environmental management

    Environmental recovery

    .......

  • Number of People Killed(Income Class/Disaster Type)

    (1975-2000) World Summary

    27,010(1.36%)

    87,414(4.41%)

    520,418(26.25%)

    1,347,504(67.98%)

    0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

    High Income

    Upper Middle Income

    Lower Middle Income

    Low Income

    In

    co

    me

    Cla

    ss

    Number of People Killed('000s)

    Drought Earthquake Epidemic Flood Slide Vo lcano Wind storm Others

    Source: ADRC, OFDA/CRED

    Low income

    Lower-middle income

    Upper-middle income

    High income

    Who is Most Affected by Disasters?

    The poor: most vulnerable to current hazards and to expected climate change impacts

    68%

    26%

    5%

    1%

  • Environment ? Development

    Natural resources

    Environmental health

    Livelihood

    Bio-economy

    Rural industries

  • SFDRR highlights

    Resilience

    Ecosystem Based Solutions

    Integrating CCA

    Health Systems

    Specific goals for DRR Monitoring

    Four Priorities

    1. Understand disaster risk

    2. Strengthen disaster risk governance

    3. Invest in DRR

    4. Enhance disaster preparedness

    Emphasis on Recovery

  • Operational Needs

    Translating Sendai Framework to National/sub-national and local DRR frameworks

    Disaster Management Plans National/state, local, sector specific, department specific, etc.

  • Goal of Environment and Disaster Management

    The goal of Environment and Disaster Management is the safety and sustainability of human lives

    Safety is related to avoiding death and injuries to human lives during a disaster

    Sustainability is related to livelihood, socio-economic, cultural, environmental and psychological aspects

  • PUBLIC HEALTH

    ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    COASTAL SYSTEMS WATER RESOURCES

    FORESTRY AGRICULTURE

    Infectious, respiratory, water-borne, vector-borne diseases, heat

    Less predictability, changing yields, changing irrigation demand, pest infestations

    Forest composition, range, health & productivity

    More variability in water supply, changes in water quality/ distribution, competition

    Erosion, inundation, salinisation, stress on mangroves, wetlands

    Loss of habitat & species, migration

    Changes in: Precipitation Soil evaporation, evapo-transpiration Physical geography Sea level Frequency & intensity of extreme weather Ecosystem distribution & composition

    Climate change impacts across sectors

    Source: OECD, 2009

    Environmental Changes: Climate change Natural resource depletion Land-use

    http://www.nature.org/joinanddonate/rescuereef/

  • What is the problem?

    Environment and disasters are interlinked

    Environmental concerns are not incorporated in disaster management practices and vice versa

    Decisions and actions on environment and disasters are taken separately

    The main issues are: Lack of coordination and inter-linkage of policy and plans

    Lack of perception and understanding

    Lack of local actions, and

    Lack of resource distribution

  • Environmental Policy Instruments

    Environmental Impact Analysis (pre & post)

    Environmental Auditing

    Life Cycle Analysis

    Environmental Risk Analysis Safety Risk Analysis

    Health Risk Analysis

    Ecological Risk Analysis

    Environmental Legislation

    Ecological Footprint

  • EIA of

    Mitigation

    Option

    EIA of

    Response &

    Relief Actions

    EIA of

    Disaster,

    Loss &

    Need

    Assessment

    EIA of

    Reconstruction

    & Recovery

  • Nature and Types of EIA

    Takes account of +ve and ve impacts

    Global/International (MA)

    Strategic EIA (SEA) (of policy, plan or programme)

    Regional EIA

    Project EIA

    Definition: Anticipatory - quantitative

    Network/impact tree primary, secondary, higher order impacts

  • Applications of EIA

    EIA in developmental planning developmental projects like water resources, highway,

    airport, tourism, housing complex, railway, agriculture or an industrial project like manufacturing, mining, food, dairy,

