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  • Cell Structure and Cell FatesLabs 2/3 Cell Structure and Fates

    IUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

  • Learning Objectives I Organelles and Cytoskeleton

    1. Understand how the cell membrane is connected to a system ofmembranous organelles in the cytoplasm and how synthesis ofmaterial in the cell relates to various modes of cell secretion.

    2. Learn the appearance of common cytoplasmic organelles in light (LM)and electron microscope (EM) preparations.

    3. Be able to correlate the two dimensional images of the organelles inthe LM and EM with their three dimensional structure.

    4. Know the functions of the parts of these organelles and how theorganelles relate functionally to each other.

    5. Understand the major features and differences of the components ofthe cytoskeleton.

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

  • Learning Objectives II Nucleus and Cell Cycle

    1. Be able to induce the probable functional activity of a cell based onthe degree of development of its various cytoplasmic organelles andits nuclear morphology.

    2. Learn the appearance of chromatin, nucleoli, and the nuclearenvelope in LM and EM preparations.

    3. Visualize the three dimensional structure of the mitotic apparatusand understand the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.

    4. Be able to identify the stages of cell division, the parts of the mitoticnucleus, and the mitotic apparatus.

    5. Be able to recognize mitotic figures in routinely stained preparation.

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

  • Keywords

    AnaphaseApoptosisCentrioleCentrosomeChromatinCis-faceCisternaeCytoskeletonEuchromatinGlycocalyxGlycogen granulesGolgi apparatusHeterochromatinInclusionsIntermediate filamentsLipid dropletsLipofuscin granulesLysosomesMelanin granulesMetaphaseMicrofilamentsMicrotubules

    MitochondriaMitosisMitotic figuresNuclear envelopeNuclear poresNucleolusNucleusPeroxisomesPlasma membranePolyribosomesPrimary lysosomeProphasePyknotic nucleusResidual bodiesRough endoplasmic reticulumSecondary lysosomeSecretory granulesSmooth endoplasmic reticulumStem cellsTelophaseTrans-faceVesicles

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

  • Slide 151 (NW): Kidney, H&E

    the plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer that bounds a cell; because of its high lipid content, it isusually difficult to see in most routine slide preparations; in this slide from the medulla of the kidney, the cellboundaries between cells of the collecting ducts are readily visible (in the renal lab, this will serve as a helpfulcharacteristic in distinguishing between the different tubes seen in the kidney)

    plasma membraneis visible between cells of the collecting duct

    why might the plasma membrane stain more readily for one cell type versus another?

    plasma membranes are not visible between cells of the thick ascending limb

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h_nw/nw_hist_1_151.html

  • Slide 29: Liver, H&E

    nucleus of hepatocyte (liver cell)

    nucleus of epithelial duct cell

    nucleus of endothelial cell lining the lumen of blood vessel

    nuclei of white blood cells; notice that the surrounding red blood cells (RBCs) lack nuclei

    nucleus of connective tissue fibroblast

    since the plasma membrane is generally not visible, the nucleus is usually the largest and most identifiablefeature of a cell; the shape of the nucleus often corresponds with the shape of the cell, and the size, location,and composition of the nucleus (e.g., presence of a nucleolus, amount of heterochromatin, etc.) are oftenhelpful in cell identification

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h/msci_29_5.html

  • Slide 29: Liver, H&E

    nucleus of a hepatocyte (liver cell) with heterochromatin, especially at the periphery of the nucleus lining the nuclear envelope, and giving it a basophilic appearance; unlike most cells in the body, it is not uncommon to see hepatocytes with more than one nucleus

    nucleus = double membrane enclosing chromatin (proteins + DNA [acid]) = binds hematoxylin [base]

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h/msci_29_5.html

  • Slide 44: Pancreas, H&ESlide Overview

    most of the spaces are adipocytes (fat cells)

    lymph node

    light-staining regions are pancreatic islets which are responsible for the endocrine functions of the pancreas (e.g., insulin production)

    peripheral nerve

    large, blood-filled vein; note that blood is usually seen pooled in veins, not in arteries

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h/044_bl_5.html

  • Slide 44: Pancreas, H&ELabs 2/3 Cell Structure and Fates

    IUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    nuclei of pancreatic secretory exocrine cells; the nuclei are located in the basal (bottom) aspect of the cells, not the center

    why is the nucleus located basally instead of apically?

    small, eosinophilic secretory granules located in the apical aspect (top) of the cell

    the majority of the parenchyma(functional part of an organ) of the pancreas is composed of secretory exocrine cells that produce digestive enzymes

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h/044_bl_5.html

  • Slide 71: Cerebellum, Cresyl Violet

    brainstemlook in the brainstem to find examples of motor neurons with large nuclei and prominent nucleoli

    cerebellumlook in there cerebellum to find several different types of neurons with various sized nuclei

    Slide Overview

    Labs 2/3 Cell Structure and FatesIUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    https://vmicro.iusm.iu.edu/virtual_h/71_bl_5.html

  • Slide 71: Cerebellum, Cresyl VioletLabs 2/3 Cell Structure and Fates

    IUSM 2016

    I. IntroductionII. Learning ObjectivesIII. KeywordsIV. Slides

    A. Structures1. Plasma membrane2. Organelles

    a. Nucleusb. Mitochondriac. Endoplasmic reticulum

    i. Rough ER (rER)ii. Smooth ER (sER)

    d. Golgi apparatuse. Lysosomes

    3. InclusionsB. Cell Fates

    1. Cell division (Mitosis)2. Cell death (Apoptosis)

    V. Summary

    nucleus of large