L15 The Broadcast Century

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Transcript of L15 The Broadcast Century

  • LECTURE L15THE BROADCAST CENTURY

  • Why?

  • 100 million hours / year

  • 200 million minutes / day

  • Where do people find the time?

  • EARLY ENTERTAINMENT

    "The wireless music box has no imaginable commercial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular?"

    -- David Sarnoff's associates in response to his urgings for investment in the radio in the 1920s.

  • Early music was performed live

    Story telling

    People got together to sing the songs of the day

    Culture

    Participation: everyone was an

    entertainer

  • Read-Write Culture

  • Edisons Phonograph 1877

    The Talking Machine

  • Emile Berliners Gramophone, 1889

  • First radio broadcasts are in 1906 Commercial radio broadcasting starts in 1920s

    Publics need for informationEquipment manufactures Amateur operators

    http://www.tuberadioland.com/westinghouseWR-30_main.html

    Westinghouse Model WR-30 Gothic Style Tombstone Radio (1933)

  • ENTER THE TV

    For Gods sake go down to the reception and get rid of a lunatic whos down there.

    He says hes got a machine for seeing by wireless! Editor of the Daily Express in response to a prospective visit by John Logie Baird

  • John Logie Baird

    Scottish inventor

    Experimented with wirelesstransmission of images

    First public television broadcast was

    27. January 1926 in London

  • TV broadcast start in the 1930s

    BBC starts broadcasts in 1936

    Slow increase in consoles

    Lack of standard

  • Color in the 50s

    RCA begins production of its first color-TV set for consumers

    Low performance and high price

  • In 1950 a market has emerged

    US data:

    1946 there are 20.000 TVs, 18 stations

    1953 there are over 20million TVs 44% of households, 300 stations

    TV in Iceland in 1966

  • Source: DataMnitor

    The global broadcasting & cable tv market grew by 4.6% in 2011 to reach a value of $400.6 billion

    The market is expected to reach almost $475,000 million by 2015

  • Why is TV so powerful?

  • TV Watching

    On average, individuals in the industrialised world

    devote three hours a day to watching TV

  • On average, individuals in the industrialised world

    devote three hours a day to watching TV

    TV Watching

  • Gallup poll on TV Watching

    Two out of five adult respondents and seven out of 10 teenagers

    said they spent too much time watching TV

    Usually people are embarrassed to admit to watching much TV

    TV Watching

  • A Formula for Addiction

    TV is passive and relaxing

    Reduces alertness

    Eect is fast

    Problem: TV addiction

  • A Formula for Addiction

  • 23% of UK teenagers claim to watch less TV and 15% admit they read fewer books now that they have smartphones

    TREND

  • 1900 2000

    Edisons Phonograph

    1877

    Emile Berliners

    Gramophone

    1889 Radio

    Broadcasts

    1920s

    TV

    Broadcasts

    1940s

    The Record

    Industry - LPs

    1950sCDs

    1980sDVDs

    1990s

    THE BROADCASTING CENTURYONE 2 MANY

    BUSINESS MODELS GET ESTABLISHEDREAD ONLY CULTURE

  • Lawrence LessigLaws that choke creativity

  • TV GOES DIGITAL

  • Analog Standards

    NTSC, PAL, SECAM

    Broadcast:

    VHF (54-88 MHz, 174-216 MHz)

    UHF (470 to 890 MHz)

    Cable

  • Source: HowStuffWorks.com

    Digital TVDVB, ATSC, ISDB, DTMB, DBM H.262/MPEG

    Transmitted Radio (VHF, UHF, SHF), satellites, cables, fiber or ADSL

    Benefits Better picture and better sound more resolution

    Better use of bandwidth using compression

    Most countries switched o analogue transmission 2007-2009

  • Source: HowStuffWorks.com

    Digital TV

    Normal TV has the ratio 4:3 (1,34:1)