    Cumulative impact assessment

    Carrying Capacity (Assessment) based developmental planning process

    Risk Analysis & disaster management as part of EIA

    Environmental Risk Mapping Based Developmental Planning

    Environmental-health Impact Assessment

  • SEA (common agriculture policy)

  • C-EIA / Regional EIA Disaster Risk Management Strategic EIA (SEA)

    Scoping/Reconnaissance Hazard identification Baseline environmental study

    Baseline environment study Hazard assessment Screening/scoping

    Identification of impacts

    Vulnerability Assessment Establishing environmental

    indicators

    Prediction and forecasting Risk (very) early warning Identify options

    Evaluation of impacts Risk evaluation/auditing Analysis of impacts

    Environmental Impact Statement Risk characterization

    Environmental Appraisal

    Alternatives/ Mitigation Measures

    Disaster Prevention / Risk Reduction Measures

    Suggested Measures / Alternatives

    Environment Management Plan Disaster Mitigation Plan Project level EIA(s)

    Disaster Management Plan Emergency Response Plan Environment Management

    Plan

    Environment Monitoring Plan Disaster early warning DMP & ERP

  • Number of People Killed(Income Class/Disaster Type)

    (1975-2000) World Summary

    27,010(1.36%)

    87,414(4.41%)

    520,418(26.25%)

    1,347,504(67.98%)

    0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

    High Income

    Upper Middle Income

    Lower Middle Income

    Low Income

    In

    co

    me

    Cla

    ss

    Number of People Killed('000s)

    Drought Earthquake Epidemic Flood Slide Vo lcano Wind storm Others

    Source: ADRC, OFDA/CRED

    Low income

    Lower-middle income

    Upper-middle income

    High income

    Who is Most Affected by Disasters?

    The poor: most vulnerable to current hazards and to expected climate change impacts

    68%

    26%

    5%

    1%

  • Environment, climate-change and disasters

  • DISASTER

    A catastrophe, mishap, calamity in any area, arising

    from natural or man made causes, which results in

    substantial loss of life or human suffering, damage

    destruction of, property, environment, and is of such

    a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping

    capacity of the community of the affected area.

    (DM Act, 2005, India)

  • Adaptation Environmental

    conditions for

    disaster risks Risk Reduction (pro-active) Disaster Response

    Development Goals

    Desertification

    Drought

    Floods

    Cyclones

    Landslides

    Earthquakes - effects

    Hazards:

    Fire (Forests/

    Mine/ Residues)

    Biological

    Diseases/ epidemic/

    pandemic

    Soil-water management

    erosion

    wasteland reclaimation

    Slope protection & remediation

    Afforestation

    Crop diversification

    Alternative crops & cropping patterns

    Forestry-produce

    Wetlands

    Fisheries/aquaculture

    Housing designs

    Land-use

    Alternative employment

    Fiscal measures

    Emergency

    response.

    Medical, Response,

    Relief/

    Rehabilitation

    Agriculture production and sustainability

    Natural Resources renewal and

    management

    Water resource / supply

    Health & nutrition

    Poverty eradication and employment

    Housing

    Urban development

    Transport/Roads

    Service sectors

    Industrial development

    Economic/ equity

    Adaptation Environmental

    conditions for

    disaster risks Risk Reduction (pro-active) Disaster Response

    Development Goals

    Desertification

    Drought

    Floods

    Cyclones

    Landslides

    Earthquakes - effects

    Hazards:

    Fire (Forests/

    Mine/ Residues)

    Biological

    Diseases/ epidemic/

    pandemic

    Soil-water management

    erosion

    wasteland reclaimation

    Slope protection & remediation

    Afforestation

    Crop diversification

    Alternative crops & cropping patterns

    Forestry-produce

    Wetlands

    Fisheries/aquaculture

    Housing designs

    Land-use

    Alternative employment

    Fiscal measures

    Emergency

    response.

    Medical, Response,

    Relief/

    Rehabilitation

    Agriculture production and s