    HDTV has the aspect ratio 16:9 (1,78:1)

  • NEW SOLUTIONS

  • DIGITALFORMAT

    1900 2000

    Edisons Phonograph

    1877

    Emile Berliners

    Gramophone

    1889 Radio

    Broadcasts

    1920s

    TV

    Broadcasts

    1940s

    The Record

    Industry - LPs

    1950sCDs

    1980sDVDs

    1990s

    THE BROADCASTING CENTURYONE 2 MANY

    BUSINESS MODELS GET ESTABLISHEDREAD ONLY CULTURE

    INTERNET

  • Source: Economist - Coming soon

    End of an Era

    Digital Content is causing disruptions in the conventional value chain

    DVD sales are slowing

    Distribution of content is going to digital mediums

  • Electronic Programming Guide

  • Additional Information

  • Time shiftDigital video recorders (DVRs)

    Recording television transmissions for later viewing

    Examples

    TiVo, ReplayTV, DirectTV

  • Place ShiftWatch your TV everywhere in the world

    Technology that allows you to watch your TV over the Internet

    Slingbox

  • Video On Demand

    Pictures from www.oscar.com

    VoD - Video-on-demand

    Goodbye to of the Video Store

    Change in distribution of content

    Delivered over the Internet, ADSLor cable, including fibre

  • Internet Video - Over the Top

    100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube alone every minute

    Video gobbles up so much data that by 2018 it is likely to account for 80-90% of global consumer internet traffic.

  • Streaming VideosNetflix accounts for 35% of Internet trac

    People spend 1 billion hours / month watching Netflix

  • THE DIGITAL DECADE

    THE CONTENT

    ESCAPES

    THE FORM

    INTERNET

    DISRUPTION

    BEGINS

    DIGITALFORMAT

    1900 2000

    Edisons Phonograph

    1877

    Emile Berliners

    Gramophone

    1889 Radio

    Broadcasts

    1920s

    TV

    Broadcasts

    1940s

    The Record

    Industry - LPs

    1950sCDs

    1980sDVDs

    1990s

    THE BROADCASTING CENTURYONE 2 MANY

    BUSINESS MODELS GET ESTABLISHEDREAD ONLY CULTURE

  • END OF BROADCASTING

  • Where do people find the time?

  • TV

  • 200 billion hours / yearWatching TV

  • 100 million hours / year

  • 2000 wikipedias / year

  • Clay ShirkyOn Cognitive Surplus

  • Cognitive Surplus

    Since the 1940s people have been passively consuming TV

    New people are learning how to use free time more constructively for creative acts rather than consumptive ones, particularly with the advent of online tools that allow new forms of collaboration

  • Read-only Culture

  • f(x) = axk + o(xk)

  • MOVIESTARS

  • Chris AndersonOn the Long Tail

  • Hit culture

  • Bottlenecks in the Distribution channels

  • The Power Law

  • Pareto Principle

    For many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes

  • Economy ofSCARCITY

  • Economy ofABUNDANCE

  • LONG TAIL

  • What percentage of the top 10,000 titles in any online media store (Netflix, iTunes, Amazon, or any other) will rent or sell at least once a month?

    99%

  • USERGENERTATEDCONTENT

  • EVERYBODY

    IS A

    PRODUCER

  • Felix Arvid Ulf KjellbergPewDiePie

    Swedish video game commentator

    Annual Earnings: $7 millionSubscribers: 33,528,405Views: 7,400,126,842

  • MANY 2 MANY: PEER INTERACTION

    ESTABLISHED BUSINESS MODELS GET DISRUPTED

    READ WRITE CULTURE

    ONE 2 MANY: BROADCASTING

    BUSINESS MODELS GET ESTABLISHED

    READ ONLY CULTURE

    BEFORE NOW

    CONTROLLED BY GATEKEEPRS

    CONTROLLED BY CONSUMERS

  • LECTURE L15THE BROADCAST CENTURY